Dark Side (dark + side)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Alcohol's (other) Dark Side

Christopher B. McFadden MD
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Describing the Dark Side of Preadolescents' Peer Experiences: Four Questions (and Data) on Preadolescents' enemies

Jeffrey G. Parker
This chapter addresses the potential implications of mutual antipathies for children's experiences with the peer group as well as the behaviors and perceptions that may drive dyadic disdain. [source]

Perspectives from the Dark Side: The career transition from faculty to administrator

Risa Palm
A number of challenges mark the transition from full-time faculty member to academic administrator. [source]

Is There a Dark Side to Government Supportfor Nonprofits?

Arthur C. Brooks
The relationship between government social spending and private donations to the nonprofit sector is an issue that is relevant to both public administrators and nonprofit managers. Does government funding displace philanthropy, or encourage it? This article introduces the debate into the public administration literature. First, I survey and interpret the empirical work performed to date in this area by economists. Second, I retest this question across four nonprofit subsectors using data on both federal and state/local spending. My survey of the literature shows mixed results, although a broad pattern indicates that "crowding out" tends to dominate, particularly in the areas of social service provision and health. My empirical results are consistent with these findings, although they must be interpreted cautiously from a policy perspective: While results are statistically significant, the degree of crowding out is generally small. On the other hand, the claim that government funding stimulates giving seems to lack both statistical and policy significance. [source]

Explaining Fascism and Ethnic Cleansing: The Three Dimensions of Charisma and the Four Dark Sides of Nationalism

Roger Eatwell
Ideas and leaders matter. Fascism's syncretic ideology is crucial to understanding its rise and support. So too is the coterie charisma exerted by leaders like Hitler over an inner core even in the wilderness years; his centripetal charisma went on to help attract the masses to the ,Führer party' for very diverse reasons; and the cultic charisma leaders developed especially when in power further helps explain their appeal. The four dark sides of nationalism , namely, its ethnic, religious, scientific and economic dimensions , are also crucial to understanding genocide. So too is leadership: no Hitler, no Holocaust. Genocide also points to the importance of lower levels of leaders, who were sometimes influenced by the charisma of the ,great' leader, although in other cases, such as Milosevic's Serbia, the charismatisation of the national idea was more influential. [source]

A strategy to communicate corporate social responsibility: cause related marketing and its dark side

Ilaria Baghi
Abstract Cause related marketing (CRM) is a strategy that aims to communicate a company's striving for corporate social responsibility and to improve brand image. A strategy to increase consumers' emotional involvement toward a product,cause association is to describe the cause in vivid terms. In two experiments we investigated how vivid messages might increase the effectiveness of CRM strategy. We sought to demonstrate that a vivid description of the cause could influence consumers' preferences and trust in the effective use of money collected by selling the product. Experiment 1 results showed that individuals prefer products associated with a vivid message of the social cause rather than products associated with a pallid message. Experiment 2 results suggested that vivid messages induce more positive affective reactions and a higher trust in the effective use of money than pallid ones. In the final section, the implications of CRM for corporate social responsibility are discussed. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

The Dark Side of Information and Market Efficiency in E-Markets,

Varun Grover
ABSTRACT Price dispersion reflects the differences in prices for identical products. While in physical markets such dispersion is prevalent due to high search costs, many researchers argue that search costs and price dispersion will be much lower in electronic markets (e-markets). Empirical evidence does not support this contention, and researchers have studied search costs, market factors, and service-quality factors to explain this dispersion. Previous research has largely assumed that more information is better. By ignoring the dark side of information, we argue that only a partial understanding of price dispersion is possible. In this article, information overload and equivocality are studied as two dark attributes of information that lead sellers to different pricing decisions in e-markets. Hypotheses relating these attributes to price dispersion are supported through analysis of 161 product markets. This work opens up new avenues in the study of e-markets and discusses the implications of these findings for research and practice on consumer and seller decisions. [source]

Foreign direct investment and the dark side of decentralization

ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 49 2007
Sebastian G. Kessing
SUMMARY Fiscal decentralization VERTICAL, HORIZONTAL, AND FDI Both in the developed and developing world, decentralization of fiscal policy is frequently argued to foster investment, because allowing investors to choose between competing locations should make it difficult for each jurisdiction to tax the investment's returns. We point out that this ,horizontal' dimension of decentralization cannot eliminate ex post incentives to tax investments once they are irreversibly located in a jurisdiction, and that the negative ex ante investment effects of such ,hold up' problems are actually stronger when decentralization inevitably leads to multiple levels of taxation power in each location. Empirically, we detect significant negative effects on FDI of the ,vertical' dimension of decentralization, measured by the number of government layers, in a data set containing many countries and many suitable control variables. Indicators of overall fiscal decentralization do not appear to affect the investment climate negatively per se, but our theoretical arguments and empirical results suggest that policymakers should consider very carefully the form and degree of government decentralization if they aim at improving the investment climate. , Sebastian G. Kessing, Kai A. Konrad and Christos Kotsogiannis [source]

Restraining the Genuine Homo Economicus: Why the Economy Cannot Be Divorced from Its Governance

Stergios Skaperdas
The Homo economicus of traditional economics is far from being completely self-interested, rational, or as individualistic as he is purported to be; he will haggle to death over price but will not take what he wants by force. Implicitly, he is assumed to behave ruthlessly within a well-defined bubble of sainthood. Based on a simple model, I first examine what occurs when this assumption is relaxed and genuine, amoral Homo economici interact. Productivity can be inversely related to compensation; a longer shadow of the future can intensify conflict; and more competition among providers of protection reduces welfare. The patently inefficient outcomes that follow call for restraining self-interest, for finding ways to govern markets. I then review some of the different ways of creating restraints, from the traditional social contract, to the hierarchical domination of kings and lords, to modern forms of governance. Checks and balances, wider representation, the bureaucratic form of organization, and other ingredients of modern governance can partly be thought of as providing restraints to the dark side of self-interest. Though highly imperfect, these restraints are better than the alternative, which typically involves autocratic, amateurish, and corrupt rule. Then, thinking of most problems in terms of a first-best economic model is practically and scientifically misguided. [source]

Adapting to the dark side: a review of Cave Biology: Life in Darkness, by Aldemaro Romero

William R. Jeffery
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Texas Children's Hospital makes leadership development a core business strategy

Linda Aldred
Even an admirable culture can have its dark side, and convincing current leaders that leadership is the problem is a task best not taken lightly. Texas Children's Hospital rose to the challenge with creative ways for building an enduring commitment to change, and for infusing leadership development into leaders' psyches and practices. Guiding principles and success profiles now link mission and values with the day-to-day expectations for employees, and are fully integrated into measurement, performance management, and selection systems. Powerful new tools and resources are helping build leadership competencies at all levels. Lower turnover and greater employee satisfaction are just the first indicators of the success of the initiative. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

The Dark Side of Indigeneity?: Indigenous People, Rights and Development in India

Alpa Shah
In the last two decades transnational concerns over indigenous people, indigenous rights and indigenous development has reignited a history of heated debate shrouding indigeneity. This article analyses these debates in the context of the anthropology and historiography of indigeneity in India. From the production of ,tribes of mind' to the policies that have encouraged people to identify themselves as ,Scheduled Tribes', or ,adivasis', the article reviews the context that gave rise to the tensions between claims for protection and assimilation of India's indigenous peoples. Today these debates are shown to persist through the arguments of those that seek to build a support base from an adivasi constituency and are most acute with on the one hand, the work of the Marxists and indigenous activists, and on the other hand, the Hindu right-wing. Inviting serious scholarly examination of the unintended effects of well meaning indigenous protection and development measures, the article seeks to move the debate beyond both the arguments that consider the concept of indigenous people anthropologically and historically problematic and those that consider indigeneity a useful political tool. In so doing, the article warns against a ,dark side of indigeneity' which might reveal how local appropriation and experiences of global discourses can maintain a class system that further marginalises the poorest. [source]

Bridging Research and Practice: The Challenge of ,Normal Operations' Studies

Mathile Bourrier
The article will present some possible explanations of the difficulty to bridge research and practice in the domain of risk management. A first block of reasons has to do with the very content of the analyses themselves. Of great importance is also the time chosen for them to be carried out. The second argument will bring to the foreground the difficulty for a lot of fruitful research to permeate into management spheres. One way to reconcile experts, scholars and decision makers may come from new attention devoted to organisational design and formal structures. This calls for the study of normal operations as opposed to relying too exclusively on accident cases and crisis situations. We believe that this perspective can help us improve our level of understanding of complex organisations, because it focuses on the duality of organisational life: the dark side and the bright side, always tightly coupled. [source]

Examining the Conditional Limits of Relational Governance: Specialized Assets, Performance Ambiguity, and Long-Standing Ties

Laura Poppo
abstract Despite recognition of the benefits of relational governance in inter-organizational exchanges, factors that may erode its value have received little examination. We extend the literature by asking whether self-interested opportunities and long-standing ties erode the positive association between relational governance and performance. Consistent with transaction cost and moral hazard logics, exchange hazards, particularly asset specificity and difficult performance measurement, dampen the positive association of relational governance and performance. We further find, consistent with recent inquiries into the dark side of embedded ties that the performance benefits associated with relational governance decline when parties rely on repeated partnerships. [source]

Organizational learning communities and the dark side of the learning organization

Phillip H. Owenby
This chapter explores some aspects of learning communities in organizations, with a special focus on manager-employee power relationships and the challenges of establishing learning organizations in traditional hierarchical organizations. [source]

British Muslims and the UK government's ,war on terror' within: evidence of a clash of civilizations or emergent de-civilizing processes?

Stephen Vertigans
Abstract In the immediate aftermath of the September 2001 attacks on America, defending civilization was quickly established at the core of the ,war on terror'. Unintentionally or otherwise this incorporation of civilization connected with Samuel Huntington's ,Clash of Civilizations' thesis. Within the ,war on terror' the dark side of counterterrorism has become apparent through international practices like extrajudicial killing, extraordinary rendition and torture. The impact of Western governments' policies upon their indigenous Muslim populations has also been problematic but social and political analysis has been relatively limited. This paper seeks to help address the scarcity of sociological contributions. Hidden costs of the UK government's attempts to utilize violence and enhance social constraints within the nation-state are identified. It is argued that although counterterrorism strategies are contributing to a self-fulfilling spiral of hatred that could be considered evidence in support of the ,Clash of Civilizations', the thesis is unhelpful when trying to grasp the underlying processes. Instead the paper draws upon Norbert Elias's application of the concepts of ,civilizing' and ,de-civilizing' to help improve levels of understanding about the processes and consequences of particular Muslim communities being targeted by security forces. The paper concludes with an exploration of the majority of the population's acquiescence and willingness to accept restraints upon Muslims in order to safeguard their own security. [source]

Economics of Social Capital,

The literature on the idea of ,social capital' is now enormous. Offering an alternative to impersonal markets and coercive states, the communitarian institutions built around social capital have looked attractive to scholars in the humanities and social sciences. The literature in consequence has a warm glow to it. In this article, I first study the various contexts in which the promises people make to one another are credible and then suggest that the accumulation of social capital is a possible route to creating such a context. I offer a tight definition of social capital , namely, interpersonal networks , so as not to prejudge its ability to enhance human well-being. The links between the microfoundations of social capital and the macroeconomic performance of economies are then studied. I also show that economic theory not only identifies circumstances in which communitarian institutions can function well, but that it also uncovers a dark side, namely, their capicity to permit one group to exploit another within long-term relationships. [source]

When the Romance is Over: Follower Perspectives of Aversive Leadership

Michelle C. Bligh
While leadership is indisputably one of the most pervasive topics in our society, the vast majority of existing research has focused on leadership as a positive force. Taking a follower-centric approach to the study of leadership, we integrate research on the Romance of Leadership and the dark side of leadership by examining followers' perceptions of aversive leadership in the context of public high schools. Although Meindl, Ehrlich, and Dukerich (1985) demonstrated that the Romance of Leadership also includes the overattribution of negative outcomes to leaders, subsequent research has failed to explore the implications of this potentially darker side of romanticising leaders. Specifically, we examine perceptions of principals' aversive leadership and traditional affective, behavioral, and performance outcomes of followers in a sample of 342 dyads. Followers assessed their principals' leadership behaviors and self-rated their levels of job satisfaction, self-efficacy, and resistance, while principals assessed their followers' citizenship behaviors, complaining behaviors, and job performance. Results show that perceptions of aversive leadership are positively related to follower resistance and negatively related to followers' job satisfaction. In addition, a usefulness analysis revealed that follower-rated variables were significantly related to perceptions of aversive leadership above and beyond leader-rated variables, suggesting that the relationship between negative outcomes and aversive leadership may be more constructed than real. In sum, the tendency to romanticise leadership may also lead to a proclivity to readily misattribute or overattribute blame to leadership as a convenient scapegoat for negative outcomes. Alors que le leadership est incontestablement l'un des thèmes les plus envahissants de notre société, la grande majorité des recherches existantes a porté sur le leadership en tant que force positive. En adoptant une approche centrée sur le suiveur dans l'étude du leadership, nous rapprochons les recherches sur la Romance du Leadership de la face sombre du leadership en examinant la perception qu'ont les collaborateurs du leadership insupportable dans le contexte des lycées publics. Quoique Meindl, Ehrlich, et Dukerich (1985) aient montré que la Romance du Leadership inclut aussi la surattribution de résultats négatifs aux leaders, les recherches ultérieures ont méconnu les implications de cet aspect potentiellement plus sombre des leaders idylliques. Nous analysons en particulier sur un échantillon de 342 dyades la perception du leadership répulsif du proviseur et les résultats habituels des collaborateurs en rapport avec l'affectivité, le comportement et les performances. Les collaborateurs ont noté les comportements de leadership de leur proviseur et auto-évalué leur niveau de satisfaction au travail, d'efficience et de résistance, alors que les proviseurs appréciaient les conduites de citoyenneté et de revendication, ainsi que la performance professionnelle. Les résultats montrent que la perception du leadership répulsif est positivement reliée à la résistance du suiveur et négativementà sa satisfaction professionnelle. En outre, une analyse des plus fructueuses a révélé que les variables évaluées par les collaborateurs étaient significativement en relation avec la perception du leadership répulsif, bien plus qu'avec les variables évaluées par les leaders, ce qui indique que la relation entre les résultats médiocres et le leadership négatif serait plus construite que réelle. Au total, le penchant à l'idéalisation du leadership peut aussi bien conduire à une propension à trop facilement condamner à tort et à travers le leadership qu'à la désignation d'un bouc émissaire tout trouvé pour expliquer de mauvais résultats. [source]

Chlorofilia, the Los Angeles Jungle

Neil Leach
Abstract When, in 2007, the History Channel invited architects to explore the future of the US metropolis, Hernan Diaz Alonso chose the medium of film to explore the dark side of the city of angels. Neil Leach asked Alonso how he went about challenging the conventional masterplan and provoking with his dystopian view. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Peaks and troughs,an exploration of patient perspectives of dangerous and severe personality disorder assessment (Peaks Unit, Rampton Hospital)

Lisa Maltman
Rationale,Although accessing user-perspectives is a key National Health Service initiative, the literature reporting user's views of forensic services, particularly dangerous and severe personality disorder (DSPD) services, is in its infancy. Aim and Design,This qualitative study applied thematic analysis to 12 semi-structured interviews aimed to enhance professional understanding of how Peaks Unit treatment-ward participants retrospectively perceive their experience of being admitted and assessed at the unit. Findings,Reported themes include ,fear' associated with participants' personal safety concerns and apprehensions regarding inhumane treatment and prolonged detention. The local metaphor of the DSPD Unit as the ,dark side' exacerbated such fears. ,Shock' also emerged as a primary theme resulting from unexpected admissions, security measures and some staff responses. ,Offering hope' provided a further theme with many participants reporting a climate of therapeutic optimism within staff teams and ,refreshing' opportunities for change. Reservations were also expressed about the service potentially offering ,false hope'. Several suggestions are proposed for future assessment strategy including escalating user-involvement activity, managing expectations, promoting therapeutic optimism and helping patients to attain a realistic sense of hope in order to maximise therapeutic engagement. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies: Bright and dark sides

Kaoru Suzumori
ABSTRACT, Infertility is defined as a couples failure to conceive following 2 years of unprotected sexual intercourse, affects 10% of reproductive age couples in Japan. There are 3 main causes: (1) ovarian failure-anovulation (29%); (2) tubal factor-anatomic defects of the female genital tract (36%); (3) male factor-abnormal spermatogenesis (31%). The goal of the infertility evaluation are to determine the probable cause of infertility regarding prognosis and to provide guidance regarding options for treatment In the event an obstruction of the fallopian tubes is discovered or spermatogenesis cannot be improved, assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as gamete intrafallopian tube transfer (GIFT) and in vitro fertilization with embryo transfer (IVF-ET) are recommended. Since the successful birth of Louise Brown by this IVF-ET, an explosion of ART has occurred all over the world in the last decade. In this review we discuss the revolution brought about by ART focusing on results in Japan, and clarify ethical issues that must be resolved. [source]

European Monetary Union: the dark sides of a major success

ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 46 2006
Charles Wyplosz
SUMMARY European monetary union THE DARK SIDES OF A MAJOR SUCCESS This paper revisits the debates that have surrounded the launch of a unique experience: the adoption of a common currency among developed countries. A striking aspect of this history is that, pressed by what they correctly identified as a window of opportunity, policy-makers crafted this complex project in a short period of time, largely eschewing inputs from the academic profession. Academic research, in turn, developed its own views, which turned out to be critical of some ley orientations, yet it generally recognizes that, in the end, the launch of the euro has been a major success. Over time, many of the academic criticisms have been taken on board, but not yet fully. The monetary strategy has been slightly amended, but it remains the subject of disagreements between the European Central Bank and monetary economists. Events have confirmed that the Stability and Growth Pact was ill-designed; its reformulation goes some way to address some of the concerns but not all of them. Its ability to deliver fiscal discipline is in doubt. Another look at the experiment highlights the gap between the principles laid out by those who designed the monetary union and the pragmatism that has prevailed thereafter. The resulting tension between principles and actions sometimes obscures the fact that the Eurosystem has acted wisely so far. The widespread perception that monetary policy is not as transparent as it should be and suffers from a lack of adequate democratic accountability is not just annoying. The general public, including politicians, sometimes blames the Eurosystem for Europe's poor growth performance since the adoption of the euro. This is unfair and could dangerously undermine the monetary union if the Eurosystem were to become the scapegoat for the slow and incomplete reforms that are needed to revigorate the euro area's economies. , Charles Wyplosz [source]

Cultural Hegemony of Singapore among ASEAN Countries: Globalization and Cultural Policy

Kenichi Kawasaki
The Singapore Government started to call their city a "Global City for the Arts", making numerous cultural policy changes. They also worked on various cultural experiments to establish their cultural leadership or hegemony among Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. The development of arts policies, cultural industries and people's positive commitment towards cultural exchanges are examples of this change. Singapore therefore is now playing the role of the cultural hub among the ASEAN countries. As an example of this, the present study discusses "Esplanade", which opened as a huge cultural complex in October 2002. Then the paper will also discuss both bright and dark sides of the cultural development in Singapore. As a conclusion, this paper discusses the possibility of the cultural contribution of Singapore to ASEAN countries, in spite of having serious epistemological discontinuity among ASEAN. [source]

Explaining Fascism and Ethnic Cleansing: The Three Dimensions of Charisma and the Four Dark Sides of Nationalism

Roger Eatwell
Ideas and leaders matter. Fascism's syncretic ideology is crucial to understanding its rise and support. So too is the coterie charisma exerted by leaders like Hitler over an inner core even in the wilderness years; his centripetal charisma went on to help attract the masses to the ,Führer party' for very diverse reasons; and the cultic charisma leaders developed especially when in power further helps explain their appeal. The four dark sides of nationalism , namely, its ethnic, religious, scientific and economic dimensions , are also crucial to understanding genocide. So too is leadership: no Hitler, no Holocaust. Genocide also points to the importance of lower levels of leaders, who were sometimes influenced by the charisma of the ,great' leader, although in other cases, such as Milosevic's Serbia, the charismatisation of the national idea was more influential. [source]

Top Management Teams in Family-Controlled Companies: ,Familiness', ,Faultlines', and Their Impact on Financial Performance

Alessandro Minichilli
abstract This article examines the affect of family management on performance of the company. We examine how familiness can provide further insights beyond the classical demographic measures of top management teams (TMTs) in explaining variations in firms' financial performance. We combine arguments on the ,bright' and ,dark' side of family involvement in the firm; we complement positive predictions on family involvement with negative predictions and develop family firm-specific measures of TMTs' familiness. Results indicate that while the presence of a family CEO is beneficial for firm performance, the coexistence of ,factions' in family and non-family managers within the TMT has the potential to create schisms among the subgroups and consequently hurt firm performance. We find support for a hypothesized U-shaped relationship between the ratio of family members in the TMT and firm performance. Additional evidence related to interactions between firm listing and CEO type on firm performance is then presented and discussed. [source]