Data Analysis Techniques (data + analysis_techniques)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Research Trends in Textiles and Clothing: An Analysis of Three Journals, 1980,1999

Sharron J. Lennon
The purpose of this research was to assess trends in research, research strategies, data analysis techniques, funding sources, affiliations, and the use of theoretical frameworks in textiles and clothing research. Empirical research focused on textiles and clothing and published in three home economics,related journals,Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, Family and Consumer Science Research Journal, and Clothing and Textiles Research Journal,from 1980 to 1999 was content analyzed (N = 586). Although survey methodology and experimentation were the first and second most-used research strategies in all but one 5-year period from 1980 to 1999, fieldwork has increased. Data analysis techniques were primarily quantitative, with increases in the use of some advanced statistical techniques. However, the qualitative treatment of data also increased. Suggestions for graduate education and faculty development are offered. [source]

Optimizing the tuning parameters of least squares support vector machines regression for NIR spectra

T. Coen
Abstract Partial least squares (PLS) is one of the most used tools in chemometrics. Other data analysis techniques such as artificial neural networks and least squares support vector machines (LS-SVMs) have however made their entry in the field of chemometrics. These techniques can also model nonlinear relations, but the presence of tuning parameters is a serious drawback. These parameters balance the risk of overfitting with the possibility to model the underlying nonlinear relation. In this work a methodology is proposed to initialize and optimize those tuning parameters for LS-SVMs with radial basis function (RBF)-kernel based on a statistical interpretation. In this way, these methods become much more appealing for new users. The presented methods are applied on manure spectra. Although this dataset is only slightly nonlinear, good results were obtained. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A comparative study of transformational leadership in nursing development units and conventional clinical settings

A. Bowles RMN
Aims This is a comparative study of the leadership provided by nurse managers and leaders in Nursing Development Units and conventional clinical settings in England. Background Nursing development units (NDUs) were originally conceived as centres of nursing excellence, innovation and leadership development. This article describes the first published use of a leadership practices inventory (LPI) explicitly based upon a model of transformational leadership. This style of leadership has been commended as highly effective and suitable for nursing. Methods The use of the LPI was piloted as a postal questionnaire and as a schedule for telephone interviewing, these pilots supported the use of telephone interviewing in the main study. Two matched samples of 70 nurses in total were recruited from across England, comprising 14 nurse leaders and 56 of their day to day colleagues. Data was collected by telephone interviewing over a 6-week period between February and April 1998. Six null hypotheses were developed to identify significant inter-group differences in leadership behaviour. Descriptive and inferential data analysis techniques were employed using SPSS for Windows. Findings The leadership provided by NDU leaders was evaluated more highly than non-NDU leaders. A higher level of congruence between self and observer evaluations was shown by NDU leaders. Statistically significant inter-group differences were apparent in three of the five practices of exemplary leadership and in the overall leadership behaviour. NDU leaders show greater self awareness and are more transformational than their non-NDU counterparts. The limitations of the study design are discussed. Conclusions NDU leaders provide leadership of a more transformational nature than their counterparts working in conventional settings. This finding suggests that NDU leaders have enhanced leadership potential and that formalizing nursing development within NDUs may promote the emergence of transformational leadership and provide a microculture in which it might flourish. The LPI is regarded as a useful, adaptable tool suitable for use in UK nursing applications including research, leadership development and education. [source]

General practitioners: Their contact with maternal and child health nurses in postnatal care

C Mbwili-Muleya
Objective: To assess the level of contact of general practitioners (GP) with maternal and child health nurses (MCHN) in postnatal care. Methodology: A postal survey of 1104 Victorian GP was used, with a response rate of 70%. To account for the clustered sampling frame, hierarchical data analysis techniques were used. Results: Half of the GP (351/710) had no contact with their local MCHN in the previous month; and one in 10 had four or more contacts. Eighty-eight per cent of GP described the contact as helpful. In 56% of cases the MCHN was reported as the usual initiator of the contact. The most common reason for contact concerned the baby's physical problems (42%). After adjusting for the number of women seen for the routine 6-week postnatal review and other GP characteristics, male GP were as likely as female GP to report MCHN contact (odds ratio (OR) = 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.67,1.62). General practitioners aged 31,40 years were more likely to report contact with MCHN than GP aged 51,60 (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.22,0.86) as were GP with the FRACGP qualification (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.21,2.45). Conclusions: This study provides baseline information on the level of GP contact with MCHN as they provide postnatal care. Although there were GP in Victoria who maintained a level of contact with MCHN, almost half reported no contact in the previous month. Most GP who reported contact with MCHN found it useful. This finding should encourage GP and MCHN coordination to improve continuity and postnatal care outcomes. [source]

Recognition of anaerobic bacterial isolates in vitro using electronic nose technology

A. Pavlou
Aims: Use of an electronic nose (e.nose) system to differentiation between anaerobic bacteria grown in vitro on agar media. Methods and Results: Cultures of Clostridium spp. (14 strains) and Bacteroides fragilis (12 strains) were grown on blood agar plates and incubated in sampling bags for 30 min before head space analysis of the volatiles. Qualitative analyses of the volatile production patterns was carried out using an e.nose system with 14 conducting polymer sensors. Using data analysis techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA), genetic algorithms and neural networks it was possible to differentiate between agar blanks and individual species which accounted for all the data. A total of eight unknowns were correctly discriminated into the bacterial groups. Conclusions: This is the first report of in vitro complex volatile pattern recognition and differentiation of anaerobic pathogens. Significance and Impact of the Study: These results suggest the potential for application of e.nose technology in early diagnosis of microbial pathogens of medical importance. [source]

A multicriteria ranking of organotin(IV) compounds with fungicidal properties

Godwin A. Ayoko
Abstract The application of multicriteria decision-making methods to the results of in vitro antifungal properties of organotin compounds of the type PhxSnXz (x = 2 or 3; X = O2CC6H4OH, O2CC6H4OCOCH3, Cl or O2CCH3; z = 1 or 2) and of free 2-hydroxybenzoic and 2-acetoxybenzoic acids against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, Penicillium citrinum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton violaceum have been described. Ranking information necessary to select one toxicant in preference to others and to assess the properties influencing the preference has been obtained. Patterns in the multivariate analyses suggest that cationic and anionic moieties of the toxicant play some roles in their fungicidal activities. The triphenyltin compounds were generally more active than their diphenyltin analogues, but the acetoxybenzoates were more active than the corresponding hydroxybenzoates, acetates or chlorides. Thus, triphenyltin acetoxybenzoate is up to 7.5 times as active as the corresponding acetate, which is commercially marketed as a fungicide. The results of the analyses have been discussed in the light of the mechanism of antifungal activity of organotin compounds and the potential of multivariate data analysis techniques to facilitate the screening and ranking of antifungal agents. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Uncovering Symptom Progression History from Disease Registry Data with Application to Young Cystic Fibrosis Patients

BIOMETRICS, Issue 2 2010
Jun Yan
Summary The growing availability of various disease registry data has brought precious opportunities to epidemiologists to understand the natural history of the registered diseases. It also presents challenges to the traditional data analysis techniques because of complicated censoring/truncation schemes and temporal dynamics of covariate influences. In a case study of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry data, we propose analyses of progressive symptoms using temporal process regressions, as an alternative to the commonly employed proportional hazards models. Two endpoints are considered, the prevalence of ever positive and currently positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection in the lungs, which capture different aspect of the disease process. The analysis of ever PA positive via a time-varying coefficient model demonstrates the lack of fit, as well as the potential loss of information, in the standard proportional hazards analysis. The analysis of currently PA positive yields results that are clinically meaningful and have not previously been reported in the cystic fibrosis literature. Our analyses demonstrate that prenatal/neonatal screening results in lower prevalence of PA infection compared to traditional diagnosis via signs and symptoms, but this benefit attenuates with age. Calendar years of diagnosis also affect the risk of PA infection; patients diagnosed in more recent cohort show higher prevalence of ever PA positive but lower prevalence of currently PA positive. [source]