Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by DSM

  • dsm criterioN
  • dsm diagnosis
  • dsm iv

  • Selected Abstracts

    JaMP: an implementation of OpenMP for a Java DSM

    Michael Klemm
    Abstract Although OpenMP is a widely agreed-upon standard for the C/C++ and Fortran programming languages for the semi-automatic parallelization of programs for shared memory machines, not much has been done on the binding of OpenMP to Java that targets clusters with distributed memory. This paper presents three major contributions: (1) JaMP is an adaptation of the OpenMP standard to Java that implements a large subset of the OpenMP specification with an expressiveness comparable to that of OpenMP; (2) we suggest a set of extensions that allow a better integration of OpenMP into the Java language; (3) we present our prototype implementation of JaMP in the research compiler Jackal, a software-based distributed shared memory implementation for Java. We evaluate the performance of JaMP with a set of micro-benchmarks and with OpenMP versions of the parallel Java Grande Forum (JGF) benchmarks. The micro-benchmarks show that OpenMP for Java can be implemented without much overhead. The JGF benchmarks achieve a good speed-up of 5,8 on eight nodes. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    GAUGE: Grid Automation and Generative Environment,

    Francisco Hernández
    Abstract The Grid has proven to be a successful paradigm for distributed computing. However, constructing applications that exploit all the benefits that the Grid offers is still not optimal for both inexperienced and experienced users. Recent approaches to solving this problem employ a high-level abstract layer to ease the construction of applications for different Grid environments. These approaches help facilitate construction of Grid applications, but they are still tied to specific programming languages or platforms. A new approach is presented in this paper that uses concepts of domain-specific modeling (DSM) to build a high-level abstract layer. With this DSM-based abstract layer, the users are able to create Grid applications without knowledge of specific programming languages or being bound to specific Grid platforms. An additional benefit of DSM provides the capability to generate software artifacts for various Grid environments. This paper presents the Grid Automation and Generative Environment (GAUGE). The goal of GAUGE is to automate the generation of Grid applications to allow inexperienced users to exploit the Grid fully. At the same time, GAUGE provides an open framework in which experienced users can build upon and extend to tailor their applications to particular Grid environments or specific platforms. GAUGE employs domain-specific modeling techniques to accomplish this challenging task. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    OpenMP-oriented applications for distributed shared memory architectures

    Ami Marowka
    Abstract The rapid rise of OpenMP as the preferred parallel programming paradigm for small-to-medium scale parallelism could slow unless OpenMP can show capabilities for becoming the model-of-choice for large scale high-performance parallel computing in the coming decade. The main stumbling block for the adaptation of OpenMP to distributed shared memory (DSM) machines, which are based on architectures like cc-NUMA, stems from the lack of capabilities for data placement among processors and threads for achieving data locality. The absence of such a mechanism causes remote memory accesses and inefficient cache memory use, both of which lead to poor performance. This paper presents a simple software programming approach called copy-inside,copy-back (CC) that exploits the data privatization mechanism of OpenMP for data placement and replacement. This technique enables one to distribute data manually without taking away control and flexibility from the programmer and is thus an alternative to the automat and implicit approaches. Moreover, the CC approach improves on the OpenMP-SPMD style of programming that makes the development process of an OpenMP application more structured and simpler. The CC technique was tested and analyzed using the NAS Parallel Benchmarks on SGI Origin 2000 multiprocessor machines. This study shows that OpenMP improves performance of coarse-grained parallelism, although a fast copy mechanism is essential. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A flexible framework for consistency management

    S. Weber
    Abstract Recent distributed shared memory (DSM) systems provide increasingly more support for the sharing of objects rather than portions of memory. However, like earlier DSM systems these distributed shared object systems (DSO) still force developers to use a single protocol, or a small set of given protocols, for the sharing of application objects. This limitation prevents the applications from optimizing their communication behaviour and results in unnecessary overhead. A current general trend in software systems development is towards customizable systems, for example frameworks, reflection, and aspect-oriented programming all aim to give the developer greater flexibility and control over the functionality and performance of their code. This paper describes a novel object-oriented framework that defines a DSM system in terms of a consistency model and an underlying coherency protocol. Different consistency models and coherency protocols can be used within a single application because they can be customized, by the application programmer, on a per-object basis. This allows application specific semantics to be exploited at a very fine level of granularity and with a resulting improvement in performance. The framework is implemented in JAVA and the speed-up obtained by a number of applications that use the framework is reported. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Should an obsessive,compulsive spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V?,

    Katharine A. Phillips M.D.
    Abstract The obsessive,compulsive (OC) spectrum has been discussed in the literature for two decades. Proponents of this concept propose that certain disorders characterized by repetitive thoughts and/or behaviors are related to obsessive,compulsive disorder (OCD), and suggest that such disorders be grouped together in the same category (i.e. grouping, or "chapter") in DSM. This article addresses this topic and presents options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. The article builds upon and extends prior reviews of this topic that were prepared for and discussed at a DSM-V Research Planning Conference on Obsessive,Compulsive Spectrum Disorders held in 2006. Our preliminary recommendation is that an OC-spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V. Furthermore, we preliminarily recommend that consideration be given to including this group of disorders within a larger supraordinate category of "Anxiety and Obsessive,Compulsive Spectrum Disorders." These preliminary recommendations must be evaluated in light of recommendations for, and constraints upon, the overall structure of DSM-V. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Agoraphobia: a review of the diagnostic classificatory position and criteria,,

    Hans-Ulrich Wittchen Ph.D.
    Abstract The status of agoraphobia (AG) as an independent diagnostic category is reviewed and preliminary options and recommendations for the fifth edition of The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) are presented. The review concentrates on epidemiology, psychopathology, neurobiology, vulnerability and risk factors, clinical course and outcome, and correlates and consequences of AG since 1990. Differences and similarities across conventions and criteria of DSM and ICD-10 are considered. Three core questions are addressed. First, what is the evidence for AG as a diagnosis independent of panic disorder? Second, should AG be conceptualized as a subordinate form of panic disorder (PD) as currently stipulated in DSM-IV-TR? Third, is there evidence for modifying or changing the current diagnostic criteria? We come to the conclusion that AG should be conceptualized as an independent disorder with more specific criteria rather than a subordinate, residual form of PD as currently stipulated in DSM-IV-TR. Among other issues, this conclusion was based on psychometric evaluations of the construct, epidemiological investigations which show that AG can exist independently of panic disorder, and the impact of agoraphobic avoidance upon clinical course and outcome. However, evidence from basic and clinic validation studies remains incomplete and partly contradictory. The apparent advantages of a more straightforward, simpler classification without implicit hierarchies and insufficiently supported differential diagnostic considerations, plus the option for improved further research, led to favoring the separate diagnostic criteria for AG as a diagnosis independent of panic disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Genetics of anxiety disorders: the complex road from DSM to DNA,

    Jordan W. Smoller M.D. Sc.D.
    Abstract Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric disorders, affecting one in four individuals over a lifetime. Although our understanding of the etiology of these disorders is incomplete, familial and genetic factors are established risk factors. However, identifying the specific casual genes has been difficult. Within the past several years, advances in molecular and statistical genetic methods have made the genetic dissection of complex disorders a feasible project. Here we provide an overview of these developments, with a focus on their implications for genetic studies of anxiety disorders. Although the genetic and phenotypic complexity of the anxiety disorders present formidable challenges, advances in neuroimaging and experimental animal models of anxiety and fear offer important opportunities for discovery. Real progress in identifying the genetic basis of anxiety disorders will require integrative approaches that make use of these biologic tools as well as larger-scale genomic studies. If successful, such efforts may yield novel and more effective approaches for the prevention and treatment of these common and costly disorders. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Electroconvulsive therapy is equally effective in unipolar and bipolar depression

    S. Bailine
    Bailine S, Fink M, Knapp R, Petrides G, Husain MM, Rasmussen K, Sampson S, Mueller M, McClintock SM, Tobias KG, Kellner CH. Electroconvulsive therapy is equally effective in unipolar and bipolar depression. Objective:, To determine the relative efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the treatment of bipolar (BP) and unipolar (UP) depressive illness and clarify its role in BP depression. Method:, Patients referred for ECT with both UP and BP depressions. [classified by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID-I) criteria for history of mania] were included in a multi-site collaborative, double-masked, randomized controlled trial of three electrode placements , right unilateral, bifrontal or bitemporal , in a permutated block randomization scheme. Results:, Of 220 patients, 170 patients (77.3%) were classified as UP and 50 (22.7%) as BP depression in the intent-to-treat sample. The remission and response rates and numbers of ECT for both groups were equivalent. Conclusion:, Both UP and BP depressions remit with ECT. Polarity is not a factor in the response rate. In this sample ECT did not precipitate mania in depressed patients. Treatment algorithms for UP and BP depression warrant re-evaluation. [source]

    ,Salience syndrome' replaces ,schizophrenia' in DSM-V and ICD-11: psychiatry's evidence-based entry into the 21st century?

    J. Van Os
    Objective:, Japan was the first country to abandon the 19th century term of ,mind-splitting disease' (schizophrenia). Revisions of DSM and ICD are forthcoming. Should the rest of the world follow Japan's example? Method:, A comprehensive literature search was carried out in order to review the scientific evidence for the validity, usefulness and acceptability of current concepts of psychotic disorder. Results:, The discussion about re-classifying and renaming schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders is clouded by conceptual confusion. First, it is often misunderstood as a misguided attempt to change societal stigma instead of an attempt to change iatrogenic stigma occasioned by the use of misleading and mystifying terminology. Second, the debate is misunderstood as purely semantic, whereas in actual fact it is about the core concepts underlying psychiatric nosology. Third, it has been suggested that the debate is political. However, solid scientific evidence pointing to the absence of nosological validity of diagnostic categories lies at the heart of the argument. Fourth, there is confusion about what constitutes a syndrome (a group of symptom dimensions that cluster in different combinations in different people and for which one or more underlying diseases may or may not be found) and a disease (a nosologically valid entity with specific causes, symptoms, treatment and course). Conclusion:, Scientific evidence favours a syndromal system of classification combining categorical and dimensional representations of psychosis. The concept of ,salience' has the potential to make the public recognize psychosis as relating to an aspect of human mentation and experience that is universal. It is proposed to introduce, analogous to the functional-descriptive term ,Metabolic syndrome', the diagnosis of ,Salience syndrome' to replace all current diagnostic categories of psychotic disorders. Within Salience syndrome, three subcategories may be identified, based on scientific evidence of relatively valid and specific contrasts, named Salience syndrome with affective expression, Salience syndrome with developmental expression and Salience syndrome not otherwise specified. [source]

    Prevalence of alcohol use disorders in schizophrenia , a systematic review and meta-analysis

    J. Koskinen
    Objective:, Our aim was to present recent studies of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in patients with schizophrenia, estimate overall prevalence and characteristics affecting the prevalence of AUDs. Method:, We conducted a search using three literature databases and a manual search on articles published in 1996,2008. Meta-regression was used to study how prevalence is affected by different study characteristics. Articles that reported diagnoses according to DSM or ICD diagnostic systems were included. Results:, Altogether 60 studies met our criteria. The median of current AUD prevalence was 9.4% (inter-quartile range, IQR 4.6,19.0, 18 studies) and median of lifetime AUD prevalence 20.6% (IQR 12.0,34.5, 47 studies). In studies using DSM-III-R median prevalence was higher than that in studies using DSM-IV, ICD-9 or ICD-10 (32/17/11/6%). Conclusion:, Approximately every fifth patient with schizophrenia had lifetime AUD diagnosis. When contrasted with the most recent review, there might be a descending trend in AUD prevalence in patients with schizophrenia. [source]

    Economic evaluation of demand-side energy storage systems by using a multi-agent-based electricity market

    Ken Furusawa
    Abstract With the wholesale electric power market opened in April 2005, deregulation of the electric power industry in Japan has faced a new competitive environment. In the new environment, Independent Power Producer (IPP), Power Producer and Supplier (PPS), Load Service Entity (LSE), and electric utility can trade electric energy through both bilateral contracts and single-price auction at the electricity market. In general, the market clearing price (MCP) is largely changed by the amount of total load demand in the market. The influence may cause a price spike, and consequently the volatility of MCP will make LSEs and their customers face a risk of higher revenue and cost. DSM is attractive as a means of load leveling, and has an effect on decreasing MCP at peak load period. Introducing Energy Storage systems (ES) is one DSM in order to change demand profile at the customer side. In the case that customers decrease their own demand due to increased MCP, a bidding strategy of generating companies may be changed. As a result, MCP is changed through such complex mechanism. In this paper the authors evaluate MCP by multi-agent. It is considered that customer-side ES has an effect on MCP fluctuation. Through numerical examples, this paper evaluates the influence on MCP by controlling customer-side ES corresponding to variation of MCP. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 167(3): 36,45, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20658 [source]

    Test,re-test reliability of DSM-IV adopted criteria for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) abuse and dependence: a cross-national study

    ADDICTION, Issue 10 2009
    Linda B. Cottler
    ABSTRACT Aims This study evaluated the prevalence and reliability of DSM-IV adopted criteria for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) abuse and dependence with a purpose to determine whether it is best conceptualized within the category of hallucinogens, amphetamines or its own category. Design Test,re-test study. Participants MDMA users (life-time use >5 times) were recruited in St Louis, Miami and Sydney (n = 593). The median life-time MDMA consumption was 50 pills at the baseline. Measurements The computerized Substance Abuse Module for Club Drug (CD-SAM) was used to assess MDMA abuse and dependence. The Discrepancy Interview Protocol (DIP) was used to determine the reasons for the discrepant responses between the two interviews. Reliability of diagnoses, individual diagnostic criteria and withdrawal symptoms was examined using the kappa coefficient (,). Findings For baseline data, 15% and 59% met MDMA abuse and dependence, respectively. Substantial test,re-test reliability of the diagnoses was observed consistently across cities (, = 0.69). ,Continued use despite knowledge of physical/psychological problems' (87%) and ,withdrawal' (68%) were the two most prevalent dependence criteria. ,Physically hazardous use' was the most prevalent abuse criterion. Six dependence criteria and all abuse criteria were reported reliably across cities (,: 0.53,0.77). Seventeen of 19 withdrawal symptoms showed consistency in the reliability across cities. The most commonly reported reason for discrepant responses was ,interpretation of question changed'. Only a small proportion of the total discrepancies were attributed to lying or social desirability. Conclusion The adopted DSM-IV diagnostic classification for MDMA abuse and dependence was moderately reliable across cities. Findings on MDMA withdrawal support the argument that MDMA should be separated from other hallucinogens in DSM. [source]

    Identification of genes involved in the biosynthesis of the cytotoxic compound glidobactin from a soil bacterium

    Barbara Schellenberg
    Summary Glidobactins (syn. cepafungins) are a family of structurally related cytotoxic compounds that were isolated from the soil bacterial strain K481-B101 (ATCC 53080; DSM 7029) originally assigned to Polyangium brachysporum and, independently, from an undefined species related to Burkholderia cepacia. Glidobactins are acylated tripeptide derivatives that contain a 12-membered ring structure consisting of the two unique non-proteinogenic amino acids erythro -4-hydroxy- l -lysine and 4(S)-amino-2(E)-pentenoic acid. Here we report the cloning and functional analysis of a gene cluster (glbA,glbH) involved in glidobactin synthesis from K481-B101, which according to its 16S rRNA sequence belongs to the Burkholderiales. The putative encoded proteins include a mixed non-ribosomal peptide/polyketide synthetase whose structure and architecture allowed to build a biosynthetic pathway model explaining the biosynthesis of the unique peptide part of glidobactins. Intriguingly, among the more than 600 bacterial strains whose genome sequence is currently available, homologous gene clusters were found in Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causing agent of melioidosis, and in the insect pathogen Photorhabdus luminescens, strongly suggesting that these organisms are capable to synthesize compounds similar to glidobactins. In addition, a glb gene cluster that was inactivated by transposon-mediated rearrangements was also present in Burkholderia mallei, a very close relative of B. pseudomallei and the causing agent of glanders in horse-like animals. [source]

    Cannabis withdrawal predicts severity of cannabis involvement at 1-year follow-up among treated adolescents

    ADDICTION, Issue 5 2008
    Tammy Chung
    ABSTRACT Aims Controversy exists regarding the inclusion of cannabis withdrawal as an indicator of dependence in the next revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD). This study contrasted the concurrent and predictive validity of three operational definitions of cannabis withdrawal in a sample of treated adolescents. Design Prospective study of treated adolescents with 1-year follow-up. Setting and participants Adolescents (n = 214) were recruited from intensive out-patient treatment programs for substance abuse, and followed at 1 year (92% retention). Youth who were included in the analyses reported regular cannabis use. Measurements The number of DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms at baseline and 1-year follow-up, past year frequency of cannabis use at baseline and follow-up, and periods of abstinence at 1-year follow-up. Cannabis withdrawal was defined based on (i) the presence of two or more cannabis withdrawal symptoms; (ii) a definition proposed by Budney and colleagues (2006) that requires four or more withdrawal symptoms (four-symptom definition); and (iii) the use of latent class analysis to identify subgroups with similar cannabis withdrawal symptom profiles. Findings and conclusions All three definitions of cannabis withdrawal demonstrated some concurrent validity. Only the four-symptom and latent class-derived definitions of withdrawal predicted severity of cannabis-related problems at 1-year follow-up. No cannabis withdrawal definition predicted frequency of use at follow-up. Further research is needed to determine the clinical utility and validity of the four-symptom definition, as well as alternative definitions of cannabis withdrawal, to inform revisions leading to DSM-V and ICD-11. [source]

    The development of a research agenda for substance use disorders diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-V)

    ADDICTION, Issue 2006
    John B. Saunders
    ABSTRACT Aims This paper describes the background to the establishment of the Substance Use Disorders Workgroup, which was charged with developing the research agenda for the development of the next edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). It summarizes 18 articles that were commissioned to inform that process. Methods A preliminary list of research topics, developed at the DSM-V Launch Conference in 2004, led to the identification of subjects that were subject to formal presentations and detailed discussion at the Substance Use Disorders Conference in February 2005. Results The 18 articles presented in this supplement examine: (1) categorical versus dimensional diagnoses; (2) the neurobiological basis of substance use disorders; (3) social and cultural perspectives; (4) the crosswalk between DSM-IV and the International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision (ICD-10); (5) comorbidity of substance use disorders and mental health disorders; (6) subtypes of disorders; (7) issues in adolescence; (8) substance-specific criteria; (9) the place of non-substance addictive disorders; and (10) the available research resources. Conclusions In the final paper a broadly based research agenda for the development of diagnostic concepts and criteria for substance use disorders is presented. [source]

    Drinking patterns in mid-adolescence and psychosocial outcomes in late adolescence and early adulthood

    ADDICTION, Issue 12 2004
    J. Elisabeth Wells
    ABSTRACT Aims To describe the pattern of drinking at age 16 and to relate this to outcomes at 16,21 years and 21,25 years across a number of psychosocial domains. Design A prospective birth cohort study with annual follow-up until age 16 then at 18, 21 and 25 years. Setting Christchurch, New Zealand. Participants Of 1265 subjects, 953 were interviewed at age 16. Measurements Multiple measures of family background were collected from birth to 16 years. Alcohol consumption was measured in terms of frequency, usual or last quantity drunk and most drunk per occasion. Problems were also recorded. Questions about psychiatric symptoms enabled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) criteria to be applied. Detailed reports on educational outcomes, employment, sexual behaviours and offending were collected. Findings Four latent classes were required to describe drinking at age 16, but these appeared to lie along a single dimension which strongly predicted outcomes at ages 16,21 and 21,25 across all domains (alcohol-related, substance dependence, mental health, education, sexual relationships and offending). After controlling for background and correlates only a small number of outcomes were still related consistently to drinking at age 16 over both periods: most alcohol-related outcomes, the number of sexual partners and the extent of violent offending. Conclusions Drinking at age 16 is a clear indicator of future life-course over most domains in late adolescence and early adulthood. Many of these associations are due to other covariates. Outcomes specific to drinking at age 16 are alcohol outcomes, number of sexual partners and violence. [source]

    Biocatalytic Racemization of (Hetero)Aryl-aliphatic ,-Hydroxycarboxylic Acids by Lactobacillus spp.

    Proceeds via an Oxidation, Reduction Sequence
    Abstract The biocatalytic racemization of a range of (hetero)aryl- and (di)aryl-aliphatic ,-hydroxycarboxylic acids has been achieved by using whole resting cells of Lactobacillus spp. The essentially mild (physiological) reaction conditions ensure the suppression of undesired side reactions, such as elimination, decomposition or condensation. Cofactor/inhibitor studies using a cell-free extract of Lactobacillus paracasei DSM 20207 reveal that the addition of redox cofactors (NAD+/NADH) leads to a distinct increase in the racemization rate, while strong inhibition is observed in the presence of Thio-NAD+, which suggests that the racemization proceeds by an oxidation,reduction sequence rather than involvement of a "racemase" enzyme. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]

    A step toward DSM-V: cataloguing personality-related problems in living,

    Robert R. McCrae
    Intractable problems with DSM-IV's Axis II mandate an entirely new approach to the diagnosis of personality-related pathology. The Five-Factor Model of personality provides a scientifically grounded basis for personality assessment, and Five-Factor Theory postulates that personality pathology is to be found in characteristic maladaptations that are shaped by both traits and environment. A four-step process of personality disorder (PD) diagnosis is proposed, in which clinicians assess personality, problems in living, clinical severity, and, optionally, PD patterns. We examine item content in five problem checklists to update the list of personality-related problems used in Step 2 of the four-step process. Problems were reliably assigned to relevant factors and facets, and a number of additions were made to an earlier catalogue. The four-step process can be used by clinicians, and may be incorporated in a future DSM. This article is a U.S. government publication and is in the public domain in the United States. [source]

    Copper-containing nitrite reductase from Pseudomonas chlororaphis DSM 50135

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 12 2004
    Evidence for modulation of the rate of intramolecular electron transfer through nitrite binding to the type 2 copper center
    The nitrite reductase (Nir) isolated from Pseudomonas chlororaphis DSM 50135 is a blue enzyme, with type 1 and type 2 copper centers, as in all copper-containing Nirs described so far. For the first time, a direct determination of the reduction potentials of both copper centers in a Cu-Nir was performed: type 2 copper (T2Cu), 172 mV and type 1 copper (T1Cu), 298 mV at pH 7.6. Although the obtained values seem to be inconsistent with the established electron-transfer mechanism, EPR data indicate that the binding of nitrite to the T2Cu center increases its potential, favoring the electron-transfer process. Analysis of the EPR spectrum of the turnover form of the enzyme also suggests that the electron-transfer process between T1Cu and T2Cu is the fastest of the three redox processes involved in the catalysis: (a) reduction of T1Cu; (b) oxidation of T1Cu by T2Cu; and (c) reoxidation of T2Cu by NO2,. Electrochemical experiments show that azurin from the same organism can donate electrons to this enzyme. [source]

    Structural determination of the O-chain polysaccharide from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, strain DSM 30205

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 12 2002
    Cristina De Castro
    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a Gram-negative, phytopathogenic bacterium and is characterized by an unique mode of action on dicotyledonous plants: it is able to genetically modify the host, and because of this feature, it is used as a tool for transgenic plants. Many experiments have demonstrated that lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) play an important role for the disease development, as they are involved in the adhesion process of the bacterium on the plant cell wall. Despite the wealth of information on the role of LPS on phytopathogenesis, the present paper appears as the first report on the molecular primary structure of the O-chain produced from Agrobacterium. Its repeating unit was determined by means of chemical and spectroscopical analysis, and has the following structure: (3)-,- d -Araf -(1,3)-,- l -Fucp -(1,. [source]

    Dominance of a clonal green sulfur bacterial population in a stratified lake

    Lea H. Gregersen
    Abstract For many years, the chemocline of the meromictic Lake Cadagno, Switzerland, was dominated by purple sulfur bacteria. However, following a major community shift in recent years, green sulfur bacteria (GSB) have come to dominate. We investigated this community by performing microbial diversity surveys using FISH cell counting and population multilocus sequence typing [clone library sequence analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA locus and two loci involved in photosynthesis in GSB: fmoA and csmCA]. All bacterial populations clearly stratified according to water column chemistry. The GSB population peaked in the chemocline (c. 8 × 106 GSB cells mL,1) and constituted about 50% of all cells in the anoxic zones of the water column. At least 99.5% of these GSB cells had SSU rRNA, fmoA, and csmCA sequences essentially identical to that of the previously isolated and genome-sequenced GSB Chlorobium clathratiforme strain BU-1 (DSM 5477). This ribotype was not detected in Lake Cadagno before the bloom of GSB. These observations suggest that the C. clathratiforme population that has stabilized in Lake Cadagno is clonal. We speculate that such a clonal bloom could be caused by environmental disturbance, mutational adaptation, or invasion. [source]

    Nuclear factor-kappaB as a molecular target for migraine therapy.

    HEADACHE, Issue 4 2003
    U Reuter
    Ann Neurol. 2002;51:507-516. Nitric oxide (NO) generated from inducible NO synthase (iNOS) participates in immune and inflammatory responses in many tissues. The NO donor glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) provokes delayed migraine attacks when infused into migraineurs and also causes iNOS expression and delayed inflammation within rodent dura mater. Sodium nitroprusside, an NO donor as well, also increases iNOS expression. Because inflammation and iNOS are potential therapeutic targets, we examined transcriptional regulation of iNOS following GTN infusion and the consequences of its inhibition within dura mater. We show that intravenous GTN increases NO production within macrophages. L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine, a selective iNOS inhibitor, attenuates the NO signal, emphasizing the importance of enzymatic activity to delayed NO production. iNOS expression is preceded by significant nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activity, as reflected by a reduction in the inhibitory protein-kappa-Balpha (IkappaBalpha) and activation of NF-kappaB after GTN infusion. IkappaBalpha degradation, NF-kappaB activation, and iNOS expression were attenuated by parthenolide (3mg/kg), the active constituent of feverfew, an anti-inflammatory drug used for migraine treatment. These findings suggest that GTN promotes NF-kappaB activity and inflammation with a time course consistent with migraine attacks in susceptible individuals. We conclude, based on results with this animal model, that blockade of NF-kappaB activity provides a novel transcriptional target for the development of anti-migraine drugs. Comment: This paper suggesting the localization of NO production in dural macrophages as part of delayed inflammation may indicate proliferation and or recruitment of these cells in migraine. Could this also be a target for drug treatment? Specifically, is the genetic transcription that leads to nitric oxide generation such a target? To amend slightly the old advertising slogan, "when Michael Moskowitz talks, we all listen." DSM and SJT [source]

    Sumatriptan challenge in bipolar patients with and without migraine: a neuroendocrine study of 5-HT1D receptor function.

    HEADACHE, Issue 3 2003
    T Mahmood
    Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2002 Jan;17(1):33-36 An association between bipolar disorder and migraine has been lately recognized and an abnormality of central serotonergic function is suggested as the underlying neurophysiological disturbance. To examine the role of serotonin in bipolar disorder and migraine, we used the neuroendocrine challenge paradigm, and we chose sumatriptan, a 5HT1D agonist, as the pharmacological probe. We studied nine bipolar patients with migraine, nine bipolar patients without it, seven migraine patients, and nine matched normal controls. A post-hoc analysis showed subsensitivity of serotonergic function, reflected in a blunted growth hormone response to sumatriptan challenge in bipolar patients who also suffered from migraine. Comment: Given regulatory and labelling concerns about the potential for triptans to provoke serotonin syndrome, the apparent down-regulation of serotonergic function in patients with bipolar disorder may suggest cause for cautious optimism and encourage future study of triptans in these patients to establish true causality or otherwise. A prospective trial of sumatriptan injectable identified 1700 patients who repetitively used the triptan and were concomitantly on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication. No serotonin syndrome was reported in any patient (Putnam GP, O'Quinn S, Bolden-Watson CP, Davis RL, Gutterman DL, Fox AW. Migraine polypharmacy and the tolerability of sumatriptan: a large-scale, prospective study. Cephalalgia. 1999;19:668-675). Since SSRIs can rarely induce serotonin syndrome alone, there is a significant difficulty in establishing a risk of coadministration. DSM and SJT [source]

    Cost savings in migraine associated with less chest pain on new triptan therapy.

    HEADACHE, Issue 3 2003
    JT Wang
    Am J Manag Care. 2002 Feb;8(3 Suppl):S102-S107 Objectives: This article constructs an economic model to estimate cost of chest-pain-related care in migraine patients receiving almotriptan 12.5 mg compared with those receiving sumatriptan 50 mg. Study Design: This population-based, retrospective cohort study used data from the MEDSTAT Marketscan database (Ann Arbor, Michigan) to quantify incidence and costs of chest-pain-related diagnoses and procedures. After a 6-month exclusion period, the study used a pre-post design, with baseline and treatment periods defined, respectively, as 5 months before and after receiving sumatriptan therapy. An economic model was constructed to estimate annual cost savings per 1,000 patients receiving almotriptan instead of sumatriptan as a function of differing rates of chest pain. Annual direct medical cost avoided was calculated for a hypothetical health plan covering 1 million lives. Results: Among a cohort of 1,390 patients, the incidence of chest-pain-related diagnoses increased significantly (43.6%) with sumatriptan, from 110 during the baseline period to 158 during the treatment period (P = .003). Aggregate costs for chest-pain-related diagnoses and procedures increased 33.1%, from $22,713 to $30,234. Payments for inpatient hospital services rose 10-fold; costs for primary care visits and outpatient hospital visits rose 53.1% and 14.4%, respectively. Payments for angiography increased from $0 to $462, and costs for chest radiographs and electrocardiograms increased 58.7% and 31.2%, respectively. Sumatriptan treatment was associated with a 3-fold increase in payments for services for painful respiration and other chest pain. The model predicted $11,215 in direct medical cost savings annually per 1000 patients treated with almotriptan instead of sumatriptan. Annual direct medical costs avoided for the health plan totaled $195,913. Conclusion: Using almotriptan instead of sumatriptan will likely reduce the cost of chest-pain-related care for patients with migraine headaches. Comment: In my view, this study takes conjecture a step too far. The lower reported chest adverse events (AEs) reported in clinical trials where all AEs are scrutinized will not necessarily lead to lower reporting in the clinic. This hypothesis remains to be proven in a well-designed post-marketing surveillance program, untarnished by commercial sponsorship. Until such an independent prospective study is carried out, the extrapolations described here and in similar papers are pure conjecture and should be classed as the lowest grade of evidence on a par with uncorroborated clinical opinion. DSM [source]

    Cluster headache: aetiology, diagnosis and management.

    HEADACHE, Issue 3 2003
    K Ekbom
    Drugs. 2002;62(1):61-69 Cluster headache is characterised by repeated attacks of strictly unilateral pain in the orbital region associated with local autonomic symptoms or signs. The attacks are brief but of a very severe, almost excruciating intensity. For unknown reasons males are affected more often than females. Recent studies suggest that an autosomal dominant gene has a role in some families with cluster headache. Hormonal studies indicate a dysfunction in the central nervous system. Neuroimaging has revealed primary defects in the hypothalamic grey matter. Local homolateral dilatation in the intracranial segment of the internal carotid and ophthalmic arteries during attacks is the result of a generic neurovascular activation, probably mediated by trigeminal parasympathetic reflexes. Sumatriptan 6mg subcutaneously is the drug of choice in the treatment of acute attacks. Inhalation of 100% oxygen can also be recommended. In the prophylactic treatment, verapamil is the first option. Other drugs that can be considered are corticosteroids, which may induce a remission of frequent, severe attacks, and lithium. Oral ergotamine tartrate may be sufficient for patients with night attacks and/or short, rather mild to moderately severe cluster headache periods. Third line drugs are serotonin inhibitors (methysergide and pizotifen) and valproic acid. Patients should be encouraged to keep headache diaries and be carefully instructed about the nature and treatment of the headaches. Alcohol can bring on extra attacks and should not be consumed during active periods of cluster headache. Comment: A useful review of clinical options. Given the effectiveness of injectable sumatriptan and the prophylactic use of ergotamine mentioned, one might speculate that the new intranasal formulations of triptans (eg, zolmitriptan) and triptans with a longer half-life (eg, frovatriptan) may prove to be effective in the treatment of cluster headache. DSM [source]

    Cluster headache: the challenge of clinical trials.

    HEADACHE, Issue 3 2003
    K Moore
    Curr Pain Headache. Rep 2002 Feb;6(1):52-56 The design and execution of clinical trials poses special problems for cluster headache. Although there is less inter-individual and intra-individual variability of attacks than seen with migraine, the brevity of attacks, spontaneous remissions unrelated to treatment, and the relative rarity of cluster headaches challenge investigators. The International Headache Society has developed guidelines that represent a compromise between scientific rigor and practicality. Only injectable sumatriptan for acute attacks and verapamil for prophylaxis have demonstrated a robust therapeutic effect in controlled clinical trials. Comment: Kenneth Moore raises important methodological considerations. It is possible to undertake crossover trials comparing different active treatments? He is correct in his assertion that few agents show robust efficacy. A major issue relates to the proportion of patients with episodic versus chronic cluster headache where efficacy of active treatments can vary. For example, oral zolmitriptan was effective against placebo only in those patients with episodic disease (Bahra A, Gawel MJ, Hardebo JE, Millson DS, Breen SA, Goadsby PJ. Oral zolmitriptan is effective in the acute treatment of cluster headache. Neurology. 2000;54:1832-1839). And a set of small studies on melatonin and cluster demonstrate the problems Dr. Moore describes. In one study (Leone M, D'Amico D, Moschiano F, Fraschini F, Busonne G. Metalonin versus placebo in the prophylaxis of cluster headache: a double-blind pilot study with parallel groups. Cephalalgia. 1996;16:494-496), the melatonin worked only in episodic, not chronic cluster patients. In the second study (Prinsheim T, Magnoux E, Dobson CF, Hamel E, Aube M. Melatonin as adjuctive therapy in the prophylaxis of cluster headache: a pilot study. Headache. 2002;42:787-792), melatonin did not work better than placebo in either episodic or chronic cluster patients. Furthermore, the paper abstracted above by Torelli and Manzoni suggests that episodic cluster may progress to chronic cluster as a result of extrinsic factors such as smoking. Finally, there are ethical issues in placebo-controlled cluster studies, given the severity of the pain and the availability of effective acute and chronic treatments. As noted above, Dr. Peter Goadsby points out the need to persevere with these studies to find nonvasoactive treatments for patients with cluster headache. DSM and SJT [source]

    Large eddy simulation of flow and scalar transport in a round jet

    Hitoshi Suto
    Abstract Large eddy simulation (LES) was performed for a spatially developing round jet and its scalar transport at four steps of Reynolds number set between 1200 and 1,000,000. A simulated domain, which extends 30 times the nozzle diameter, includes initial, transitional, and established stage of jet. A modified version of convection outflow condition was proposed in order to diminish the effect of a downstream boundary. Tested were two kinds of subgrid scale (SOS) models: a Smagorinsky model (SM) and a dynamic Smagorinsky model (DSM). In the former model, parameters are kept at empirically deduced constants, while in the latter, they are calculated using different levels of space filtering. Data analysis based on the decay law of jet clearly presented the performance of SGS models. Simulated results by SM and DSM compared favorably with existing measurements of jet and its scalar transport. However, the quantitative accuracy of DSM was better than that of SM at a transitional stage of flow field. Computed parameters by DSM, coefficient for SGS stresses, CR and SGS eddy diffusivity ratio, ,SGS, were not far from empirical constants of SM. Optimization of the model coefficient was suggested in DSM so that coefficient CR was nearly equal in the established stage of jet but it was reduced in low turbulence close to the jet nozzle. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Heat Trans Asian Res, 33(3): 175,188, 2004; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/htj.20001 [source]

    Should night eating syndrome be included in the DSM?

    Ruth H. Striegel-Moore PhD
    Abstract Objective: This article examines the status of the literature on night-eating syndrome (NES) according to five criteria that have been proposed by Blashfield, Sprock, and Fuller1 (Compr Psychiatry 1990;31:15,19) to determine whether NES warrants inclusion in the psychiatric nosology as a distinct eating disorder. Method: Relevant research papers were identified in Medline and PsychInfo using the search term "night-eating syndrome." Results: None of the five criteria was met. Specifically, at the time of review, there were not yet 25 empirical papers on NES; no commonly accepted definition of or assessment approach to NES has been adopted; the utility and validity of NES need to be established, and NES needs to be differentiated more clearly from other eating disorder syndromes. Conclusion: This review suggests that the most pressing step toward clarifying the status of NES is to develop a uniform definition of NES. Once accomplished, research can progress to accumulating the necessary evidence to determine whether NES should be included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. © 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2006 [source]

    Optimization of the extraction and purification of oligosaccharides from defatted soybean meal

    Suna Kim
    Summary Optimization of the extraction of oligosaccharides from defatted soybean meal (DSM) was investigated under various conditions. The optimal ratio of water to DSM and optimal temperature for oligosaccharide extraction was 5:1 and 50 °C, respectively. The use of a stirring process, without any further grinding, improved the extractability of oligosaccharides from DSM, a 10% ethanol-water solution was more effective than distilled water alone. To purify the oligosaccharides, ultrafiltration was used. More than 90% of the protein was removed from the extracts at a volume concentration ratio (VCR) of 3,5. The percentages of fructose, sucrose, raffinose and stachyose in permeate for a VCR of 5 were 38.6, 51.4, 54.2 and 52.6%, respectively. A VCR of 5 was the most effective for protein removal and recovery of oligosaccharides. [source]

    Early response as predictor of final remission in elderly depressed patients

    Rob M. Kok
    Abstract Background Several studies have attempted to predict the final response or remission based on improvement during the early course of treatment of major depression. There is however a great variation in cut offs used to define early response and in the optimal week to predict final results. Objective To compare different cut offs at different time points early in the treatment of elderly depressed patients. Method A 12 week randomised, controlled trial in 81 elderly inpatients with DSM,IV major depression comparing venlafaxine with nortriptyline. At least 20, 25, 30 or 50% improvement was analysed after 1, 3 and 5 weeks using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale. We plotted sensitivity against 1,specificity and calculated areas under the curve (AUCs). Results The highest percentage of correctly classified patients is found using at least 50% decrease as cut off in week 5, with acceptable sensitivity (81.8%) and specificity (87.4%). In week 5, the AUCs were 0.891 (95% CI 0.798,0.984) and 0.866 (95% CI 0.789,0.983) for the HAM-D and MADRS, respectively. Conclusions Combining the results from our study and the other studies addressing this issue, we suggest that the treatment should be changed in the elderly if after 3,4 weeks less than 30% improvement in depression score has been achieved. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]