Data Being (data + being)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Allowing for redundancy and environmental effects in estimates of home range utilization distributions

W. G. S. Hines
Abstract Real location data for radio tagged animals can be challenging to analyze. They can be somewhat redundant, since successive observations of an animal slowly wandering through its environment may well show very similar locations. The data set can possess trends over time or be irregularly timed, and they can report locations in environments with features that should be incorporated to some degree. Also, the periods of observation may be too short to provide reliable estimates of characteristics such as inter-observation correlation levels that can be used in conventional time-series analyses. Moreover, stationarity (in the sense of the data being generated by a source that provides observations of constant mean, variance and correlation structure) may not be present. This article considers an adaptation of the kernel density estimator for estimating home ranges, an adaptation which allows for these various complications and which works well in the absence of exact (or precise) information about correlation structure and parameters. Modifications to allow for irregularly timed observations, non-stationarity and heterogeneous environments are discussed and illustrated. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Heat Transfer in Polypropylene-Based Foams Produced Using Different Foaming Processes,

Marcelo Antunes
This paper presents the characterization of the cellular structure and thermal conduction behaviour of polypropylene foams produced using different foaming processes, with the aim of selecting the best possible PP foam thermal insulator. Thermal conductivity results have shown that the global heat transfer behaviour is controlled by the relative density. For relative densities higher than 0.2, thermal conductivity differences were insignificant, the data being predicted by the mixture's rule and Russell's model. In the low density range, all of the proposed models underestimated the overall conductivity, the effect of the processing method being more significant, slight differences being observed between foams produced by extrusion and those produced by gas dissolution with higher cell sizes and anisotropies. Foams with finer cellular structures showed to be better insulating materials. [source]

Classification of upper lateral body shapes for the apparel industry

Young Lim Choi
Abstract The lateral body shape is a critical determiner of the fit of garments. Either visual assessment or statistical analysis methods have been used to classify the lateral body types. These methods are limited to some extent since various anthropometric features inherently coexist and interact in a human body shape. This study aims to develop objective criteria for the classification of upper lateral body shapes integrating visual assessment and statistical analysis. The three-dimensional scan data of 246 women between 18 and 49 years old were visually classified into four lateral body shapes by an expert panel. In addition, the back space and lateral angles extracted from the scan data were employed for further statistical analyses. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to develop logit models for lateral body types. It was concluded that the resulting logit models could classify lateral body types and calculate the probability of a set of body scan data being classified as a certain lateral body type. It is expected that this probability might be a guideline to quantify the characteristics of the lateral body shape in the apparel industry. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Continental-scale phenology: warming and chilling

Mark D. Schwartz
Abstract With abundant evidence of recent climate warming, most vegetation studies have concentrated on its direct impacts, such as modifications to seasonal plant and animal life cycle events (phenology). The most common examples are indications of earlier onset of spring plant growth and delayed onset of autumn senescence. However, less attention has been paid to the implications of continued warming for plant species' chilling requirements. Many woody plants that grow in temperate areas require a certain amount of winter chilling to break dormancy and prepare to respond to springtime warming. Thus, a comprehensive assessment of plant species' responses to warming must also include the potential impacts of insufficient chilling. When collected at continental scale, plant species phenological data can be used to extract information relating to the combined impacts of warming and reduced chilling on plant species physiology. In this brief study, we demonstrate that common lilac first leaf and first bloom phenology (collected from multiple locations in the western United States and matched with air temperature records) can estimate the species' chilling requirement (1748 chilling hours, base 7.2 °C) and highlight the changing impact of warming on the plant's phenological response in light of that requirement. Specifically, when chilling is above the requirement, lilac first leaf/first bloom dates advance at a rate of , 5.0/, 4.2 days per 100-h reduction in chilling accumulation, while when chilling is below the requirement, they advance at a much reduced rate of , 1.6/, 2.2 days per 100-h reduction. With continental-scale phenology data being collected by the USA National Phenology Network (, these and more complex ecological questions related to warming and chilling can be addressed for other plant species in future studies. Copyright © 2009 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

First-trimester sonography: Is the fetus exposed to high levels of acoustic energy?,

Eyal Sheiner MD
Abstract Purpose. As a form of energy, diagnostic ultrasound has bioeffects on living tissues. The thermal index (TI), TIS (TI for soft tissue), TIB (TI for bone), TIC (TI for cranial bone) expresses the potential for rise in temperature at the ultrasound beam's focal point. The mechanical index (MI) indicates the potential for the ultrasound beam to induce inertial cavitation in tissues. The goal of this study was to characterize the acoustic output of clinical ultrasound instruments, as expressed by TI and MI, during routine first-trimester sonographic examinations. Methods. A prospective observational study was conducted. First-trimester patients were randomly selected from those scheduled for viability scans. An obstetrician collected data. Sonographers were blinded to the data being sought, which included gestational age, duration of the examination, and every variation in the MI and TI during each sonographic examination. Results. A total of 52 first-trimester examinations were evaluated. The mean gestational age was 8.9 ± 1.9 weeks. The mean duration of the sonographic examinations was 8.1± 1.4 minutes. During the examinations, there were 178 MI variations (mean ± SD, 0.9 ± 0.3) and 167 TI variations (mean ± SD, 0.2 ± 0.1). Conclusion. First-trimester sonographic examinations are associated with a negligible rise in TI. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2007 [source]

Trialling of the Partnership in Coping system

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The paper describes the results of a preliminary trial of a system of mental health nursing, the Partnership in Coping system, based on the subjective experiences of the participating mental health nurses and service users. The community mental health study involved action research, with data being collected through individual interviews and focus groups. Data analysis, using thematic content analysis, resulted in the emergence of two main dimensions. These dimensions are centred around a shift in responsibility from the service to the service user, and the authentication and clarification of the roles of the nurse and the service user. [source]

Towards a European registry of severe allergic reactions: current status of national registries and future needs

ALLERGY, Issue 6 2010
M. Worm
To cite this article: Worm M, Timmermans F, Moneret-Vautrin A, Muraro A, Malmheden Yman II, Lövik M, Hattersley S, Crevel R. Towards a European registry of severe allergic reactions: current status of national registries and future needs. Allergy 2010; 65: 671,680. Abstract The incidence of severe allergic reactions is largely unknown and information about triggering allergens, aggravating factors, demography of patients and medical care is lacking. A European wide registry could provide a powerful tool to improve the management of severe allergic reactions from both a medical and a public health perspective. Analysis of existing registries regarding the type and quality of data being collected was used to develop a plan for a pan-European registry, including the type of system to be used and the range of data to be entered. Surveillance will provide evidence for the efficacy of risk management measures and may identify the emergence of new allergenic foods, and aid monitoring of novel foods, ingredients and technologies. Patients need a clear indication of factors that may increase their risk of having an adverse reaction, which such a registry can help compile. Based on the collected data, food businesses will be able to develop educational programmes for allergen risk assessment and allergen risk communication. Finally, and most importantly preventive measures can be developed and government agencies receive population based data which may be relevant for legislative purposes. [source]

Systematics of Chaetocerotaceae (Bacillariophyceae).


SUMMARY In order to construct a model of evolutionary relationships within the diatom family Chaetocerotaceae, 37 species of Chaetoceros Ehrenberg, representing all subgenera and 21 of 22 subgeneric sections of the genus, plus three Bacteriastrum Shadbolt species, representing both of its subgeneric sections, were subjected to cladistic analysis. One species each of Eucampia Ehrenberg, Cerataulina Peragallo, Hemiau-lus Ehrenberg, Attheya West and Gonioceros H. & M. Peragallo were used as outgroups. A matrix of 65 binary and multistate morphological characters was constructed, with data being gathered from original observation of material in the light and electron microscopes, and from the published literature. The analysis yielded 36 most-parsimonious cladograms of 316 steps; incongruence between trees is largely restricted to some taxa representing undersampled sections of Chaetoceros subg. Hyalochaete. The robustness of this hypothesis was examined in several ways. To assess the effect of character weighting, the bootstrap was used to randomly weight characters. The parsimony criterion was relaxed via a decay index, and finally, the tree length was compared to that of trees randomly generated from the data matrix. The majority of investigated species of Chaetoceros subg. Phaeoceros, Chaetoceros subg. Hyalochaete and Bacteriastrum appear to belong to a continuous grade, rather than comprising individual clades. Chaetoceros is paraphyletic. Thus, the traditional classification does not accurately reflect the hypothesized phylogenetic relationships of this family. [source]

Mixed methods research in school psychology: A mixed methods investigation of trends in the literature

Heather Powell
This article illustrates the utility of mixed methods research (i.e., combining quantitative and qualitative techniques) to the field of school psychology. First, the use of mixed methods approaches in school psychology practice is discussed. Second, the mixed methods research process is described in terms of school psychology research. Third, the current state of affairs with respect to mixed methods designs in school psychology research is illustrated through a mixed methods analysis of the types of empirical studies published in the four leading school psychology journals between 2001 and 2005. Only 13.7% of these studies were classified as representing mixed methods research. We conclude that this relatively small proportion likely reflects the fact that only 3.5% of graduate-level school psychology programs appear to require that students enroll in one or more qualitative and/or mixed methods research courses, and only 19.3% appear to offer one or more qualitative courses as an elective. Finally, the utility of mixed methods research is illustrated by critiquing select monomethod (i.e., qualitative or quantitative) and mixed methods studies conducted on the increasingly important topic of bullying. We demonstrate how using mixed methods techniques results in richer data being collected, leading to a greater understanding of underlying phenomena. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Transparency of Risk and Reward in U.K. Public,Private Partnerships

Public,Private Partnerships (PPPs) are an increasingly common mechanism for the renewal of public sector infrastructure, although in the United Kingdom, these have been criticized as representing poor value for money. An inherent assumption of much of this criticism is that a corollary of detriment for the public sector is benefit for the private sector. This paper highlights the difficulty of objectively verifying the many criticisms and assumptions regarding risk and reward associated with PPPs. Public and private sector disclosure policies and systems are analyzed and we conclude that neither sector practices openness and transparency. This results in a democratic accountability deficit in the public sector and a lack of meaningful data being made available to stakeholders in private companies. [source]

Validation of precipitable water from ECMWF model analyses with GPS and radiosonde data during the MAP SOP

Olivier Bock
Abstract Precipitable water vapour contents (PWCs) from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses have been compared with observations from 21 ground-based Global Positioning System receiving stations (GPS) and 14 radiosonde stations (RS), covering central Europe, for the period of the Mesoscale Alpine Programme experiment special observing period (MAP SOP). Two model analyses are considered: one using only conventional data, serving as a control assimilation experiment, and one including additionally most of the non-operational MAP data. Overall, a dry bias of about ,1 kg m,2 (,5.5% of total PWC), with a standard deviation of ,2.6 kg m,2 (13% of total PWC), is diagnosed in both model analyses with respect to GPS. The bias at individual sites is quite variable: from ,4 to ,0 kg m,2. The largest differences are observed at stations located in mountainous areas and/or near the sea, which reveal differences in representativeness. Differences between the two model analyses, and between these analyses and GPS, are investigated in terms of usage and quality of RS data. Biases in RS data are found from comparisons with both model and GPS PWCs. They are confirmed from analysis feedback statistics available at ECMWF. An overall dry bias in RS PWC of 4.5% is found, compared to GPS. The detection of RS biases from comparisons both with the model and GPS indicates that data screening during assimilation was generally effective. However, some RS bias went into the model analyses. Inspection of the time evolution of PWC from the model analyses and GPS occasionally showed differences of up to 5,10 kg m,2. These were associated with severe weather events, with variations in the amount of RS data being assimilated, and with time lags in the PWCs from the two model analyses. Such large differences contribute strongly to the overall observed standard deviations. Good confidence in GPS PWC estimates is gained through this work, even during periods of heavy rain. These results support the future assimilation of GPS data, both for operational weather prediction and for mesoscale simulation studies. Copyright © 2005 Royal Meteorological Society. [source]