DYT1 Gene (dyt1 + gene)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Review of the functional surgical treatment of dystonia

Paul Krack
A review of functional surgery for dystonia is presented. Recently renewed interest in stereotaxy for dystonia has followed the resurgence of pallidotomy and the introduction of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) in the early 1990s. However, even since the 1950s, small series of patients treated with ablative surgery have been carefully studied, providing useful information, notably regarding the tolerability of surgery. In the setting of dystonia, thalamotomy was first performed with substantial benefits, but some authors outlined the great variability in outcome, and the high incidence of operative side-effects. In the ,modern' era of functional surgery for movement disorders, the globus pallidus internus (GPi) has emerged to be currently the best target for dystonia, based on small series of patients published in the last few years. Both bilateral posteroventral pallidotomy (PVP) and bilateral pallidal stimulation, performed by several teams, have benefited a variety of patients with severe dystonia, the most dramatic improvements being seen in primary dystonia with a mutation in the DYT1 gene. Whereas patients with secondary dystonia have often shown a lesser degree of improvement, some publications have nevertheless reported major benefit. There is today a strong need for carefully controlled studies comparing secondary and primary dystonia, DYT1 and non-DYT1 dystonia, ablative surgery and DBS, with additional assessment of neuropsychological changes, especially in children treated with bilateral pallidal procedures. [source]

The entity of young onset primary cervical dystonia

Vasiliki Koukouni MD
Abstract Primary cervical dystonia is typically an adult onset condition with symptom onset usually in the fifth and sixth decade. Young onset (<28 years) is uncommon. We report 76 patients with cervical dystonia as a presenting or predominant feature, with disease onset before the age of 28. Male to female ratio was 1.24:1 and the mean onset age was 21 (3,28) years. A family history of tremor and/or dystonia was noted in 26.3%. Depression and anxiety attacks were present in 23.7%.Prior injury or surgery involving the neck was noted in 17.1%. 23 (30.3%) experienced spontaneous partial or complete remissions within the first 5 years of onset, but all relapsed. Cervical dystonia was predominantly rotational torticollis. 30% developed extra-nuchal dystonia and tremor affecting contiguous parts but in only one there was spread to affect the legs. All 15 patients tested for the DYT1 gene were negative. 74% responded favorably to botulinum toxin injections, whereas none of the 13 patients treated with L-Dopa preparations had a beneficial response. The distinctive features of this entity are discussed. 2007 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Developments in the molecular biology of DYT1 dystonia

Ruth H. Walker MB
Abstract The identification of a mutation of the DYT1 gene as a cause of inherited dystonia has led to many insights regarding the genetics of this disorder. In addition, there is a rapidly expanding list of inherited dystonia syndromes, the genes for some of which have been identified or localized. The DYT1 mutation has been found in a variety of ethnic groups, and it may result in a range of phenotypes. To date, studies of torsinA, the protein product of the DYT1 gene, have not revealed its function, although its widespread distribution throughout the central nervous system suggests a universal role. TorsinA has structural homology to heat shock and chaperone proteins. Evidence from studies in cell cultures and Caenorhabditis elegans, and the presence of torsinA in inclusion bodies in several neurodegenerative diseases may be indicative of a function of this nature. Preliminary studies in humans with DYT1 dystonia and in DYT1 transgenic mice suggest disruption of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system. A functional interference with neuronal signal processing induced by mutation of torsinA is consistent with current hypotheses regarding impairment of the center-surround mechanism in the striatum. 2003 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Novel Italian family supports clinical and genetic heterogeneity of primary adult-onset torsion dystonia

Francesco Brancati MD
Abstract We report on an Italian kindred with adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (PTD). A detailed clinical examination of the six definitely affected family members revealed a mild, purely focal phenotype. The disease involved only one body part (eyes, neck, or arm). PTD in this family was not linked to the known disease loci (DYT1, DYT6, DYT7, and DYT13), and the 3-bp deletion in the DYT1 gene was also excluded. These findings support genetic heterogeneity of PTD and indicate that a novel unassigned gene is responsible for focal dystonia in this family. 2002 Movement Disorder Society. [source]