DSM Diagnoses (dsm + diagnosis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Panic disorder: a review of DSM-IV panic disorder and proposals for DSM-V,

Michelle G. Craske Ph.D
Abstract This review covers the literature since the publication of DSM-IV on the diagnostic criteria for panic attacks (PAs) and panic disorder (PD). Specific recommendations are made based on the evidence available. In particular, slight changes are proposed for the wording of the diagnostic criteria for PAs to ease the differentiation between panic and surrounding anxiety; simplification and clarification of the operationalization of types of PAs (expected vs. unexpected) is proposed; and consideration is given to the value of PAs as a specifier for all DSM diagnoses and to the cultural validity of certain symptom profiles. In addition, slight changes are proposed for the wording of the diagnostic criteria to increase clarity and parsimony of the criteria. Finally, based on the available evidence, no changes are proposed with regard to the developmental expression of PAs or PD. This review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Drinks of the Father: Father's Maximum Number of Drinks Consumed Predicts Externalizing Disorders, Substance Use, and Substance Use Disorders in Preadolescent and Adolescent Offspring

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 12 2002
Stephen M. Malone
Background The maximum number of drinks consumed in 24 hr seems to be an interesting phenotype related to alcoholism. The goal of the present study was to determine in an epidemiologic sample whether this measure of drinking history in fathers predicted externalizing behavioral disorders, substance use, and substance abuse in preadolescent and adolescent offspring and whether any such associations would be independent of paternal alcohol dependence diagnoses. Methods Subjects were male and female twins from both age cohorts of the Minnesota Twin Family Study, a population-based longitudinal study, and were approximately 11 or 17 years of age, respectively, upon study enrollment. In both age cohorts, diagnoses of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder served as outcome measures. In addition, measures of lifetime substance use and of the presence of symptoms of substance abuse were derived for the 11-year-old cohort when subjects were approximately 14 years old and diagnoses of substance abuse were derived for the older cohort at age 17. An extension of logistic regression using generalized estimating equations served to assess whether paternal maximum alcohol consumption predicted filial outcome measures. Results Paternal maximum alcohol consumption was consistently associated with conduct disorder, substance use, and substance abuse or dependence in male and female offspring. These associations were not mediated by a primary effect of paternal alcoholism. Conclusions Paternal maximum alcohol consumption was uniquely associated with those offspring characteristics most reliably found in adolescent children of alcoholic parents. This phenotype might supplement DSM diagnoses of alcohol dependence to reduce the number of false positives in genetic research. [source]

The neurotic versus delusional subtype of taijin-kyofu-sho: Their DSM diagnoses

Abstract The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the diagnostic concepts of taijin-kyofu-sho (TKS) and social phobia, by comparing the clinical diagnosis of TKS and the operational diagnosis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd edition, revised; DSM-III-R). Three evaluators conducted semistructured interview for DSM-III-R (SCID axis I and II, the Japanese version) to 88 outpatients who visited Jikei University Daisan Hospital, Japan, over a period of 1 year, requesting Morita therapy. The patients were also independently diagnosed by three psychiatrists to identify TKS. A total of 65.8% of 38 cases of TKS were diagnosed as social phobia. Among the neurotic TKS cases, the percentage was high at 81.5%, while among the delusional TKS cases it was 27.3%. A total of 42.1% of the TKS cases were diagnosed as mood disorder; 60.5% of the TKS cases presented some axis II disorders, among which avoidant personality disorder was the most prevalent (31.6%). There was no significant difference between the neurotic and delusional subtypes of TKS, regarding comorbidity with axis I diagnoses. As for axis II diagnoses, delusional TKS patients had a higher rate of comorbidity with paranoid personality disorder, although they demonstrated very similar trends in comorbidity with all other personality disorders. In the diagnostic system of DSM-III-R, it is highly likely that the neurotic and delusional subtypes of TKS will be seen to correspond to different diagnostic categories. [source]

Why do primary care doctors diagnose depression when diagnostic criteria are not met?

Michael Höfler
Abstract This study examines predictors of false positive depression diagnoses by primary care doctors in a sample of primary care attendees, taking the patients' diagnostic status from a self-report measure (Depression Screening Questionnaire, DSQ) as a yardstick against which to measure doctors' correct and false positive recognition rates. In a nationwide study, primary care patients aged 15,99 in 633 doctors' offices completed a self-report packet that included the DSQ, a questionnaire that assesses depression symptoms on a three-point scale to provide diagnoses of depression according to the criteria of DSM-IV and ICD-10. Doctors completed an evaluation form for each patient seen, reporting the patient's depression status, clinical severity, and treatment choices. Predictor analyses are based on 16,909 patient-doctor records. Covariates examined included depression symptoms, the total DSQ score, number and persistence of depression items endorsed, patient's prior treatment, history of depression, age and gender. According to the DSQ, 11.3% of patients received a diagnosis of ICD-10 depression, 58.9% of which were correctly identified by the doctor as definite threshold, and 26.2% as definite subthreshold cases. However, an additional 11.7% of patients not meeting the minimum DSQ threshold were rated by their doctors as definitely having depression (the false positive rate). Specific DSQ depression items endorsed, a higher DSQ total score, more two-week depression symptoms endorsed, female gender, higher age, and patient's prior treatment were all associated with an elevated rate of false positive diagnoses. The probability of false positive diagnoses was shown to be affected more by doctors ignoring the ,duration of symptoms' criterion than by doctors not following the ,number of symptoms' criterion for an ICD or DSM diagnosis of depression. A model selection procedure revealed that it is sufficient to regress the ,false positive diagnoses' on the DSQ-total score, symptoms of depressed mood, loss of interest, and suicidal ideation; higher age; and patient's prior treatment. Further, the total DSQ score was less important in prediction if there was a prior treatment. The predictive value of this model was quite good, with area under the ROC-curve = 0.86. When primary care doctors use depression screening instruments they are oversensitive to the diagnosis of depression. This is due to not strictly obeying the two weeks duration required by the diagnostic criteria of ICD-10 and DSM-IV. False positive rates are further increased in particular by the doctor's knowledge of a patient's prior treatment history as well as the presence of a few specific depression symptoms. Copyright © 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]