Data Argue (data + argue)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Loss of the Tg737 protein results in skeletal patterning defects

Qihong Zhang
Abstract Tg737 mutant mice exhibit pathologic conditions in numerous tissues along with skeletal patterning defects. Herein, we characterize the skeletal pathologic conditions and confirm a role for Tg737 in skeletal patterning through transgenic rescue. Analyses were conducted in both the hypomorphic Tg737orpk allele that results in duplication of digit one and in the null Tg737,2-3,Gal allele that is an embryonic lethal mutation exhibiting eight digits per limb. In early limb buds, Tg737 expression is detected throughout the mesenchyme becoming concentrated in precartilage condensations at later stages. In situ analyses indicate that the Tg737orpk mutant limb defects are not associated with changes in expression of Shh, Ihh, HoxD11,13, Patched, BMPs, or Glis. Likewise, in Tg737,2-3,Gal mutant embryos, there was no change in Shh expression. However, in both alleles, Fgf4 was ectopically expressed on the anterior apical ectodermal ridge. Collectively, the data argue for a dosage effect of Tg737 on the limb phenotypes and that the polydactyly is independent of Shh misexpression. Developmental Dynamics 227:78,90, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Xath5 regulates neurogenesis in the Xenopus olfactory placode

Carole J. Burns
Abstract Helix-loop-helix (HLH) genes function as important regulators of neurogenesis in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. The olfactory system is an ideal tissue in which to study the role of these genes in regulating the acquisition of neuronal cell fate, particularly that of the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN). Here we describe the expression of several basic HLH (bHLH) and repeat HLH (rHLH) factors during olfactory placode development in Xenopus laevis. Our work reveals that a combination of both bHLH and rHLH genes are sequentially expressed within the nascent olfactory placode during normal development. Moreover, overexpression of the bHLH factor, Xenopus atonal homologue 5 (Xath5), promotes olfactory neural fate independent of cellular proliferation within a restricted domain at the anterior of the embryo. Collectively, our data argue that HLH genes are expressed in a cascade during olfactory placode development and that the activity of an atonal homologue, Xath5, can promote ORN fate but only in the appropriate developmental context. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Conjugate limb coordination after experience with an interlimb yoke: Evidence for motor learning in the rat fetus

Scott R. Robinson
Abstract This study investigated the capacity of the E20 rat fetus to adaptively alter patterns of interlimb coordination in a prenatal model of motor learning. Fetal limb movement was manipulated with an interlimb yoke, consisting of a fine thread attached at the ankles, which created a physical linkage between two limbs. Exposure to the yoke resulted in a gradual increase in conjugate movements of the yoked limbs during a 30-min training period, which persisted after removal of the yoke. Training effects were evident when the yoke was applied to two hindlimbs, two forelimbs, or a homolateral forelimb,hindlimb pair. A savings in the rate of acquisition also was observed when fetuses experienced yoke training in a second session. These data argue that the rat fetus can respond to kinesthetic feedback resulting from variation in motor performance, which suggests that experience contributes to the development of coordinated motor behavior before birth. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 47: 328,344, 2005. [source]

Increased neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in neurokinin-1 receptor gene knockout mice

Sara Morcuende
Abstract It has previously been shown that chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs increases neurogenesis and levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus. These changes have been correlated with changes in learning and long-term potentiation and may contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant drug treatment. Recently, antagonists at the neurokinin-1 receptor, the preferred receptor for the neuropeptide substance P, have been shown to have antidepressant activity. Mice with disruption of the neurokinin-1 receptor gene are remarkably similar both behaviourally and neurochemically to mice maintained chronically on antidepressant drugs. We demonstrate here that there is a significant elevation of neurogenesis but not cell survival in the hippocampus of neurokinin-1 receptor knockout mice. Neurogenesis can be increased in wild-type but not neurokinin-1 receptor knockout mice by chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs which preferentially target noradrenergic and serotonergic pathways. Hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor are also two-fold higher in neurokinin-1 receptor knockout mice, whereas cortical levels are similar. Finally, we examined hippocampus-dependent learning and memory but found no clear enhancement in neurokinin-1 receptor knockout mice. These data argue against a simple correlation between increased levels of neurogenesis or brain-derived neurotrophic factor and mnemonic processes in the absence of increased cell survival. They support the hypothesis that increased neurogenesis, perhaps accompanied by higher levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, may contribute to the efficacy of antidepressant drug therapy. [source]

Frequency, function and CLA expression of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in bullous pemphigoid

Anne Rensing-Ehl
Abstract:, Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering skin disease associated with autoantibodies to collagen XVII and tissue-separation along the dermo-epidermal junction. We addressed the question whether the loss of tolerance in BP patients is associated with a reduction and/or functional impairment of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells, which are essential for the active maintenance of self tolerance. The relative and absolute frequency of CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood of newly diagnosed, untreated patients was similar to that of healthy controls. Interestingly, more than 50% of circulating CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells from both patients as well as healthy controls expressed cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen. Considerable numbers of FOXP3+ cells were detected in lesional skin of patients. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells of patients were functionally intact as assessed by their ability to suppress allogeneic as well as antigen-specific T-cell proliferation. These data argue against a general defect of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in patients with BP. [source]

Differential effects of arachidonoyl trifluoromethyl ketone on arachidonic acid release and lipid mediator biosynthesis by human neutrophils

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 15 2002
Evidence for different arachidonate pools
The goal of this study was to determine the effects of a putative specific cytosolic phospholipase A2 inhibitor, arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF3), on arachidonic acid (AA) release and lipid mediator biosynthesis by ionophore-stimulated human neutrophils. Initial studies indicated that AACOCF3 at concentrations 0,10 µm did not affect AA release from neutrophils. In contrast, AACOCF3 potently inhibited leukotriene B4 formation by ionophore-stimulated neutrophils (IC50 , 2.5 µm). Likewise, AACOCF3 significantly inhibited the biosynthesis of platelet activating factor. In cell-free assay systems, 10 µm AACOCF3 inhibited 5-lipoxygenase and CoA-independent transacylase activities. [3H]AA labeling studies indicated thatthe specific activities of cell-associated AA mimicked that of leukotriene B4 and PtdCho/PtdIns, while the specific activities of AA released into the supernatant fluid closely mimicked that of PtdEtn. Taken together, these data argue for the existence of segregated pools of arachidonate in human neutrophils. One pool of AA is linked to lipid mediator biosynthesis while another pool provides free AA that is released from cells. Additionally, the data suggest that AACOCF3 is also an inhibitor of CoA-independent transacylase and 5-lipoxygenase. Thus, caution should be exercised in using AACOCF3 as an inhibitor of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in whole cell assays because of the complexity of AA metabolism. [source]

Very high conservation between Cyp6a2 from Drosophila melanogaster and its ortholog Cyp6a26 from D. simulans

INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 1 2007
Abstract Although Drosophila simulans is closely related to D. melanogaster, very few cytochrome P450 genes have been studied in this species until now. As Cyp6a2 from D. melanogaster is a major gene implicated in the detoxification of xenobiotic molecules, we decided to look for its ortholog in D. simulans. The isolated gene, Cyp6a26, presents structural characteristics very similar to those of Cyp6a2: an identical size of 1 590-bp comprising two exons separated by a 69-bp intron and a nucleotide sequence homology of 95%. Many putative transcriptionally important motifs were identified in the upstream DNAs of the two genes but only 16 elements are in common positions. Treatment of flies with phenobarbital leads to an increased production of Cyp6a26 mRNAs. The expression of Cyp6a26 mRNAs varies following developmental stages in the same manner as Cyp6a2. Immunohistochemistry experiments of phenobarbital-treated adult drosophila show that the spatial expression pattern of the two proteins is also conserved between the two species. All these data argue in favor of the conservation of the function of these homologous genes between the two Drosophila species. [source]

Proton transfer ratio, lactate, and intracellular pH in acute cerebral ischemia

Kimmo T. Jokivarsi
Abstract The amide proton transfer ratio (APTR) from the asymmetry of the Z -spectrum was determined in rat brain tissue during and after unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Cerebral lactate (Lac) as determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy, water diffusion, and T1, were quantified as well. Lac concentrations were used to estimate intracellular pH (pHi) in the brain during the MCA occlusion. A decrease in APTR during occlusion indicated acidification from 7.1 to 6.79 ± 0.19 (a drop by 0.3 ± 0.2 pH units), whereas pHi computed from Lac concentration was 6.3 ± 0.2 (a drop by 0.8 ± 0.2 pH units). Despite the disagreement between the two methods in terms of the size of the change in the absolute pHi during ischemia, ,APTR and pHi (and Lac concentration) displayed a strong correlation during the MCAo. Diffusion and T1, indicated cytotoxic edema following MCA occlusion; however, APTR returned slowly toward the values determined in the contralateral hemisphere post-ischemia. These data argue that the APTR during ischemia is affected not only by pHi but by other physicochemical factors as well, and indicates different aspects of pathology in the post-ischemic brain compared to those that influence water diffusion and T1,. Magn Reson Med 57:647,653, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Increased numbers of mononuclear cells from blood and CSF expressing interferon-gamma mRNA in multiple sclerosis are from both the CD4+ and the CD8+ subsets

E. Wallström
Activated, cytokine-producing lymphocytes may regulate central nervous system (CNS) inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS). We utilize a novel combination of in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunocytochemical staining of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) to identify spontaneously interferon-gamma (IFN,) mRNA expressing cells as CD4+ or CD8+. A major proportion of the IFN, mRNA expressing lymphocytes belonged to the CD4+ lineage, which concords with the cellular composition of MS brain lesions, findings in experimental models and the HLA class II haplotype association in MS. There were also significantly more CD8+ IFN, mRNA expressing lymphocytes in the MS patients compared with healthy controls, further suggesting the contribution of activated cells from this lineage in the inflammatory response in MS. Both CD4+ and CD8+ IFN, mRNA expressing cells were enriched in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as compared with the peripheral blood of the MS patients. Combined with emerging genetic data on HLA class I influences, our data argues for a joint role of activated CD8+ and CD4+ cells in the pathogenesis of MS. [source]

Identification of a cellular protein specifically interacting with the precursor of the hepatitis B e antigen

S. Salhi
In hepatitis B virus (HBV) the precore gene encodes a protein from which derives P22, the precursor of the mature secreted hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg). Circumstantial evidences suggest that HBeAg and/or its precursor P22 are important for establishing persistent infection. Although P22 is essentially present in the secretory pathway, a substantial fraction has been found in the cytosol. In order to get new insights into the biological function of P22, we looked for cellular proteins which could strongly associate with this protein. Using immunoprecipitation studies on human cell extracts, we found that a non-secreted cellular protein of about 32 kDa (P32) bound with a high specificity to P22. P32 associated neither with HBeAg nor with the viral core protein P21 which exhibits the same amino acids sequence as P22 but is N-terminally shorter by 10 residues. We also demonstrated that this interaction depended on the presence of the P22 C-terminal domain. Our data argues for a potential biological function of P22. [source]