Data Collection Form (data + collection_form)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A 9-year review of dystonia from a movement disorders clinic in Singapore

R. D. G. Jamora
The clinical features of dystonia have not been evaluated in Southeast Asia. We therefore investigated the clinical spectrum and characteristics of dystonia in Singapore, a multi-ethnic Southeast Asian country comprising 77% Chinese, 14% Malays, and 8% Indians. We identified all dystonia patients from the Movement Disorders database and Botulinum Toxin clinic between 1995 and November 2004. Their medical records were reviewed to verify the diagnosis of dystonia and obtain demographic and clinical data using a standardized data collection form. A total of 119 (73%) patients had primary dystonia whilst 45 (27%) had secondary dystonia. There were 77% Chinese, 9% Malays, and 8% Indians. The most common focal dystonia were cervical dystonia (47%), writer's cramp (32%), and blepharospasm (11%). There was no significant difference in the distribution of dystonia between the different races. Males were noted to have earlier onset of dystonia overall. There was a significant male predominance in primary dystonia overall (M:F 1.6:1, P = 0.008) and in the subgroup of focal dystonia (M:F 1.6:1, P = 0.037). This contrasts with previous studies that found a female predominance. The role of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors and their interactions need to be investigated to better understand the gender differences in the occurrence of dystonia. [source]

Original article: Prevalence of oral and dental disorders in institutionalised elderly people in Rasht, Iran

Maryam Rabiei
doi:10.1111/j.1741-2358.2009.00313.x Prevalence of oral and dental disorders in institutionalised elderly people in Rasht, Iran Objective:, The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental and oral mucosal lesions in institutionalised elderly people in Rasht. Background:, Oral health in the elderly people is important to tailor the health programmes for this increasing age group within the population. Methods:, A total of 216 elderly people residing in a geriatric nursing home were included in the study. Subjects were interviewed and examined clinically and registered in a data collection form and analysed using spss version 11 program (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois, USA). Results:, The prevalence of dental and oral disorders was 44.9% and 86.1% respectively. The most frequent oral disorders were dry mouth (42.1%), fissure tongue (25.9%), atrophic of tongue (25%), sublingual varicosity (22.7%), burning sensation (16.7%) and varix (15.3%). The prevalence of edentulousness was 56% (95%CI: 49,63%). The mean level of retained teeth was 3.22. The odds of an oral mucosal disorder in females were significantly more than in males (OR = 2.79, 95%CI: 1.25,6.23). Discussion:, The findings revealed a high prevalence of dental and oral disorders in institutionalised elderly people in Rasht in comparison to similar studies. The mean of retained teeth was also much lower than in other reports. Therefore, the necessity for regular oral examination of these rapidly expanding age groups of people is essential. [source]

An evaluation of pharmacist-written hospital discharge prescriptions on general surgical wards

Mohamed H. Rahman Principal pharmacist, surgical services
Objective To evaluate the quality of pharmacist-written hospital discharge prescriptions (DPs) in comparison to those written by doctors. Method The study was carried out in two, week-long phases on the general surgical wards in one UK hospital. In phase 1, doctors wrote the DPs, which were then checked by the ward pharmacist. In phase 2, ward pharmacists wrote the DPs which were then checked by the patient's junior doctor. In both phases, the clinical dispensary pharmacist made their routine check of the prescription prior to dispensing. All interventions were recorded on a pre-piloted data collection form. Key findings In phase 1, doctors wrote 128 DPs; in phase 2, pharmacists wrote 133 DPs. There were 755 interventions recorded during phase 1 in comparison to 76 during phase 2. In phase 1, transcription errors accounted for 118 interventions, 149 were due to ambiguity/illegibility; 488 amendments were to facilitate the dispensing process e.g. clarification of patient, medical and drug details, and dosage form discrepancies. In phase 2, transcription errors accounted for one intervention, 50 interventions were due to ambiguities or illegibility; 25 amendments were to facilitate the dispensing process. During phase 2, doctors made 10 minor alterations to pharmacist-written DPs. On 52 occasions during phase 2, the ward pharmacist had to clarify, prior to writing the DP, either the dose of a drug, or, whether a drug should be continued on discharge, and if so, for what duration. Conclusion Pharmacist-written DPs contained considerably fewer errors, omissions and unclear information in comparison to doctor-written DPs. Doctors recorded no significant alterations when validating pharmacist-written DPs. [source]

The effect of heat application on pain, stiffness, physical function and quality of life in patients with knee osteoarthritis

Nurcan Y
Aims and objectives., The aim in this study was to evaluate the effect of local heat application on pain, stiffness, physical function and quality of life in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Background., Local heat application is used as a non-pharmacological practice for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. On the other hand, literature reveals limited information on the effects of heat application. Design., The study was a comparative study. Methods., The patients with knee osteoarthritis were divided into two groups (23 patients in each) as intervention and control groups, and patients in the control group were applied with the routine medication of the physician. The intervention group received 20-minute heat application every other day for four weeks in addition to the routine medication. The data were collected using data collection form, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index and SF-36. Results., The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities pain and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities disability scores of the patients with knee osteoarthritis in control and intervention groups before and after the intervention were compared, and the differences for both scores in the change were found to be statistically significant (p < 0·05). Moreover, statistically significant differences were found between the control and intervention group patients in terms of changes in the scores for physical function, pain and general health perception (p < 0·05). Conclusions., It was found that heat application every other day decreased pain and disability of the patients with knee osteoarthritis. Also, heat application was found to improve the subdimensions of quality of life scores of physical function, pain and general health perception of patients. Relevance to clinical practice., The data obtained in this study on the efficiency of heat application on pain, stiffness, physical function and general health perception of patients with knee osteoarthritis may offer an insight into decision-making process for appropriate intervention. [source]

Validity and reliability study for the NEI-VFO-39 scale in chronic ophthalmic diseases , Turkish version

Emine Iyigun
Abstract. Purpose:, To test the reliability and validity of National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-39) in patients with glaucoma, cataract, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. Methods:, The study was carried out on 210 patients and 51 control subjects. The data were collected by using a data collection form and NEI-VFQ-39. Statistical analyses were performed with spss for Windows version 15.0. Results:, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.96 for the whole group. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was between 0.97 and 0.56 for the subscales. There was a strong relationship (r > 0.80) in 12.8% with dual correlation in NEI-VFQ-39 global scales and subscales and their correlations in all participant groups. There was a statistically significant difference for the NEI-VFn global and subscale scores between the control and patient groups except for general health and ocular pain. Conclusions:, We found that the NEI-VFQ-39 was a valid and reliable scale to determine the quality of life in Turkish patients with chronic ophthalmic disease. [source]

Prospective Validation of a Modified Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction Risk Score in Emergency Department Patients With Chest Pain and Possible Acute Coronary Syndrome

Erik P. Hess MD
Abstract Objectives:, This study attempted to prospectively validate a modified Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score that classifies patients with either ST-segment deviation or cardiac troponin elevation as high risk. The objectives were to determine the ability of the modified score to risk-stratify emergency department (ED) patients with chest pain and to identify patients safe for early discharge. Methods:, This was a prospective cohort study in an urban academic ED over a 9-month period. Patients over 24 years of age with a primary complaint of chest pain were enrolled. On-duty physicians completed standardized data collection forms prior to diagnostic testing. Cardiac troponin T-values of >99th percentile (,0.01 ng/mL) were considered elevated. The primary outcome was acute myocardial infarction (AMI), revascularization, or death within 30 days. The overall diagnostic accuracy of the risk scores was compared by generating receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and comparing the area under the curve. The performance of the risk scores at potential decision thresholds was assessed by calculating the sensitivity and specificity at each potential cut-point. Results:, The study enrolled 1,017 patients with the following characteristics: mean (±SD) age 59.3 (±13.8) years, 60.6% male, 17.9% with a history of diabetes, and 22.4% with a history of myocardial infarction. A total of 117 (11.5%) experienced a cardiac event within 30 days (6.6% AMI, 8.9% revascularization, 0.2% death of cardiac or unknown cause). The modified TIMI risk score outperformed the original with regard to overall diagnostic accuracy (area under the ROC curve = 0.83 vs. 0.79; p = 0.030; absolute difference 0.037; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.004 to 0.071). The specificity of the modified score was lower at all cut-points of >0. Sensitivity and specificity at potential decision thresholds were: >0 = sensitivity 96.6%, specificity 23.7%; >1 = sensitivity 91.5%, specificity 54.2%; and >2 = sensitivity 80.3%, specificity 73.4%. The lowest cut-point (TIMI/modified TIMI >0) was the only cut-point to predict cardiac events with sufficient sensitivity to consider early discharge. The sensitivity and specificity of the modified and original TIMI risk scores at this cut-point were identical. Conclusions:, The modified TIMI risk score outperformed the original with regard to overall diagnostic accuracy. However, it had lower specificity at all cut-points of >0, suggesting suboptimal risk stratification in high-risk patients. It also lacked sufficient sensitivity and specificity to safely guide patient disposition. Both scores are insufficiently sensitive and specific to recommend as the sole means of determining disposition in ED chest pain patients. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE,2010; 17:368,375 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]

Short-term reactogenicity and gender effect of anthrax vaccine: analysis of a 1967,1972 study and review of the 1955,2005 medical literature,,

Michael M. McNeil MD
Abstract Purpose In the 1960s, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) held the investigational new drug (IND) application for the anthrax vaccine and collected short-term safety data from approximately 16,000 doses administered to almost 7000 individuals. While some recent anthrax vaccine safety studies have suggested that women experience more injection site reactions (ISRs), to our knowledge the IND safety data were not previously examined for a gender-specific difference. Methods We identified and analyzed a subset of the IND study data representing a total of 1749 persons who received 3592 doses from 1967 to 1972. Original data collection forms were located and information extracted, including: vaccine recipient's name, age at vaccination, gender, dose number, date of vaccination, lot number, grading of ISR, presence and type of systemic reactions. Overall and gender-specific rates for adverse reactions to anthrax vaccine were calculated and we performed a multivariable analysis. Results We found an ISR was associated with 28% of anthrax vaccine doses; however, 87% of these were considered mild. Systemic reactions were uncommon (<1%) and most (70%) accompanied an ISR. Our dose-specific analysis by gender found women had at least twice the risk of having a vaccine reaction compared to men. Our age-adjusted relative risk for ISR in women compared to men was 2.78 (95%CI: 2.29, 3.38). Conclusions Our results for both overall and gender-specific reactogenicity are consistent with other anthrax safety studies. To date, possible implications of these gender differences observed for anthrax and other vaccines are unknown and deserve further study. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Patterns of Use of Topical Skin Adhesives in the Emergency Department

Adam J. Singer MD
Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to determine patterns of use of topical skin adhesives (TSA) for laceration repair. The authors hypothesized that TSA use would be more common in children and facial lacerations. Methods:, This was a structured retrospective chart review. The setting was a suburban, university-based emergency department (ED) with an emergency medicine (EM) residency; the annual census is 85,000 visits. Charts from consecutive patients presenting with lacerations in the summer of 2008 (June 2008 through August 2008) were reviewed. Demographic, clinical, and wound characteristics were extracted from electronic medical records by trained investigators using structured data collection forms. Characteristics of lacerations repaired with TSA or other closure devices were compared with bivariate and multivariate analyses using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results:, A total of 755 patients presented to the ED with lacerations over the study period, of whom primary closure was used in 667; nine were excluded because the method of closure was unknown. The most common methods of laceration closure were sutures (485), adhesives (88), and staples (86). Adhesives were used to close 27% of facial lacerations, compared to 4% of all other body locations (difference = 23%, 95% CI = 18% to 29%), and in 20% of pediatric versus 8% of adult lacerations (difference = 13%, 95% CI = 7% to 18%). Adjustment for other potential patient and wound characteristics showed that adhesives were more likely to be used to close facial lacerations (OR = 10.0 CI, 95% CI = 5.5 to 18.0) and lacerations in children (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1 to 3.0) and less likely to be used as laceration length increased (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4 to 0.8). Adhesive use was not statistically associated with patient sex or race, laceration edges or shape, or the need for deep sutures. Forty-three percent of adhesive wounds were closed with no anesthetic, and a topical agent was used in another 48%. In contrast, a local anesthetic agent was injected in 87% of sutured wounds (p < 0.001) and 73% of stapled wounds (p < 0.001). Conclusions:, Topical skin adhesives are used more often for children, facial lacerations, and short lacerations. Use of adhesives may improve patient comfort as need for injecting a local anesthetic is reduced. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:670,672 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]

Atypical Clinical Features of Pediatric Appendicitis

Theresa Becker DO
Background The diagnosis of appendicitis remains challenging in children. Delays in diagnosis, or misdiagnosis, have important medical and legal implications. The typical, or classic, presentation of pediatric appendicitis has been modeled after adult disease; however, many children present atypically with subtle findings or unusual signs. Objectives To determine the frequency of atypical clinical features among pediatric patients with appendicitis and to investigate which atypical features are the strongest negative predictors for appendicitis among patients being evaluated for appendicitis. Methods Children and adolescents with suspected appendicitis were enrolled over 20 consecutive months. Pediatric emergency physicians completed standardized data collection forms on eligible patients. Final diagnosis was determined by pathology or follow-up telephone call. Typical and atypical findings were defined strictly a priori. Results Seven hundred fifty-five patients were enrolled. The median age was 11.9 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 8.5, 14.9 yr); 36% of patients were diagnosed with appendicitis. Among patients with appendicitis, the most common atypical features included absence of pyrexia (83%), absence of Rovsing's sign (68%), normal or increased bowel sounds (64%), absence of rebound pain (52%), lack of migration of pain (50%), lack of guarding (47%), abrupt onset of pain (45%), lack of anorexia (40%), absence of maximal pain in the right lower quadrant (32%), and absence of percussive tenderness (31%). Forty-four percent of patients with proven appendicitis had six or more atypical characteristics. The median number of atypical features for patients with proven appendicitis was five (IQR: 4.0, 7.0). The greatest negative predictors, on the basis of likelihood ratios, were as follows: white blood cell count (WBC) of <10,000 per cubic millimeter (likelihood ratios [LR], 0.18), absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of <7,500 per cubic millimeter (LR, 0.35), lack of percussive tenderness (LR, 0.50), lack of guarding (LR, 0.63), and no nausea or emesis (LR, 0.65). Conclusions Appendicitis in pediatric patients is difficult to diagnose because children present with a wide variety of atypical clinical features. Forty-four percent of patients with appendicitis presented with six or more atypical features. Two atypical features are the strongest negative predictors of appendicitis in children: WBC of <10,000 per cubic millimeter and an ANC of <7,500 per cubic millimeter. [source]