DSM-IV Alcohol (dsm-iv + alcohol)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by DSM-IV Alcohol

  • dsm-iv alcohol dependence

  • Selected Abstracts

    The Dimensionality of DSM-IV Alcohol Use Disorders Among Adolescent and Adult Drinkers and Symptom Patterns by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2009
    Thomas C. Harford
    Background:, There is limited information on the validity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) alcohol use disorders (AUD) symptom criteria among adolescents in the general population. The purpose of this study is to assess the DSM-IV AUD symptom criteria as reported by adolescent and adult drinkers in a single representative sample of the U.S. population aged 12 years and older. This design avoids potential confounding due to differences in survey methodology when comparing adolescents and adults from different surveys. Methods:, A total of 133,231 current drinkers (had at least 1 drink in the past year) aged 12 years and older were drawn from respondents to the 2002 to 2005 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. DSM-IV AUD criteria were assessed by questions related to specific symptoms occurring during the past 12 months. Factor analytic and item response theory models were applied to the 11 AUD symptom criteria to assess the probabilities of symptom item endorsements across different values of the underlying trait. Results:, A 1-factor model provided an adequate and parsimonious interpretation for the 11 AUD criteria for the total sample and for each of the gender,age groups. The MIMIC model exhibited significant indication for item bias among some criteria by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Symptom criteria for "tolerance,""time spent," and "hazardous use" had lower item thresholds (i.e., lower severity) and low item discrimination, and they were well separated from the other symptoms, especially in the 2 younger age groups (12 to 17 and 18 to 25). "Larger amounts,""cut down,""withdrawal," and "legal problems" had higher item thresholds but generally lower item discrimination, and they tend to exhibit greater dispersion at higher AUD severity, particularly in the youngest age group (12 to 17). Conclusions:, Findings from the present study do not provide support for the 2 separate DSM-IV diagnoses of alcohol abuse and dependence among either adolescents or adults. Variations in criteria severity for both abuse and dependence offer support for a dimensional approach to diagnosis which should be considered in the ongoing development of DSM-V. [source]

    Continuous, categorical and mixture models of DSM-IV alcohol and cannabis use disorders in the Australian community

    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2010
    Andrew J. Baillie
    ABSTRACT Aims To apply item response mixture modelling (IRMM) to investigate the viability of the dimensional and categorical approaches to conceptualizing alcohol and cannabis use disorders. Design A cross-sectional survey assessing substance use and DSM-IV substance use disorders. Setting and participants A household survey of a nationally representative sample of 10 641 Australia adults (aged 18 years or older). Measurements Trained survey interviewers administered a structured interview based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Findings Of the 10 641 Australian adults interviewed, 7746 had drunk alcohol in the past 12 months and 722 had used cannabis. There was no improvement in fit for categorical latent class nor mixture models combining continuous and categorical parameters compared to continuous factor analysis models. The results indicated that both alcohol and cannabis problems can be considered as dimensional, with those with the disorder arrayed along a dimension of severity. Conclusions A single factor accounts for more variance in the DSM-IV alcohol and cannabis use criteria than latent class or mixture models, so the disorders can be explained most effectively by a dimensional score. [source]

    Socio-demographic risk factors for alcohol and drug dependence: the 10-year follow-up of the national comorbidity survey

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2009
    Joel Swendsen
    ABSTRACT Aims Continued progress in etiological research and prevention science requires more precise information concerning the specific stages at which socio-demographic variables are implicated most strongly in transition from initial substance use to dependence. The present study examines prospective associations between socio-demographic variables and the subsequent onset of alcohol and drug dependence using data from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) and the NCS Follow-up survey (NCS-2). Design The NCS was a nationally representative survey of the prevalence and correlates of DSM-III-R mental and substance disorders in the United States carried out in 1990,2002. The NCS-2 re-interviewed a probability subsample of NCS respondents a decade after the baseline survey. Baseline NCS socio-demographic characteristics and substance use history were examined as predictors of the first onset of DSM-IV alcohol and drug dependence in the NCS-2. Participants A total of 5001 NCS respondents were re-interviewed in the NCS-2 (87.6% of baseline sample). Findings Aggregate analyses demonstrated significant associations between some baseline socio-demographic variables (young age, low education, non-white ethnicity, occupational status) but not others (sex, number of children, residential area) and the subsequent onset of DSM-IV alcohol or drug dependence. However, conditional models showed that these risk factors were limited to specific stages of baseline use. Moreover, many socio-demographic variables that were not significant in the aggregate analyses were significant predictors of dependence when examined by stage of use. Conclusions The findings underscore the potential for socio-demographic risk factors to have highly specific associations with different stages of the substance use trajectory. [source]

    Common Genetic Contributions to Alcohol and Cannabis Use and Dependence Symptomatology

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2010
    Carolyn E. Sartor
    Background:, Despite mounting evidence that use of and dependence on alcohol and cannabis are influenced by heritable factors, the extent to which heritable influences on these phenotypes overlap across the 2 substances has only rarely been explored. In the current study, we quantified cross-substance overlap in sources of variance and estimated the degree to which within-substance associations between use and dependence measures are attributable to common genetic and environmental factors for alcohol and cannabis. Methods:, The sample was comprised of 6,257 individuals (2,761 complete twin pairs and 735 singletons) from the Australian Twin Registry, aged 24 to 36 years. Alcohol and cannabis use histories were collected via telephone diagnostic interviews and used to derive an alcohol consumption factor, a frequency measure for cannabis use, and DSM-IV alcohol and cannabis dependence symptom counts. Standard genetic analyses were conducted to produce a quadrivariate model that provided estimates of overlap in genetic and environmental influences across the 4 phenotypes. Results:, Over 60% of variance in alcohol consumption, cannabis use, and cannabis dependence symptoms, and just under 50% of variance in alcohol dependence (AD) symptoms were attributable to genetic sources. Shared environmental factors did not contribute significantly to the 4 phenotypes. Nearly complete overlap in heritable influences was observed for within-substance measures of use and dependence symptoms. Genetic correlations across substances were 0.68 and 0.62 for use and dependence symptoms, respectively. Conclusions:, Common heritable influences were evident for alcohol and cannabis use and for AD and cannabis dependence symptomatology, but findings indicate that substance-specific influences account for the majority of the genetic variance in the cannabis use and dependence phenotypes. By contrast, the substantial correlations between alcohol use and AD symptoms and between cannabis use and cannabis dependence symptoms suggest that measures of heaviness of use capture much of the same genetic liability to alcohol- and cannabis-related problems as dependence symptomatology. [source]