DSS-induced Colitis (DSS-induce + colitis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Bifidobacterium lactis inhibits NF-,B in intestinal epithelial cells and prevents acute colitis and colitis-associated colon cancer in mice,,

Seung Won Kim MS
Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the antiinflammatory effects of Bifidobacterium lactis on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and on experimental acute murine colitis and its tumor prevention effects on colitis-associated cancer (CAC) in mice. Methods: Human HT-29 cells were stimulated with IL-1,, lipopolysaccharides, or tumor necrosis factor-, with and without B. lactis, and the effects of B. lactis on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-,B) signaling in IEC were examined. For in vivo study, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated mice were fed with and without B. lactis. Finally, we induced colonic tumors in mice by azoxymethane (AOM) and DSS and evaluated the effects of B. lactis on tumor growth. Results: B. lactis significantly suppressed NF-,B activation, including NF-,B-binding activity and NF-,B-dependent reporter gene expression in a dose-dependent manner, and suppressed I,B-, degradation, which correlated with the downregulation of NF-,B-dependent gene products. Moreover, B. lactis suppressed the development of acute colitis in mice. Compared with the DSS group, the severity of DSS-induced colitis as assessed by disease activity index, colon length, and histological score was reduced in the B. lactis -treated group. In the CAC model, the mean number and size of tumors in the B. lactis -treated group were significantly lower than those in the AOM group. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that B. lactis inhibits NF-,B and NF-,B-regulated genes in IEC and prevents acute colitis and CAC in mice. These results suggest that B. lactis could be a potential preventive agent for CAC as well as a therapeutic agent for inflammatory bowel disease. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2010) [source]

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor elicits bone marrow-derived cells that promote efficient colonic mucosal healing

Eric Bernasconi PhD
Abstract Background: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) therapy is effective in treating some Crohn's disease (CD) patients and protects mice from colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration. However, its mechanisms of action remain elusive. We hypothesized that GM-CSF affects intestinal mucosal repair. Methods: DSS colitic mice were treated with daily pegylated GM-CSF or saline and clinical, histological, and inflammatory parameters were kinetically evaluated. Further, the role of bone marrow-derived cells in the impact of GM-CSF therapy on DSS colitis was addressed using cell transfers. Results: GM-CSF therapy reduced clinical signs of colitis and the release of inflammatory mediators. GM-CSF therapy improved mucosal repair, with faster ulcer reepithelialization, accelerated hyperproliferative response of epithelial cells in ulcer-adjacent crypts, and lower colonoscopic ulceration scores in GM-CSF-administered mice relative to untreated mice. We observed that GM-CSF-induced promotion of mucosal repair is timely associated with a reduction in neutrophil numbers and increased accumulation of CD11b+ monocytic cells in colon tissues. Importantly, transfer of splenic GM-CSF-induced CD11b+ myeloid cells into DSS-exposed mice improved colitis, and lethally irradiated GM-CSF receptor-deficient mice reconstituted with wildtype bone marrow cells were protected from DSS-induced colitis upon GM-CSF therapy. Lastly, GM-CSF-induced CD11b+ myeloid cells were shown to promote in vitro wound repair. Conclusions: Our study shows that GM-CSF-dependent stimulation of bone marrow-derived cells during DSS-induced colitis accelerates colonic tissue repair. These data provide a putative mechanism for the observed beneficial effects of GM-CSF therapy in Crohn's disease. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2010;) [source]

Suppression of experimental colitis in mice by CD11c+ dendritic cells

Joseph E. Qualls PhD
Abstract Background: The innate immune system serves a critical role in homeostasis of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Both macrophages (MØs) and dendritic cells (DCs) have been shown to have pathogenic roles in animal models of inflammatory bowel disease. However, studies by several labs have established that resident MØs and DCs within the normal GI tract maintain an immunosuppressive phenotype compared to that seen in other peripheral sites. Recent studies by our lab demonstrated that the depletion of both MØs and DCs before the initiation of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis resulted in exacerbation of disease, partly caused by increased neutrophil influx. Methods/Results: In this current report, DSS-induced colitis was shown to be significantly more severe when DCs were selectively depleted in mice as indicated by changes in weight loss, stool consistency, rectal bleeding, and histopathology. In contrast to enhanced colitis in MØ/DC-depleted mice, which was associated with increased neutrophil influx, increased colitis in DC-depleted mice was not associated with an increase in neutrophils in the colon, as shown by CXCL1 chemokine levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. However, increased IL-6 gene and protein expression in colon tissues correlated positively with increased colitis severity in DC-depleted mice compared to colitis in DC-intact mice. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that resident DCs can suppress the severity of acute DSS colitis and that regulation of IL-6 production may contribute to DC-mediated control of intestinal inflammation. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2008) [source]

Comparative analysis of colonic gene expression of three experimental colitis models mimicking inflammatory bowel disease

Anje A. te Velde PhD
Abstract Background: Mouse models of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are used to unravel the pathophysiology of IBD and to study new treatment modalities, but their relationship to Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) is speculative. Methods: Using Agilent mouse TOX oligonucleotide microarrays, we analyzed colonic gene expression profiles in three widely used models of experimental colitis. In 2 of the models (TNBS and DSS-induced colitis), exogenous agents induce the colitis. In the third model the colitis is induced after transfer of a T-cell population (CD4+CD45RBhigh T cells) that lacks regulatory cells into an immunodeficient host. Results: Compared with control mice, in DSS, TNBS, and the CD45RB transfer colitis mice, 387, 21, and 582 genes were more than 2-fold upregulated in the intestinal mucosa. Analyses of exclusively shared gene expression profiles between the different models revealed that DSS/transfer colitis share 69 concordantly upregulated genes, DSS/TNBS 6, and TNBS/transfer colitis 1. Seven genes were upregulated in all three models. The CD45RB transfer model expression profile included the most genes that are known to be upregulated in IBD. Of 32 genes that are known to change transcriptional activity in IBD (TNF, IFN -,, Lt,, IL - 6, IL - 16, IL - 18R1, IL - 22, CCR2, 7, CCL2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 11, 17, 20, CXCR3, CXCL1, 5, 10, Mmp3, 7,9, 14, Timp1, Reg3,, and Pap, S - 100a8, S - 100a9, Abcb1, and Ptgs2), 2/32 are upregulated in TNBS, 15/32 are upregulated or downregulated in DSS and 30/32 are upregulated or downregulated in the CD45RB transfer colitis. Conclusion: The pattern of gene expression in the CD45RB transfer model most closely reflects altered gene expression in IBD. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007) [source]

TLR4 monoclonal antibody blockade suppresses dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced colitis in mice

Yi Liu
Abstract Background and Aim:, Ulcerative colitis (UC) refers to a kind of inflammatory bowel disease, of which the accurate pathogenesis is not yet well understood. Recently, the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the TLR4 signaling pathway have been proved as playing an important role in the pathogenesis of UC. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of TLR4 monoclonal antibody on dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced colitis in a mouse model. Methods:, We evaluated the effects of the TLR4 monoclonal antibody (TLR4mAb) on the development of dextran-sulfate-sodium-(DSS)-induced colitis. Tissue samples were evaluated by the disease activity index and histopathological score. Meanwhile, the mucosal mRNA expression of cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-,, interferon-, and interleukin-1, were analyzed by semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The mucosal protein P38-MAPK, c-jun and c-fos expressions of the TLR4-P38MAPK pathway were analyzed using Western blot. Results:, After the treatment with TLR4mAb against DSS-induced colitis, the bodyweight was significantly increased and both disease activity index and histopathological score were decreased significantly. Furthermore, the mucosal expression of messenger RNA of tumor necrosis factor-,, interferon-, and interleukin-1, were observed to be 8,15-fold more than the baseline, whereas the mucosal expressions of P38MAPK and c-jun were found to be decreased. Conclusion:, Blocking TLR4 by TLR4mAb can prevent the development of DSS-induced colitis through the TLR4-P38MAPK-c-jun pathway. [source]

Oxidative stress and metabolism in animal model of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium

Carlos R Damiani
Abstract Background and Aim:, Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Its etiology remains unclear, but it appears to result from a dysregulated immune response, with infiltration of phagocytic leukocytes into the mucosal interstitium. The production and release of reactive oxygen species by immune cells seems to play a crucial role in physiopathology of colitis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and deferoxamine (DFX) in the treatment of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Methods:, The effects of NAC and DRX on rats with DSS-induced colitis were determined by measuring intestinal parameters of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, inflammatory response and bowel histopathological alterations. Results:, DSS increased white blood cells count and NAC and DFX did not prevent this effect. However, DSS increased mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV in colon of rats and NAC and DFX prevented this alteration. In addition, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were increased in colon of DSS-treated rats. NAC and DFX, when taken together, prevented this effect. Complex II and succinate dehydrogenase were not affected by DSS, as protein carbonyl content. Conclusions:, It is speculated that NAC and DFX might be useful for treatment of colitis, but further research is necessary to clarify these effects. [source]

Interleukin-18 overproduction exacerbates the development of colitis with markedly infiltrated macrophages in interleukin-18 transgenic mice

Abstract Background and Aim:, The authors have previously shown that production of interleukin (IL)-18 was increased in the inflamed mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and blockade of IL-18 ameliorated the murine model of CD. This demonstrated that IL-18 plays a significant role during intestinal inflammation. However, the initial role of IL-18 during intestinal inflammation was unclear; therefore the susceptibility of IL-18 transgenic (Tg) mice to acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis was examined. Methods:, Interleukin-18 Tg and wild-type (WT) mice were fed 2.0% of DSS for 8 days. The total clinical scores (bodyweight loss, stool consistency, and rectal bleeding), colon length and histological scores were assessed. The expressions of surface markers and IL-18 on infiltrating lamina propria mononuclear cells were analyzed immunohistochemistrically. Mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells were isolated and the expressions of CD4+ T-cell activation markers (CD69, CD25 and IL18R) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results:, The IL-18 Tg mice exhibited an increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis, as shown by significantly increased clinical, histological scores, and more severe colonic shortening compared with WT mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a significant increase of IL-18 production and CD11b+ macrophages but not CD4+ T cells in the inflamed mucosa in DSS-fed IL-18 Tg compared with DSS-fed WT mice. Furthermore, MLN cells revealed no evidence of increased CD4+ T-cell activation in DSS-fed IL-18 Tg. Conclusions:, These findings suggest that IL-18 overproduction in the mucosa plays an important role in the marked infiltration of macrophages and exacerbates colitis in IL-18 Tg mice. [source]

Glial-derived neurotrophic factor regulates intestinal epithelial barrier function and inflammation and is therapeutic for murine colitis,

Dei Kui Zhang
Abstract Although enteric glial cells (EGCs) have been demonstrated to play a key role in maintaining intestinal epithelial barrier integrity, it is not known how EGCs regulate this integrity. We therefore hypothesized that glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) produced by EGCs might be involved in this regulation. Here we investigated the role of GDNF in regulating epithelial barrier function in vivo. Recombinant adenoviral vectors encoding GDNF (Ad-GDNF) were administered intracolonically in experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). The disease activity index (DAI) and histological score were measured. Epithelial permeability was assayed using Evans blue dye. The anti-apoptotic potency of GDNF in vivo was evaluated. The expression of tumour necrosis factor- , (TNF- ,), interleukin-1, (IL-1,), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured by ELISA assay and/or RT-PCR. The expression of ZO-1, Akt, caspase-3, and NF- ,B p65 was analysed by western blot assay. Our results showed that GDNF resulted in a significant reduction in enhanced permeability, inhibited MPO activity, IL-1, and TNF- , expression, and increased ZO-1 and Akt expression. Moreover, GDNF strongly prevented apoptosis in vivo and significantly ameliorated experimental colitis. Our findings indicate that GDNF participates directly in restoring epithelial barrier function in vivo via reduction of increased epithelial permeability and inhibition of mucosal inflammatory response, and is efficacious in DSS-induced colitis. These findings support the notion that EGCs are able to regulate intestinal epithelial barrier integrity indirectly via their release of GDNF in vivo. GDNF is namely an important mediator of the cross-talk between EGCs and mucosal epithelial cells. GDNF may be a useful therapeutic approach to the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2010 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The protective and healing effects of a natural antioxidant formulation based on ubiquinol and Aloe vera against dextran sulfate-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

BIOFACTORS, Issue 1-4 2003
Ludmila Korkina
Abstract Oxygen/nitrogen reactive species (ROS/RNS) are currently implicated in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis, drawing attention on the potential prophylactic and healing properties of antioxidants, scavengers, chelators. We evaluated the possible protective/curative effects of a natural antioxidant preparation based on Aloe vera and ubiquinol, against intestinal inflammation, lesions, and pathological alterations of the intestinal electrophysiological activity and motility, in a rat model of DSS-induced colitis. 5% dextrane sulfate (DDS) (3 days), followed by 1% DSS (4 days) was administered in drinking water. The antioxidant formulation (25 mg/kg) was delivered with a pre-treatment protocol, or simultaneously or post-colitis induction. Spontaneous and acetylcholine-stimulated electrical activity were impaired in the small intestine and in distal colon, upon exposure to DSS only. Severe inflammation occurred, with increased myeloperoxidase activity, and significant alterations of the oxidant/antioxidant status in colonic tissue and peritoneal cells. Lipoperoxidation, superoxide production, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase activities, and reduced glutathione content increased, whilst superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were sharply suppressed in colon tissue. ROS/RNS formation in peritoneal cells was strongly inhibited. Inflammation, electrical/mechanical impairment in the gut, and a great majority of oxidative stress parameters were improved substantially by pre-treatment with the antioxidant preparation, but not by simultaneous administration or post-treatment. [source]

Interferon-gamma is causatively involved in experimental inflammatory bowel disease in mice

R. Ito
Summary Cytokines may be crucially involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but it remains controversial whether interferon (IFN)-,, a typical proinflammatory cytokine, is an essential mediator to cause the disorders. In the present study, IFN-,,/, and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice were fed 2·5% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days, in order to investigate DSS-induced intestinal inflammation. The DSS-treated WT mice exhibited a robust production of IFN-, in the gut, a remarkable loss of body weight, as well as high rate of mortality (60%). In striking contrast, IFN-, deficient mice did not develop DSS-induced colitis, as indicated by the maintenance of body weight and survival rate of 100%. Severe intestinal inflammation was demonstrated exclusively in WT animals in terms of the shortening of the bowel as well as the elevation of the disease activity index, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and serum haptoglobin level. Histological study of DSS-treated WT intestine revealed disruption of mucosal epithelium and massive infiltration of inflammatory cells, while the organ from IFN-,,/, mice remained virtually normal in appearance. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analyses indicated abundant production of three chemokines, i.e. monokine induced by interferon-, (MIG), interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), in the DSS-irritated intestine of WT but not of IFN-,,/, mice. The present results demonstrate clearly that IFN-, plays indispensable roles in the initiation of DSS colitis, and some chemokines are produced in an IFN-,-dependent fashion. [source]