Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by DSM-IV

  • dsm-iv alcohol
  • dsm-iv alcohol dependence
  • dsm-iv axis i disorders
  • dsm-iv criterioN
  • dsm-iv diagnosis
  • dsm-iv diagnostic criterioN
  • dsm-iv disorders
  • dsm-iv personality disorders
  • dsm-iv symptom

  • Selected Abstracts

    Diagnostic utility of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-C16 and QIDS-SR16) in the elderly

    P. M. Doraiswamy
    Doraiswamy PM, Bernstein IH, Rush AJ, Kyutoku Y, Carmody TJ, Macleod L, Venkatraman S, Burks M, Stegman D, Witte B, Trivedi MH. Diagnostic utility of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-C16 and QIDS-SR16) in the elderly. Objective:, To evaluate psychometric properties and comparability ability of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) vs. the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology,Clinician-rated (QIDS-C16) and Self-report (QIDS-SR16) scales to detect a current major depressive episode in the elderly. Method:, Community and clinic subjects (age ,60 years) were administered the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) for DSM-IV and three depression scales randomly. Statistics included classical test and Samejima item response theories, factor analyzes, and receiver operating characteristic methods. Results:, In 229 elderly patients (mean age = 73 years, 39% male, 54% current depression), all three scales were unidimensional and with nearly equal Cronbach , reliability (0.85,0.89). Each scale discriminated persons with major depression from the non-depressed, but the QIDS-C16 was slightly more accurate. Conclusion:, All three tests are valid for detecting geriatric major depression with the QIDS-C16 being slightly better. Self-rated QIDS-SR16 is recommended as a screening tool as it is least expensive and least time consuming. [source]

    Obsessive,compulsive disorder: a review of the diagnostic criteria and possible subtypes and dimensional specifiers for DSM-V,

    James F. Leckman M.D.
    Abstract Background: Since the publication of the DSM-IV in 1994, research on obsessive,compulsive disorder (OCD) has continued to expand. It is timely to reconsider the nosology of this disorder, assessing whether changes to diagnostic criteria as well as subtypes and specifiers may improve diagnostic validity and clinical utility. Methods: The existing criteria were evaluated. Key issues were identified. Electronic databases of PubMed, ScienceDirect, and PsycINFO were searched for relevant studies. Results: This review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. These include: (1) clarifying and simplifying the definition of obsessions and compulsions (criterion A); (2) possibly deleting the requirement that people recognize that their obsessions or compulsions are excessive or unreasonable (criterion B); (3) rethinking the clinical significance criterion (criterion C) and, in the interim, possibly adjusting what is considered "time-consuming" for OCD; (4) listing additional disorders to help with the differential diagnosis (criterion D); (5) rethinking the medical exclusion criterion (criterion E) and clarifying what is meant by a "general medical condition"; (6) revising the specifiers (i.e., clarifying that OCD can involve a range of insight, in addition to "poor insight," and adding "tic-related OCD"); and (7) highlighting in the DSM-V text important clinical features of OCD that are not currently mentioned in the criteria (e.g., the major symptom dimensions). Conclusions: A number of changes to the existing diagnostic criteria for OCD are proposed. These proposed criteria may change as the DSM-V process progresses. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Panic disorder: a review of DSM-IV panic disorder and proposals for DSM-V,

    Michelle G. Craske Ph.D
    Abstract This review covers the literature since the publication of DSM-IV on the diagnostic criteria for panic attacks (PAs) and panic disorder (PD). Specific recommendations are made based on the evidence available. In particular, slight changes are proposed for the wording of the diagnostic criteria for PAs to ease the differentiation between panic and surrounding anxiety; simplification and clarification of the operationalization of types of PAs (expected vs. unexpected) is proposed; and consideration is given to the value of PAs as a specifier for all DSM diagnoses and to the cultural validity of certain symptom profiles. In addition, slight changes are proposed for the wording of the diagnostic criteria to increase clarity and parsimony of the criteria. Finally, based on the available evidence, no changes are proposed with regard to the developmental expression of PAs or PD. This review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Generalized anxiety disorder with and without excessive worry in Hong Kong

    Sing Lee M.B.B.S.
    Abstract Background: Two previous U.S. studies found that although generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) without self-perceived excessive worry was milder than GAD with excessive worry, its persistence, impairment, and risk for subsequent onset of other mental disorders were still substantial. This study examined the implications of relaxing the "excessiveness" criterion on the prevalence and socio-demographic profile of GAD in a Chinese population sample by considering both self and others' perception of excessive worry. Method: 2,005 respondents aged 15,65 years participated in a structured telephone interview that covered socio-demographic profile, 12-month DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD, core depressive symptoms, longest duration of worry episode, number of domains of worry, impairment measured by the Sheehan Disability Scale, and treatment-seeking. Excessive worry was assessed from the perception of both respondents and others as reported by respondents. Result: The 12-month prevalence of GAD increased from 3.4 to 4% when the excessiveness requirement was relaxed. Excessive GAD and nonexcessive GAD had similar socio-demographic, symptom, chronicity, impairment, depressive symptom, and treatment-seeking profiles. Conclusion: GAD without excessive worry was less common than GAD with excessive worry but was likely to be a valid nosological entity. Future iterations of the DSM-IV should clarify whether excessive worry should be retained and, if so, how individuals who only reported excessive worries perceived by others should be optimally assessed. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Clinical and sociodemographic variables associated with the onset of posttraumatic stress disorder in road traffic accidents

    Ramón Coronas M.D.
    Abstract Our objective was to identify variables related to the onset of acute posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after a road traffic accident. We evaluated 60 victims of a motor vehicle accident (MVA) in 2004 at 2 months postaccident. Thirty of them had developed PTSD; the other 30 had not developed PTSD. Clinical data, physical injuries, and sociodemographic characteristics were determined in 60 victims. The Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS) and a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) were used to evaluate PTSD occurrence. PTSD scores assessed by DTS and SCID at 2 months were significantly and positively associated with female sex, severe physical injuries, perceived social deprivation, and loss of job activity due to the accident. Female sex, severe physical injury, perceived social deprivation, and sick leave were related to the diagnosis of PTSD 2 months after the accident. Depression and Anxiety 0:1,8, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Efficacy and safety of duloxetine in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a flexible-dose, progressive-titration, placebo-controlled trial

    Moira Rynn M.D.
    Abstract Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), a prevalent and chronic illness, is associated with dysregulation in both serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission. Our study examined the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of duloxetine hydrochloride, a dual reuptake inhibitor of serotonin and norepinephrine, for short-term treatment of adults with GAD. In a 10-week, double-blind, progressive-titration, flexible-dose trial, 327 adult outpatients with a DSM-IV,defined GAD diagnosis were randomized to duloxetine 60,120,mg (DLX, N=168) or placebo (PLA, N=159) treatment. The primary efficacy measure was mean change from baseline to endpoint in Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) total score. Secondary outcome measures included response rate (HAMA total score reduction ,50% from baseline), Clinician Global Impression,Improvement (CGI-I) scores, and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) scores. Patients who received duloxetine treatment demonstrated significantly greater improvement in HAMA total scores (P=.02); a higher response rate (P=.03), and greater improvement (P=.04) than patients who received placebo. Duloxetine-treated patients were also significantly more improved than placebo-treated patients on SDS global functional (P<.01) and work, social, and family/home impairment scores (P<.05). The rate of discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs) was higher for the duloxetine group compared with the placebo group (P=.002). The AEs most frequently associated with duloxetine were nausea, dizziness, and somnolence. Duloxetine was an efficacious, safe, and well-tolerated treatment that resulted in clinically significant improvements in symptom severity and functioning for patients with GAD. Depression and Anxiety 0:1,8, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    One-year prevalence of subthreshold and threshold DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder in a nationally representative sample

    Robin M. Carter B.A.
    Abstract Several studies of representative populations have reported prevalence rates of DSM-III and DSM-III-R generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); however, no community study has examined the effect of the stricter DSM-IV criteria on prevalence estimates and patterns of comorbidity. Furthermore, past studies based on "lifetime" symptom assessments might have led to upper-bound 1-year and point prevalence estimates. Data is presented from a national representative sample study of 4,181 adults in Germany, 18,65 years old, who were interviewed for DSM-IV disorders with the 12-month version of the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The prevalence rate of strictly defined, 12-month threshold DSM-IV GAD was estimated to be 1.5%; however, 3.6% of respondents presented with at least subthreshold syndromes of GAD during the past 12 months. Higher rates of worrying and GAD were found in women (worrying 10%, GAD 2.7%) and in older respondents (worrying 9.3%, TAD 2.2%). Taking into account a wider scope of diagnoses than previous studies, a high degree of comorbidity in GAD cases was confirmed: 59.1% of all 12-month GAD cases fulfilled criteria for major depression, and 55.9% fulfilled criteria for any other anxiety disorder. In conclusion, prevalence and comorbidity rates found for DSM-IV GAD are not substantially different from rates reported for DSM-III-R GAD. The minor differences in our findings compared to previous reports are more likely attributable to differences in study methodology rather than changes in diagnostic criteria for DSM-IV. Depression and Anxiety 13:78,88, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Interactions between bipolar disorder and antisocial personality disorder in trait impulsivity and severity of illness

    A. C. Swann
    Swann AC, Lijffijt M, Lane SD, Steinberg JL, Moeller FG. Interactions between bipolar disorder and antisocial personality disorder in trait impulsivity and severity of illness. Objective:, We investigated trait impulsivity in bipolar disorder and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with respect to severity and course of illness. Method:, Subjects included 78 controls, 34 ASPD, 61 bipolar disorder without Axis II disorder, and 24 bipolar disorder with ASPD, by Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) (SCID-I and -II). Data were analyzed using general linear model and probit analysis. Results:, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) scores were higher in ASPD (effect sizes 0.5,0.8) or bipolar disorder (effect size 1.45) than in controls. Subjects with both had more suicide attempts and previous episodes than bipolar disorder alone, and more substance-use disorders and suicide attempts than ASPD alone. BIS-11 scores were not related to severity of crimes. Conclusion:, Impulsivity was higher in bipolar disorder with or without ASPD than in ASPD alone, and higher in ASPD than in controls. Adverse effects of bipolar disorder in ASPD, but not of ASPD in bipolar disorder, were accounted for by increased impulsivity. [source]

    Birth-cohort and dual diagnosis effects on age-at-onset in Brazilian patients with bipolar I disorder

    P. V. Da Silva Magalhães
    Objective:, Substance use disorders and birth-cohort have been associated with an earlier onset in bipolar disorder (BD). This study aimed at evaluating the inter-relations of these factors in age-at-onset in bipolar illness. Method:, Two-hundred and thirty patients with bipolar I disorder were cross-sectionally evaluated. Patients were categorized into four age groups for analysis. Lifetime comorbidity and age-at-onset were derived from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Results:, There was a strong linear association between age group and age-at-onset. Lifetime alcohol and drug use disorders were also associated with age-at-onset. Illicit drug and alcohol use disorders and age group remained significant in the multivariate model. No interactions appeared. Conclusion:, Both age group and dual diagnoses had strong and independent impacts on age-at-onset in out-patients with BD. Substance abuse may be partly accountable for earlier symptom onset, but other features of BD in younger generations are still in need to be accounted for. [source]

    Prevalence of alcohol use disorders in schizophrenia , a systematic review and meta-analysis

    J. Koskinen
    Objective:, Our aim was to present recent studies of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in patients with schizophrenia, estimate overall prevalence and characteristics affecting the prevalence of AUDs. Method:, We conducted a search using three literature databases and a manual search on articles published in 1996,2008. Meta-regression was used to study how prevalence is affected by different study characteristics. Articles that reported diagnoses according to DSM or ICD diagnostic systems were included. Results:, Altogether 60 studies met our criteria. The median of current AUD prevalence was 9.4% (inter-quartile range, IQR 4.6,19.0, 18 studies) and median of lifetime AUD prevalence 20.6% (IQR 12.0,34.5, 47 studies). In studies using DSM-III-R median prevalence was higher than that in studies using DSM-IV, ICD-9 or ICD-10 (32/17/11/6%). Conclusion:, Approximately every fifth patient with schizophrenia had lifetime AUD diagnosis. When contrasted with the most recent review, there might be a descending trend in AUD prevalence in patients with schizophrenia. [source]

    Association of the metabolic syndrome with depression and anxiety in Japanese men: A 1-year cohort study

    Takeaki Takeuchi
    Abstract Background Recent studies on the association between the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and depression have reported conflicting findings. This 1-year cohort study aims to evaluate the association of MetS with the development of both depression and anxiety. Methods The cohort comprised 956 Japanese male employees of an enterprise (mean age, 42.7 years; SD, 10.2 years). MetS was diagnosed according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. The psychological conditions of depression and anxiety were assessed in 2 successive years by using the profile of mood states (POMS) questionnaire and by conducting clinical interviews as per the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). We evaluated the temporal and dose-response relationships between MetS and the development of depression and anxiety, controlling for potential confounding factors like age and lifestyle-related factors. Results We identified a positive relationship between MetS at baseline and new-onset depression in the subsequent year (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.10,4.17). Of the five MetS components examined, only waist circumference was significantly related to new-onset depression (OR 2.08, 1.23,3.50). Trend analysis revealed a significant positive trend of association between the number of MetS components identified and new-onset depression (Ptrend < 0.01), but not between Mets and new-onset anxiety. Conclusions Our results suggest that MetS is a predictive factor for the development of depression, and that waist circumference largely contributes to the association between MetS and depression. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The effects of acute exercise and high lactate levels on 35% CO2 challenge in healthy volunteers

    G. Esquivel
    Objective:, To test the possible antipanic effects of acute exercise in healthy volunteers exposed to an inhalation of 35% CO2 challenge. Method:, Twenty healthy subjects in a randomized separate group design, performed exercise in a bicycle ergometer reaching >6 mm of blood lactate and a control condition of minimal activity in the same fashion with no lactate elevation. Immediately afterwards an inhalation of a vital capacity using a mixture of 35% CO2/65% O2 through a mask was given on both conditions. Results:, Subjects under the exercise condition reported less panic symptoms than controls after a CO2 challenge on the diagnostic statistical manual-IV (DSM-IV) Panic Symptom List but no difference on the Visual Analogue Anxiety Scale. Conclusion:, Subjects under the exertion condition had lactate levels comparable with those of lactate infusions but an inhibitory rather than accumulative effect was seen when combined with a CO2 challenge. [source]

    Hydrophobia as a rare presentation of Cotard's syndrome: a case report

    A. G. Nejad
    Objective:,To discuss a case of Cotard's syndrome in a 65-year-old male patient who refused to eat and drink. Method:,A single case is presented. Results:,The patient was especially sensitive to water and showed panic reactions when he was offered a glass of water. These symptoms began when he deluded himself to believe that his stomach shrunk. Diagnosis was major depressive disorder with psychotic feature based on DSM-IV. Conclusion:,Hydrophobia as a symptom of Cotard's syndrome was not reported before. This symptom is often known as evidence of rabies but may be seen in Cotard's syndrome. [source]

    Initial, habitual and compulsive alcohol use is characterized by a shift of cue processing from ventral to dorsal striatum

    ADDICTION, Issue 10 2010
    Sabine Vollstädt-Klein
    ABSTRACT Aims During the development of drug addiction, initial hedonic effects decrease when substance use becomes habitual and ultimately compulsive. Animal research suggests that these changes are represented by a transition from prefrontal cortical control to subcortical striatal control and within the striatum from ventral to dorsal domains of the striatum, but only limited evidence exists in humans. In this study we address this hypothesis in the context of alcohol dependence. Design, setting and participants Non-abstinent heavy social drinkers (n = 21, 5.0 ± 1.5 drinks/day, 13 of them were alcohol-dependent according to DSM-IV) and light social drinkers (n = 10, 0.4 ± 0.4 drinks/day) were examined. Measurements We used a cue-reactivity functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design during which pictures of alcoholic beverages and neutral control stimuli were presented. Findings In the dorsal striatum heavy drinkers showed significant higher activations compared to light drinkers, whereas light social drinkers showed higher cue-induced fMRI activations in the ventral striatum and in prefrontal areas compared to heavy social drinkers [region of interest analyses, P < 0.05 false discovery rate (FDR)-corrected]. Correspondingly, ventral striatal activation in heavy drinkers correlated negatively with obsessive-compulsive craving, and furthermore we found a positive association between cue-induced activation in the dorsal striatum and obsessive-compulsive craving in all participants. Conclusions In line with our hypothesis we found higher cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum in social compared to heavy drinkers, and higher dorsal striatal activation in heavy drinkers. Increased prefrontal activation may indicate that social drinkers activate cortical control when viewing alcohol cues, which may prevent the development of heavy drinking or alcohol dependence. Our results suggest differentiating treatment research depending on whether alcohol use is hedonic or compulsive. [source]

    Symptoms of nicotine dependence in a cohort of Swedish youths: a comparison between smokers, smokeless tobacco users and dual tobacco users

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2010
    Ann Post
    ABSTRACT Aims To determine whether symptoms of nicotine dependence, addiction and withdrawal symptoms differ between exclusive smokers, exclusive snus (moist snuff) users and dual users. Design A cross-sectional survey of a cohort subsample. Setting County of Stockholm, Sweden. Participants Current exclusive smokers (n = 466), exclusive snus users (n = 209) and dual users (n = 144), mean age 17.6 years. Measurements Self-reported life-time experience of nicotine dependence and withdrawal symptoms in periods of discontinued tobacco use. Selected items from the modified Fagerstöm Tolerance Questionnaire (mFTQ), the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Findings The odds ratio of endorsing each of four mFTQ items as well as the HONC item investigating the risk of feeling addicted to tobacco was two to five-fold higher for exclusive snus users and for dual users compared to exclusive smokers. One DSM-IV item (difficult to refrain from use) was elevated among dual users compared to smokers. Dual users reported the highest prevalence of any withdrawal symptom in contrast to exclusive snus users, who reported a lower risk of withdrawal symptoms compared to exclusive smokers. Conclusions Smokeless tobacco users show symptoms of nicotine dependence at least as frequently as cigarette smokers. Symptoms of nicotine dependence and of withdrawal during quit attempts are particularly frequent in the subgroup of users who combine smokeless tobacco with smoking. [source]

    Test,re-test reliability of DSM-IV adopted criteria for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) abuse and dependence: a cross-national study

    ADDICTION, Issue 10 2009
    Linda B. Cottler
    ABSTRACT Aims This study evaluated the prevalence and reliability of DSM-IV adopted criteria for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) abuse and dependence with a purpose to determine whether it is best conceptualized within the category of hallucinogens, amphetamines or its own category. Design Test,re-test study. Participants MDMA users (life-time use >5 times) were recruited in St Louis, Miami and Sydney (n = 593). The median life-time MDMA consumption was 50 pills at the baseline. Measurements The computerized Substance Abuse Module for Club Drug (CD-SAM) was used to assess MDMA abuse and dependence. The Discrepancy Interview Protocol (DIP) was used to determine the reasons for the discrepant responses between the two interviews. Reliability of diagnoses, individual diagnostic criteria and withdrawal symptoms was examined using the kappa coefficient (,). Findings For baseline data, 15% and 59% met MDMA abuse and dependence, respectively. Substantial test,re-test reliability of the diagnoses was observed consistently across cities (, = 0.69). ,Continued use despite knowledge of physical/psychological problems' (87%) and ,withdrawal' (68%) were the two most prevalent dependence criteria. ,Physically hazardous use' was the most prevalent abuse criterion. Six dependence criteria and all abuse criteria were reported reliably across cities (,: 0.53,0.77). Seventeen of 19 withdrawal symptoms showed consistency in the reliability across cities. The most commonly reported reason for discrepant responses was ,interpretation of question changed'. Only a small proportion of the total discrepancies were attributed to lying or social desirability. Conclusion The adopted DSM-IV diagnostic classification for MDMA abuse and dependence was moderately reliable across cities. Findings on MDMA withdrawal support the argument that MDMA should be separated from other hallucinogens in DSM. [source]

    Sequencing of DSM-IV criteria of nicotine dependence

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2009
    Denise B. Kandel
    ABSTRACT Aims To determine whether there is a sequence in which adolescents experience symptoms of nicotine dependence (ND) as per the DSM-IV. Design A two-stage design was implemented to select a multi-ethnic target sample of adolescents from a school survey of 6th,10th graders from the Chicago Public Schools. The cohort was interviewed at home five times with structured computerized interviews at 6-month intervals over a 2-year period. Participants Subsample of new tobacco users (n = 353) who had started to use tobacco within 12 months prior to wave 1 or between waves 1 and 5. Measurements and statistical methods Monthly histories of DSM-IV symptoms of ND were obtained. Log-linear quasi-independence models were estimated to identify the fit of different cumulative models of progression among the four most prevalent dependence criteria (tolerance, impaired control, withdrawal, unsuccessful attempts to quit), indexed by specific symptoms, by gender and race/ethnicity. Findings Pathways varied slightly across groups. The proportions who could be classified in a progression pathway not by chance ranged from 50.7% to 68.8%. Overall, tolerance and impaired control appeared first and preceded withdrawal; impaired control preceded attempts to quit. For males, tolerance was experienced first, with withdrawal a minor path of entry; for females withdrawal was experienced last, tolerance and impaired control were experienced first. For African Americans, tolerance by itself was experienced first; for other groups an alternative path began with impaired control. Conclusions The prevalence and sequence of criteria of ND fit our understanding of the neuropharmacology of ND. The order among symptoms early in the process of dependence may differ from the severity order of symptoms among those who persist in smoking. [source]

    Evaluating the validities of different DSM-IV-based conceptual constructs of tobacco dependence,

    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2008
    Peter S. Hendricks
    ABSTRACT Aim To compare the concurrent and predictive validities of two subsets of DSM-IV criteria for nicotine dependence (tolerance and withdrawal; withdrawal; difficulty controlling use; and use despite harm) to the concurrent and predictive validity of the full DSM-IV criteria. Design Analysis of baseline and outcome data from three randomized clinical trials of cigarette smoking treatment. Setting San Francisco, California. Participants Two samples of cigarette smokers (n = 810 and 322), differing with regard to baseline characteristics and treatment received, derived from three randomized clinical trials. Measurements DSM-IV nicotine dependence criteria were measured at baseline with a computerized version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV (DIS-IV). Additional baseline measures included the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND), number of cigarettes smoked per day, breath carbon monoxide (CO) level, the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS), the Michigan Nicotine Reinforcement Questionnaire (M-NRQ) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Seven-day point-prevalence abstinence was assessed at week 12. Findings Full DSM-IV criteria displayed greater concurrent validity than either of the two subsets of criteria. However, DSM-IV symptoms accounted for only a nominal amount of the variance in baseline smoking-related characteristics and were unrelated to smoking abstinence at week 12. Cigarettes smoked per day was the only significant predictor of abstinence at week 12. Conclusions Although the findings do not provide a compelling alternative to the full set of DSM-IV nicotine dependence criteria, its poor psychometric properties and low predictive power limit its clinical and research utility. [source]

    Exposure to opioid maintenance treatment reduces long-term mortality

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2008
    Amy Gibson
    ABSTRACT Aims To (i) examine the predictors of mortality in a randomized study of methadone versus buprenorphine maintenance treatment; (ii) compare the survival experience of the randomized subject groups; and (iii) describe the causes of death. Design Ten-year longitudinal follow-up of mortality among participants in a randomized trial of methadone versus buprenorphine maintenance treatment. Setting Recruitment through three clinics for a randomized trial of buprenorphine versus methadone maintenance. Participants A total of 405 heroin-dependent (DSM-IV) participants aged 18 years and above who consented to participate in original study. Measurements Baseline data from original randomized study; dates and causes of death through data linkage with Births, Deaths and Marriages registries; and longitudinal treatment exposure via State health departments. Predictors of mortality examined through survival analysis. Findings There was an overall mortality rate of 8.84 deaths per 1000 person-years of follow-up and causes of death were comparable with the literature. Increased exposure to episodes of opioid treatment longer than 7 days reduced the risk of mortality; there was no differential mortality among methadone versus buprenorphine participants. More dependent, heavier users of heroin at baseline had a lower risk of death, and also higher exposure to opioid treatment. Older participants randomized to buprenorphine treatment had significantly improved survival. Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander participants had a higher risk of death. Conclusions Increased exposure to opioid maintenance treatment reduces the risk of death in opioid-dependent people. There was no differential reduction between buprenorphine and methadone. Previous studies suggesting differential effects may have been affected by biases in patient selection. [source]

    Concurrent validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and AUDIT zones in defining levels of severity among out-patients with alcohol dependence in the COMBINE study

    ADDICTION, Issue 12 2006
    Dennis M. Donovan
    ABSTRACT Aims To examine among alcohol-dependent out-patient clients the concurrent validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) total score and ,zones' suggested by the World Health Organization for defining levels of severity of alcohol use problems. Design Participants were classified into AUDIT zones (AUDIT total score = 8,15, 16,19, 20,40) and compared on measures of demographics, treatment goals, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related consequences, severity of dependence, physiological dependence, tolerance, withdrawal and biomarkers of alcohol use. Setting Eleven out-patient academic clinical research centers across the United States. Participants Alcohol dependent individuals (n = 1335) entering out-patient treatment in the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions (COMBINE) study. Measurements The AUDIT was administered as part of an initial screening. Baseline measures used for concurrent validation included the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition (DSM-IV) Disorders, the Alcohol Dependence Scale, the Drinker Inventory of Consequences, the Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale, the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment, the Thoughts about Abstinence Scale, the Form-90, %carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Findings Indicators of severity of dependence and alcohol-related problems increased linearly with total score and differed significantly across AUDIT zones. The highest zone, with scores of 20 and above, was markedly different with respect to severity from the other two zones and members of this group endorsed an abstinence goal more strongly. Conclusions The AUDIT total score is a brief measure that appears to provide an index of severity of dependence in a sample of alcohol-dependent individuals seeking out-patient treatment, extending its potential utility beyond its more traditional role as a screening instrument in general populations. [source]

    The development of a research agenda for substance use disorders diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-V)

    ADDICTION, Issue 2006
    John B. Saunders
    ABSTRACT Aims This paper describes the background to the establishment of the Substance Use Disorders Workgroup, which was charged with developing the research agenda for the development of the next edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). It summarizes 18 articles that were commissioned to inform that process. Methods A preliminary list of research topics, developed at the DSM-V Launch Conference in 2004, led to the identification of subjects that were subject to formal presentations and detailed discussion at the Substance Use Disorders Conference in February 2005. Results The 18 articles presented in this supplement examine: (1) categorical versus dimensional diagnoses; (2) the neurobiological basis of substance use disorders; (3) social and cultural perspectives; (4) the crosswalk between DSM-IV and the International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision (ICD-10); (5) comorbidity of substance use disorders and mental health disorders; (6) subtypes of disorders; (7) issues in adolescence; (8) substance-specific criteria; (9) the place of non-substance addictive disorders; and (10) the available research resources. Conclusions In the final paper a broadly based research agenda for the development of diagnostic concepts and criteria for substance use disorders is presented. [source]

    An Assessment of the Potential Value of Elevated Homocysteine in Predicting Alcohol-withdrawal Seizures

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 5 2006
    Stefan Bleich
    Summary:,Purpose: Higher homocysteine levels were found in actively drinking patients with alcohol dependence. Recent studies have shown that high homocysteine levels are associated with alcohol-withdrawal seizures. The aim of the present study was to calculate the best predictive cutoff value of plasma homocysteine levels in actively drinking alcoholics (n = 88) with first-onset alcohol-withdrawal seizures. Methods: The present study included 88 alcohol-dependent patients of whom 18 patients had a first-onset withdrawal seizure. All patients were active drinkers and had an established diagnosis of alcohol dependence, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by using every homocysteine plasma level found in the study population as cut-off value. A Bayes theorem was used to calculate positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values for all cutoff values used. Results: The highest combined sensitivity and specificity was reached at a homocysteine plasma cutoff value of 23.9 ,M. Positive predictive values ranged from 0.23 to 0.745; the maximum was reached at a homocysteine plasma level of 41.7 ,M. Negative predictive values ranged from 0.50 to 0.935, with a maximum at a homocysteine plasma level of 15.8,M. Conclusions: Homocysteine levels above this cutoff value on admission are a useful screening tool to identify actively drinking patients at higher risk of alcohol-withdrawal seizures. This pilot study gives further hints that biologic markers may be helpful to predict patients at risk for first-onset alcohol-withdrawal seizures. [source]

    Nefazodone in out-patient treatment of inhaled cocaine dependence: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2005
    Sonia Regina Lambert Passos
    ABSTRACT Aims To assess the efficacy of oral nefazodone in the treatment of cocaine dependence. Design A 10-week randomized double-blind clinical trial was performed. Methods All 210 subjects fulfilled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual version IV (DSM-IV) criteria for cocaine dependence and were assigned randomly to 300 mg/day of oral nefazodone (N) or placebo (P). Self-reported drug use, retention interval in treatment, adherence to prescription and depressive symptoms were assessed by the Hamilton scale. Findings Abstinence from cocaine for 3 weeks or more was achieved by 49.5% (N) and 45.7% (P) (P = 0.58), but 16.2% (N) and 22.9% (P) used other drugs during abstinence. The average interval to resumption of drug use was 33.9 days (N) and 36.1 days (P). Adverse effects were reported by 45.8% (N) and 29.5% (P) (P = 0.01). Treatment for these events was needed more often in N (24.0%) than in P (9.5%) (P < 0.02). Conclusions These results do not support the indication of nefazodone for out-patient treatment of inhaled cocaine dependence with or without other associated drug dependence diagnoses. [source]

    Teenage drinking and the onset of alcohol dependence: a cohort study over seven years

    ADDICTION, Issue 12 2004
    Yvonne A. Bonomo
    ABSTRACT Aim To determine whether adolescent alcohol use and/or other adolescent health risk behaviour predisposes to alcohol dependence in young adulthood. Design Seven-wave cohort study over 6 years. Participant A community sample of almost two thousand individuals followed from ages 14,15 to 20,21 years. Outcome measure Diagnostic and Statistical Manual volume IV (DSM-IV) alcohol dependence in participants aged 20,21 years and drinking three or more times a week. Findings Approximately 90% of participants consumed alcohol by age 20 years, 4.7% fulfilling DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria. Alcohol dependence in young adults was preceded by higher persisting teenage rates of frequent drinking [odds ratio (OR) 8.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.2, 16], binge drinking (OR 6.7, 95% CI 3.6, 12), alcohol-related injuries (OR 4.5 95% CI 1.9, 11), intense drinking (OR 4.8, 95% CI 2.6, 8.7), high dose tobacco use (OR 5.5, 95% CI 2.3, 13) and antisocial behaviour (OR 5.9, 95% CI 3.3, 11). After adjustment for other teenage predictors frequent drinking (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.2, 7.7) and antisocial behaviour (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2, 5.1) held persisting independent associations with later alcohol dependence. There were no prospective associations found with emotional disturbance in adolescence. Conclusion Teenage drinking patterns and other health risk behaviours in adolescence predicted alcohol dependence in adulthood. Prevention and early intervention initiatives to reduce longer-term alcohol-related harm therefore need to address the factors, including alcohol supply, that influence teenage consumption and in particular high-risk drinking patterns. [source]

    Depressive tendencies and lower levels of self-sacrifice in mothers, and selflessness in their anorexic daughters,

    Eytan Bachar
    Abstract (1) To compare levels of selflessness (the tendency to ignore one's own needs and serve others') and asceticism of parents and daughters, in anorexic and control families. (2) To investigate the relationship between parents' depression and daughters' selflessness. Twenty-eight anorexic daughters and their 28 mothers and 23 fathers were compared to 29 control daughters and their 29 mothers and 28 fathers, participants were administered the Beck Depression Inventory, the Selflessness Scale, the asceticism scale of the Eating Disorder Inventory and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Anorexics' mothers showed significantly lower levels of selflessness and asceticism compared to control mothers; anorexic daughters showed significantly higher levels of selflessness and asceticism compared to control daughters. Depressive tendencies in anorexics' mothers were associated positively and significantly with their daughters' selflessness. The results support the clinical literature that depicts the anorexic daughters' readiness to sacrifice themselves for the family's needs. Clinical implications are drawn. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Relating therapeutic process to outcome: are there predictors for the short-term course in anorexic patients?

    Almut Zeeck
    Abstract Objective The aim of the study was to explore if process aspects of the first 12 individual psychotherapy sessions of anorexic patients (6 weeks of treatment) are associated with a good or bad outcome at discharge. Method N,=,38 patients with anorexia nervosa (DSM-IV) were treated in a multimodal setting. Process measures were available from the perspectives of both patients and therapists for N,=,344 sessions. Results 79% of the successful patients (discharge BMI,>,17.5) and 68% of the failures could be correctly identified by process variables measured in the initial treatment phase. Patients' experience of negative emotions re therapy between sessions was associated with a bad outcome, whereas a frequent and intense process of ,recreating the therapeutic dialogue' was found to be associated with a good outcome. Early therapeutic interventions with a focus on symptoms and interpersonal relationships were related to a positive outcome, whereas a focus on self-concept was related to a bad outcome. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Eating disorders and general psychopathology: a comparison between young adult patients and normal controls with and without self-reported eating problems

    K. Ekeroth
    Abstract Aim To investigate general psychopathology among women with DSM-IV confirmed eating disorders (ED) and women from the general population with and without self-reported eating disorder problems. Method Ninety-six ED patients between 18 and 26 years (M,=,21.59, SD,=,2.01) were compared with 265 randomly chosen age-matched controls (M,=,20.99, SD,=,2.01) with the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90). Result ED patients scored significantly higher on all subscales compared with women without self-reported eating problems, and higher on several scales compared to women reporting previous eating problems. There were no differences between ED patients and controls with current eating problems. Women with self-reported eating disorder problems scored significantly higher than women without such problems on all scales except for ,phobic anxiety'. Discussion Increased psychopathology in both ED patients and women with self-reported eating problems suggests that general psychopathology is related to eating disturbances per se, and not only to being a psychiatric patient. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Cognitive and behavioural characteristics are associated with personality dimensions in patients with eating disorders

    M. Vervaet
    DSM-IV categorizes eating disorders according to behavioural and cognitive characteristics. Based on personality-related and biological research, hypotheses have been formulated to explain differences in the symptomatology between the various types of eating disorders. Therefore, the study of the association between personality-related characteristics and behavioural and cognitive characteristics may contribute to our understanding of the causes and course of eating disorders. This study aimed, first, at describing personality characteristics (using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory) in a group of eating disordered patients (n,=,272) according to the type of eating disorder. Three groups were compared: restricting anorexics (n,=,71), purging anorexics (n,=,84) and bulimics (n,=,118). Secondly, the association between personality characteristics and cognitive and behavioural aspects, using the Eating Disorders Inventory and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, was measured. In bulimics, positive correlations were found between novelty seeking on the one hand and external and emotional eating and bulimia on the other. Contrary to expectation, there was no significant correlation between novelty seeking and body dissatisfaction in bulimics. The significant difference between the restricting and purging type of anorexics regarding self-directedness, and restrained and emotional eating and drive for thinness corresponded with the significant negative correlation between these characteristics. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Probabilities of alcohol high-risk drinking, abuse or dependence estimated on grounds of tobacco smoking and nicotine dependence

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2003
    Ulrich John
    ABSTRACT Aims, To estimate probabilities of alcohol high-risk drinking, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence on grounds of smoking-behaviour related variables and single nicotine dependence criteria. Design, Cross-sectional population-based study. Setting, Adult population of a region in north Germany. Participants, Cigarette smokers (n = 2437) among a random sample of 4075 females and males aged 18,64, drawn in 1996. Measurement, Smoking, nicotine dependence according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Psychiatric Disorders (DSM-IV) and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND); increasing alcohol-related harm (ARH): high-risk drinking, DSM-IV alcohol abuse, remitted and current alcohol dependence diagnosed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Findings, Having smoked 30 cigarettes or more per day, onset of smoking at the age of 17 or younger, nicotine dependence and single nicotine dependence criteria revealed odds ratios higher than 4.0 for alcohol dependence. For alcohol dependence, a logistic regression model showed an increased odds ratios for male gender, smoking for 25 years or more, no attempt to quit or cut down, continuation of smoking despite problems, craving for nicotine, withdrawal experience 1 day or longer, smoking first cigarette in the morning 5 minutes or less after waking. The probability of increasing ARH was more likely in males, smokers for 25 years or more, no attempt to quit or cut down, continuation of smoking despite problems and smoking first cigarette in the morning 5 minutes or less after waking. Conclusions, Gender and single nicotine dependence criteria show particularly high probabilities of alcohol dependence and increasing ARH. Interventions need to take these connections into account. [source]

    Changes in mu opioid receptors and rheological properties of erythrocytes among opioid abusers

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2002
    The high prevalence of anemia among chronic opioid users leads us to propose that chronic opiate use results in elevated mu opioid receptor levels on human erythrocytes and that these receptor changes may affect erythrocyte membrane properties. Blood samples from 17 opioid-dependent subjects (based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition or DSM-IV) and 15 drug-free controls were assayed for mu opioid receptors on erythrocytes using a flow cytometry immunoassay. Deformability and the hydration status of erythrocytes were studied by ektacytometry. Data were analyzed by independent t-tests, tests of correlation, chi square and cluster analyses. As expected, the percentage of erythrocytes from opioiddependent subjects with opioid receptors (opioid receptor levels) was significantly higher (47.4 ± 38.3%) than controls (22.8 ± 30.1%) (t = 2.01, df = 30, p < 0.05). Also, the opioid-dependent patients showed a wide variation in the percentage of erythrocytes bearing opioid receptors and data analyses of these patients showed two strongly defined clusters. One subgroup consisted of nine individuals with very high receptor levels (mean = 81.5%) while the other had eight patients with low receptor levels (mean = 9.1%) that were not significantly different than the receptor levels of controls. Ektacytometry of opioid dependent patients with high opioid receptor levels showed changes in rheological parameters of erythrocytes, such as deformability index and cellular hydration. For example, a positive correlation was observed between opioid receptor levels and deformability indices among opioid-dependent patients (r = 0.74, p < 0.005). Our findings indicate that the mu opioid receptor is present on human erythrocytes, although with considerable variation in receptor levels, and that the levels of this receptor are significantly elevated with chronic opioid exposure. Moreover, erythrocytes with high opioid receptor levels from chronic opiate users seem to have high deformability. This study may offer clues to the biological properties of peripheral blood cells that may be mediated by mu opioid receptors and lead to a better understanding of some of the clinical effects of opioid use. [source]