Data Collection Techniques (data + collection_techniques)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Exploratory study in tourism: designing an initial, qualitative phase of sequenced, mixed methods research

Peter Mason
Abstract Exploratory studies in the social sciences are being increasingly advocated, particularly in relation to new research themes or when addressing an existing issue from a new perspective. Although exploration is usually the starting point, it is frequently part of a sequence of research stages. However, until recently the actual process of conducting such exploratory research within the leisure and tourism field has received little attention. This is due not just to perceptions that exploration is merely the initial step in a longer research process, but significantly, because there is a lack of guidance on how to conduct such research. This paper argues that when the overall tourism research study involves the use of mixed methods, an initial exploratory stage conducted as part of a sequential research process, requires a systematic approach to achieve a reliable platform for further investigation. The paper shows how and why a systematic research design process in the exploratory stage can enhance the value of studies, when the initial qualitative stage is to be followed by a quantitative phase. Three phases of an exploratory qualitative research design process are identified: preparation, development and refinement. Criteria for assessing the suitability of qualitative data collection techniques are proposed. It is argued that careful attention to the process of designing the initial exploratory qualitative stage constitutes the necessary condition for achieving results that will form a sound basis for the next quantitative sequence of research. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The effect of psychological and educational counselling in reducing anxiety in nursing students

F. SHARIF rn msc phd
A quasi-experimental pre-, post-test, follow-up and control group design was used to investigate the effect of psychological and educational counselling in reducing anxiety in nursing students. The research study used methodological triangulation, involving the use of structured data collection techniques such as standardized questionnaires and semi-structured focus groups. Focus groups were used to provide greater insight regarding the student's opinions. The sample consisted of 100 second- and fourth-year baccalaureate nursing students from the Faculty of Nursing at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. They were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n = 50) or a control group (n = 50). The experimental group received a 12-week intervention programme. Quantitative analysis of data was undertaken using t -test and analysis of variance for repeated measures to test differences between and within groups. The results indicated that from pre- to post-test there was no statistically significant reduction in anxiety between groups, but there was a statistically significant reduction in anxiety after one semester (in the follow-up). Student self-esteem was increased significantly from pre- to post-test. This increase was statistically significant and remained the same in follow-up. A statistically significant difference was seen in the student grade point average from pre-test to follow-up in the experimental group but not for the control group. The implementation of an intervention programme reduced their anxiety, increased their self-esteem and improved their grade point average over time. [source]

The value of marginality in a medical school: general practice and curriculum change

Harriet Mowat
Objective To report the process of introduction, development and sustenance of a curriculum for a department of general practice in the context of changing curricula required by the General Medical Council. Setting and context Tayside Centre for General Practice, the Department of General Practice within Dundee University Medical School. Methods Use of action research methodology common in educational and sociological research. Action research utilizes a range of data collection techniques which allow the participants in the research full opportunities to reflect on the data as it emerges and make developments accordingly. Analysis This took place as part of the process of the 5-year project. The analysis used as its starting point the sociological theory of the social construction of power within institutions. It offers the thesis that marginality seems to be a prerequisite in confronting institutional conservatism. Conclusions Use of an action research model facilitated more effective change by providing a supportive atmosphere in which to tackle changes. The marginal status of the general practice group in relation to the medical school allowed creative negotiation of alliances within the medical school. Other groups within the medical school who are introducing new curricula can learn from this report. [source]

Using multimethods ethnography to promote quality service and understand interactions among organizations

Jo Anne Schneider
Multimethods ethnography combines qualitative techniques with analysis of statistical data and sometimes mapping techniques. Ethnography provides a comprehensive picture of process in an agency or other setting by examining the dynamics between individuals and institutions to understand how systems work. Ethnography is particularly good at evaluating complex problems involving multiple stakeholders as well as understanding agency processes. I use examples from the Neighborhood Settlement House Evaluation Project and Kenosha Social Capital Study to describe the ethnographic method and its potential uses for nonprofit managers. I begin with an outline of methodological techniques, including problem definition, sample design, various data collection techniques, and analysis. Next I discuss ethnography's approach to the common research concerns of generalizability and replication. In concluding, I discuss ways that this method can be useful to nonprofit managers. Quality work is compared with less complete research techniques throughout each section. [source]

Comparison of finger plethysmograph to ECG in the measurement of heart rate variability

Nicholas D. Giardino
Two experiments compared finger plethysmograph (FP) to electrocardiogram (ECG) in providing accurate heart periods for use in heart rate variability (HRV) calculations. In Experiment 1, simultaneous ECG and FP recordings were taken from 16 healthy subjects at rest. In Experiment 2, 10 additional healthy subjects were recorded at rest and during the Stroop Color-Word Test. In both studies, high correlations were found between FP-derived and ECG-derived band variance for high and low frequency HRV at rest. But, during the Stroop task, correlations were strongly diminished. In addition, under both conditions, HRV measures were significantly higher using the FP signal. Thus, FP may be adequate for determining HRV at rest, but, for experimental use, ECG may still be recommended. Nonetheless, further studies that include test,retest reliability assessment of both data collection techniques are warranted before a more certain determination can be made. [source]

Small water bodies in Bangladesh

AREA, Issue 2 2010
K M Shariful Huda
Excavations are easy in the soft, unconsolidated sediments of Bangladesh and are widespread for the creation of raised, flood-free homestead platforms. Small water bodies form in the resulting hollows and are used for fisheries, livestock management, irrigation, bathing and washing clothes. Despite their importance to everyday life, there is no up-to-date inventory or monitoring. The paper uses remote sensing, GIS and a number of qualitative data collection techniques to reconstruct the pattern of small water bodies in Shahjadpur thana. It concludes that there has been an expansion in their number, but no systematic planning of their use. [source]