Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Cytokeratin

  • cytokeratin expression

  • Selected Abstracts

    Mohs Micrographic Surgery Using Cytokeratin 7 for a Pagetoid Cutaneous Neoplasm on the Upper Cutaneous Lip

    The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters. [source]

    Multiply Recurrent Trichilemmal Carcinoma With Perineural Invasion and Cytokeratin 17 Positivity

    Julie E. Allee MD
    Background. Trichilemmal carcinoma is an uncommon cutaneous malignancy that is thought to be the malignant counterpart of the trichilemmoma. Despite histologic features such as pronounced cytologic atypia, trichilemmal carcinoma is often described as having a rather benign clinical course. Cases of tumor recurrence after therapy are uncommon, and tumor neurotropism has never been described. objective. A case of multiply recurrent trichilemmal carcinoma with perineural invasion is described. The outer root sheath differentiation of this neoplasm is confirmed with the use of novel antibodies directed toward cytokeratins that are expressed in this area of the hair follicle. Methods. The trichilemmal carcinoma was excised using the Mohs surgical technique. Tissue obtained during the extirpation of the tumor was subjected to immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin 15, cytokeratin 17, and c-erb-B2. Results. Tumor neurotropism was noted. The trichilemmal carcinoma demonstrated abundant cytoplasmic staining for cytokeratin 17 and c-erb-B2. Conclusions. In distinction to previous reports, this case reveals that trichilemmal carcinoma can demonstrate significant biological aggression, as reflected by tumor neurotropism and by failure to respond to multiple surgical excisions. The purported outer root sheath differentiation of this neoplasm is confirmed with the use of novel immunohistochemical staining. This immunohistochemical staining may be useful in differentiating trichilemmal carcinoma from other clear cell neoplasms. [source]

    Analysis of gene expression patterns in the developing chick liver

    Masaaki Yanai
    Abstract The chick embryo has been used widely for studying liver development. However, in the past 30 years, the usage has decreased markedly due to lack of appropriate marker genes for differentiation in the developing chick liver. To use the chick embryo for analyzing the molecular mechanism of liver development, we surveyed marker genes in the developing chick liver by examining the expression pattern of genes that are well-characterized in the developing mammalian liver. By whole-mount in situ hybridization, Fibrinogen - gamma (FIB) expression was first detected at stage 12, specifically in the anterior intestinal portal, and its liver-specific expression persisted in the later stages. Albumin (ALB) expression was first detected at stage 30, when the liver starts maturing. Cytokeratin 19 (CK19) was first detected at stage 37 in the ductal plate of the liver, and its expression continued in the intrahepatic bile ducts derived from the ductal plate. Hex, a transcription factor, is an additional marker of bile duct differentiation. Hence, FIB, ALB, and CK19 expression can be used to trace hepatic induction, maturation, and bile duct differentiation, respectively. Developmental Dynamics 233:1116,1122, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    NMDA receptors influence the intracellular calcium concen-tration and the expression of differentiation markers in HaCaT cells

    M. Fischer
    Ionotropic glutamate receptors (ligand-gated, ion-channel proteins) of the N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) receptor type could enable a transmembranous calcium influx from the extracellular space. Though ionotropic glutamate receptors are predominantly neuronal receptors, they are also expressed in non-neuronal tissues like keratinocytes. Therefore, investigations were performed to study the function of NMDA receptors in HaCaT cells. The intracellular calcium concentration of HaCaT cells was studied under the influence of the selective receptor agonist NMDA and the selective NMDA antagonist MK-801. The proliferation of HaCaT cells was investigated using the crystal-violet method. Furthermore, the expression of Cytokeratin 10 and Filaggrin was examined in HaCaT cells after blocking NMDA receptors with MK-801. Using NMDA, there was a significant increase in the number of HaCaT cells showing elevated intracellular calcium concentration, at a dose between 25 µm and 1 mm (up to 84.6% of cells). The NMDA-associated calcium influx could be significantly suppressed by prior application of MK-801. There was no influence of NMDA on the proliferation of HaCaT cells. There was also no cytotoxic effect of NMDA (up to 1 mm). The expression of Cytokeratin 10 and Filaggrin could be suppressed by blocking NMDA receptors with MK-801. The investigations show that glutamate receptors of the NMDA-type play a role in the differentiation of HaCaT cells by regulating their intracellular calcium concentration. [source]

    CK17 and p16 expression patterns distinguish (atypical) immature squamous metaplasia from high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN III)

    HISTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2007
    S Regauer
    Aims:, Atypical immature metaplasia (AIM) refers to a full-thickness intraepithelial basaloid lesion in the uterine cervix that features both metaplasia and atypia and is therefore difficult to distinguish from high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN III). p16 is a marker for human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced dysplasia. Cytokeratin (CK) 17 is a marker for cervical reserve (stem) cells, which give rise to metaplasia. The aim was to determine whether AIM can be reclassified into metaplasia and CIN III based on p16 and CK17 immunohistochemistry. Material and results:, Seventy-five cervical biopsy specimens, curettings and cone excisions containing varying proportions of dysplasia and metaplasia and 20 cases regarded as AIM were analysed immunohistochemically with antibodies to CK17, p16 and p63. In immature metaplasia all proliferating cells were immunoreactive with antibodies to CK17 and p63, while p16 was negative. All dysplastic cells of CIN III demonstrated uniform immunoreactivity for p16 and p63, but were CK17,. Based on the reciprocal immunoreactivity of p16 and CK17, 17/20 cases of AIM were reclassified as metaplasia (n = 10) and CIN III (n = 7). Three cases of AIM stained for both CK17 and p16 and were classified as CIN III. Conclusion:, ,AIM' is a helpful histological descriptor but it should not be used as a final diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry for p16 and CK17 allows distinction between metaplasia and high-grade CIN. [source]

    Extramammary Paget's disease,a proliferation of adnexal origin?

    HISTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
    S Regauer
    Aim :,To investigate a possible follicular origin of extramammary Paget's disease (EPD). EPD is a predominantly intraepidermal tumour with extensive involvement of adnexal structures and high recurrence rates suggesting a follicular stem cell origin. Cytokeratin (CK) 15 and CK19 are considered markers for follicular stem cells located in the hair follicle bulge region. Methods and results :,Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of 12 cases of primary EPD (three anal, nine vulvar) were studied immunohistochemically with antibodies to CK15 and CK19. All cases of EPD showed polygonal Paget cells in the interfollicular epidermis, hair follicles, sebaceous and apocrine glands distributed individually, in nests and in gland-like areas. The polygonal Paget cells were intimately associated with small, flat, mitotically active, ,compressed' keratinocytes. The large Paget cells uniformly expressed CK19 in 12/12 EPD. The small ,compressed' keratinocytes showed strong cytoplasmic CK15 staining in 9/12 EPD with focal accentuation, while the polygonal Paget cells were negative. Conclusions :,These histological and immunohistochemical observations allow the following conclusions: (i) the small, flat, ,compressed' keratinocytes are an integral part of EPD; (ii) the dual cell population is reminiscent of sebaceous glands with mature sebocytes and germinative keratinocytes; (iii) since both cell types express cytokeratins typical for follicular differentiation, EPD may be a proliferation of adnexal stem cells residing in the infundibulo-sebaceous unit of hair follicles and adnexal structures. [source]

    Cytokeratin 14 expression in epithelial neoplasms: a survey of 435 cases with emphasis on its value in differentiating squamous cell carcinomas from other epithelial tumours

    HISTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
    P G Chu
    Cytokeratin 14 expression in epithelial neoplasms: a survey of 435 cases with emphasis on its value in differentiating squamous cell carcinomas from other epithelial tumours Aims:,The tissue distribution of cytokeratin 14 (CK14) in epithelial neoplasms is not well defined. We have evaluated 435 cases of epithelial neoplasm of various origins with cytokeratin 14 monoclonal antibody with special attention to possible use in differential diagnosis. Methods and results:,Immunohistochemistry (ABC,HRP method) was performed for detection of CK14. We found that the expression of cytokeratin 14 was generally restricted to: (i) the majority of cases of squamous cell carcinoma regardless of origin (67/74) and degree of differentiation; (ii) neoplasms with focal squamous differentiation, including endometrial, and ovarian adenocarcinoma, malignant mesothelioma and transitional cell carcinoma; (iii) thymoma (8/8); (iv) myoepithelial components of salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma (3/4); and (v) oncocytic neoplasms, including thyroid Hurthle cell adenoma (1/1) and salivary gland Warthin's tumour (2/2). Conclusion:,CK14 protein is a useful marker in differential diagnosis of squamous cell carcinomas. [source]

    Mutation of keratin 8 in patients with liver disease

    Maximilian Schöniger-Hekele
    Abstract Background:, Epithelial tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and the liver express predominantly cytokeratin 8 and cytokeratin 18. In vitro experiments and animal studies have demonstrated a protective influence of keratin 8 and keratin 18 against toxic damage of hepatocytes. A specific mutation of keratin 8 (G61C) was found to be a genetic risk factor for the development of cryptogenic liver cirrhosis. The purpose of the present paper was therefore to determine the prevalence of cytokeratin 8 (G61C) and cytokeratin 18 mutations (Y53H) in patients with liver disease. Methods:, Overall 152 patients (male, n = 93, 61%; female, n = 59, 39%) were included in the present study. The 152 patients consisted of 107 patients with liver disease (70.4%; male, n = 71, 66.4%; female, n = 36, 33.6%) and 45 control patients (29.6%; male, n = 22, 48,9%; female, n = 23, 51,1%) without liver disease. Of the patients with liver disease 46 had alcoholic liver disease; 25, chronic hepatitis C; 15, cryptogenic liver disease; and 21, other liver diseases of various etiologies. Cytokeratin 8 and 18 genotypes were specified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and direct sequence analysis was used to detect the previously described mutations in cytokeratin 8 (G61C) and in cytokeratin 18 (Y53H). Results:, Four out of 152 patients (male n = 2, female n = 2) with a mutation (G61C) in cytokeratin 8 were found. The etiology was alcoholic liver disease (n = 1), cryptogenic liver disease (n = 1) and idiopathic liver disease with minimal changes in liver biopsy (n = 1). Also, one out 45 disease control patients with an adenoma of the colon but without liver disease was found to carry the mutation G61C of cytokeratin 8. Therefore, the mutation G61C in cytokeratin 8 was found in 2.8% of patients with liver disease and in 2.2% of control patients without liver disease. Two of 15 patients (13.3%) with cryptogenic liver disease had the mutation G61C in cytokeratin 8 (P = 0.069 vs patients with non-cryptogenic liver disease). In the 152 patients studied, no mutation in cytokeratin 18 was found. Discussion:, The mutation G61C in the cytokeratin 8 gene was found in one patient with alcoholic liver disease and in two patients with liver disease of unknown etiology. Also, one patient without liver disease had the cytokeratin 8 G61C mutation. In summary, the cytokeratin 8 mutation G61C, which has been found to be associated with cryptogenic liver cirrhosis, was also found in the present patient population. However, the clinical relevance is yet to be determined in further investigations. [source]

    Isolation, propagation and characterization of primary tubule cell culture from human kidney (Methods in Renal Research)

    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 2 2007
    SUMMARY: Proximal tubule cells (PTC) are the major cell type in the cortical tubulointerstitium. Because PTC play a central role in tubulointerstitial pathophysiology, it is essential to prepare pure PTC from kidney tissue to explore the mechanisms of tubulointerstitial pathology. The authors have successfully refined and characterized primary cultures of human PTC using Percoll density gradient centrifugation as a key PTC enrichment step. The cells obtained by this method retain morphological and functional properties of PTC and are minimally contaminated by other renal cells. In particular, the primary isolates have characteristics of epithelial cells with uniform polarized morphology, tight junction and well-formed apical microvilli. Cytokeratin is uniformly and strongly expressed in the isolates. Brush border enzyme activities and PTC transport properties are retained in the isolates. This method therefore provides an excellent in vitro model for the physiologic study of the human proximal tubule. [source]

    Cytokeratin 20-positive large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon

    Tomoya Kato
    Herein is presented a case of cytokeratin (CK) 20-positive large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon, in which the tumor was clinically at stage IV and located in the ascending colon. Pathological examination of the resected tumor revealed nested and solid proliferation of large undifferentiated cells with vesicular nucleus and prominent nucleoli. No areas showed differentiation toward adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma. Tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, CD 56 (focal), and bore electron-dense granules. With these features, the tumor was diagnosed as a large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon. Liver metastasis and local recurrence progressed, and the patient died of the primary disease 7 months after operation. The autopsy confirmed this diagnosis without detectable tumors in the lungs. Interestingly, more than half of the tumor cells were positive for CK 20, while CK 7 was not expressed. Most neuroendocrine carcinomas do not express CK 20, with the exception of Merkel cell carcinomas, and most colorectal adenocarcinomas express CK 20. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the present case is the first CK 20-positive, CK 7-negative colorectal neuroendocrine carcinoma to be described, suggesting a link between colorectal neuroendocrine carcinoma and conventional adenocarcinoma. [source]

    Expression of cytokeratin-18-related tissue polypeptide-specific (TPS) antigen in Wilms tumor

    PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER, Issue 4 2001
    Winfried Rebhandl MD
    Abstract Background So far, there is no approved tumour marker for diagnosis or follow-up in Wilms tumour (WT). Tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS), a cytokeratin 18 proteolytic fragment, has been suggested to be of value in the clinical management of WT patients. Cytokeratin 18 fragments are an early indicator of apoptosis and cytokeratin 18 might influence tumour cell behaviour. We investigated TPS expression in specimens of WT and other paediatric renal malignancies Procedure Immunoreactivity of WT sections (n,=,9), clear cell sarcomas (CCSK, n,=,3), and a renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and two pediatric kidney tumour cell lines (WT: SK-NEP-1 and rhabdoid tumour of the kidney: G-401) were investigated using the monoclonal antibody M3. Additionally, immunoblotting and RT-PCR analysis were performed. Cell culture supernatants were evaluated for TPS release. Serum TPS was measured in five patients at diagnosis, during chemotherapy and after surgical resection. Results Moderate to strong immunoreactivity for TPS was found in tubular and blastemal components of nearly all (8/9) WT specimens. This was confirmed by Western-blotting. Cystic and epithelial-like portions of CCSKs and RCC showed distinct reactivity (3/3). The supernatant of G-401 but not of SK-NEP-1 showed a time- and cell number-dependent increase of TPS release. Interestingly, TPS synthesis was demonstrated in SK-NEP-1 cells. Median preoperative serum TPS was elevated (293 U/l) compared to healthy children and lowest after surgical resection (49.5 U/l). Conclusions This is the first study demonstrating the synthesis and release of TPS by WTs and other paediatric renal malignancies. Considering the elevated levels of TPS in serum of these patients, a further investigation of this marker by larger clinical trials seems to be justified. Med Pediatr Oncol 2001;37:357,364. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation

    Noriyuki MISAGO
    ABSTRACT To clarify the features of apocrine mixed tumors (AMT) of the skin among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their relationship to follicular stem cells, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of CK15 (LHK15 and C8/144B), which is a relatively specific marker of hair follicle stem cells in the bulge, in 35 cases of eight different benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation. All eight cases of AMT of the skin showed CK15 immunostaining of the neoplastic cells, and all four cases of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, all five cases of spiradenoma, and both cases of cylindroma also showed a focally positive reaction to CK15. None of the other benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation showed CK15 expression. In AMT of the skin, the proportion of CK15-positive cells in the follicular or sebaceous differentiation group (78.8%, average of four cases) was significantly higher than the group without this differentiation (8.8%, average of four cases). AMT of the skin are unique among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their substantial and constant CK15 expression, suggesting that they derive from multipotent epithelial stem cells in the bulge. AMT of the skin with follicular or sebaceous differentiation are considered to show an immature stage of apocrine differentiation still rich in stem cells or to originate from stem cells with an incompletely established apocrine fate. The partially positive reaction for CK15 in syringocystadenomas papilliferum and spiradenoma/cylindroma may depend on the ability to express CK15 in stem cells with an apocrine fate or result from the follicular and apocrine nature of this neoplasm. [source]

    Cytokeratin 20 expression identifies a subtype of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with decreased overall survival

    CANCER, Issue 3 2006
    Evan Matros M.D.
    Abstract BACKGROUND Cytokeratins are markers of epithelial cell differentiation useful in determining histogenesis for malignancies with an unknown primary. Application of this principle to a single malignancy may identify cancer subtypes with altered developmental programs. Herein, we investigate the relevance of two widely used cytokeratins (CKs), 7 and 20, to subtype pancreas cancer and identify associations with clinical features. METHODS A tissue microarray was constructed using tumor specimens from 103 patients who underwent resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma with curative intent. A subset of resection specimens was evaluated for pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions. Tissues were immunostained by using specific anticytokeratin 7 and 20 monoclonal antibodies. RESULTS CK 7 and 20 expression was present in 96% and 63% cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, respectively. Ubiquitous CK 7 expression precluded further analysis. Tumoral CK 20 expression was not associated with any histopathologic parameter but correlated with worse prognosis when considered as either a dichotomous (P = 0.0098) or continuous (P = 0.007) variable. In a multivariate model, tumoral CK 20 expression remained a significant independent prognosticator. CK 20 expression was absent in all PanIN lesions from eight resection specimens in which the tumor component was negative for CK 20. In contrast, presence of tumoral CK 20 was highly concordant with its expression in corresponding PanINs. CONCLUSIONS CK 20 expression defines a subtype of pancreas cancer with important biologic properties. When present, CK 20 expression is an early event in pancreatic carcinogenesis identifiable in precursor lesions. Further studies to identify the underlying genetic changes associated with this altered developmental pathway are warranted. Cancer 2006. © 2005 American Cancer Society. [source]

    The analysis of immunophenotype of gastrin-producing tumors of the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract

    CANCER, Issue 9 2003
    Larissa Gurevich M.D., Ph.D.
    Abstract BACKGROUND Gastrinomas are located more frequently in the pancreas, which normally has no cells that can produce gastrin. They have a more aggressive course than other pancreatic endocrine tumors and extrapancreatic gastrinomas associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 1 syndrome. The current study analyzed immunophenotypes of gastrinomas and compared them with other pancreatic endocrine tumors. METHODS Twenty-one formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens (15-tumors in the pancreas, 1 in the duodenum, 1 in the stomach, 1 in the liver, and 3 of unknown primary location) accompanied by Zollinger,Ellison syndrome and 17 other pancreatic endocrine tumor specimens were investigated. They were stained immunohistochemically for gastrin, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, calcitonin, serotonin, chorionic gonadotropin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, carcinoembryonic antigen, epithelial membrane antigen, and cytokeratin 19. RESULTS Gastrinomas coexpressed neuroendocrine and exocrine markers, including chromogranin A, synaptophysin, carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin 19, and epithelial membrane antigen. Carcinoembryonic antigen was found in all 17 gastrinomas (100%), cytokeratin 19 was found in 15 of 17 (88.2%) gastrinomas, and epithelial membrane antigen was found in 16 of 18 (88.9 %) gastrinomas. Cytokeratin 19, epithelial membrane antigen, and carcinoembryonic antigen were not found to be present in the pancreatic endocrine tumors, but chromogranin A and synaptophysin were. Chorionic gonadotropin was found in 16 gastrinomas (100%), but only in 2 of 17 other pancreatic endocrine tumors (11.8 %). CONCLUSIONS Pancreatic gastrinomas were characterized by the coexpression of neuroendocrine markers, exocrine markers, and chorionic gonadotropin. Therefore, pancreatic gastrinomas made a special intermediate group of tumors, which phenotypically combined features of neuroendocrine and exocrine neoplasms. These findings suggested that sporadic pancreatic gastrinomas and other pancreatic endocrine tumors are different phenotypically and are possibly of different origin. Cancer 2003. © 2003 American Cancer Society. [source]

    Prognostic Significance of Occult Bone Marrow Micrometastases of Breast Cancer Detected by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for Cytokeratin 19 mRNA

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 9 2000
    Noriko Ikeda
    Amplification of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) transcripts by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been shown to be a highly sensitive assay for the detection of bone marrow micrometastases (BMM) of breast cancer, but recent studies have demonstrated the occurrence of false-positive results due to low-level, illegitimately transcribed CK19 in normal bone marrow tissue. One approach to solve this problem is to develop a quantitative CK19 RT-PCR assay and to introduce a cut-off value which can distinguish between illegitimate expression and cancer-specific expression levels. In the present paper, we describe a quantitative CK19 RT-PCR assay using a real-time automated PCR system. The number of CK19 transcripts was normalized to that of GAPDH transcripts as an internal control for quality and quantity of cDNA. The cut-off value for the ratio of CK19 to GAPDH transcripts was set at 10,4 since the ratio never exceeded this value in the control bone marrow samples (n=12). In total, 117 bone marrow aspirates from stage I-III patients with invasive breast cancers were subjected to CK19 RT-PCR assay and immunocytological examination. Forty (34.2%) were found to be BMM-positive by CK19 RT-PCR assay whereas only three (2.6%) were found to be BMM-positive by immunocytology. Multivariate analysis has shown that occult BMM detected by CK19 RT-PCR is a significant risk factor for relapse, being independent of axillary lymph node metastases. [source]

    Cell blocks allow reliable evaluation of expression of basal (CK5/6) and luminal (CK8/18) cytokeratins and smooth muscle actin (SMA) in breast carcinoma

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    W. D. Delgallo
    W. D. Delgallo, J. R. P. Rodrigues, S. P. Bueno, R. M. Viero and C. T. Soares Cell blocks allow reliable evaluation of expression of basal (CK5/6) and luminal (CK8/18) cytokeratins and smooth muscle actin (SMA) in breast carcinoma Objective:, Gene expression studies have revealed several molecular subtypes of breast carcinoma with distinct clinical and biological behaviours. DNA microarray studies correlated with immunohistochemical profiling of breast carcinomas using cytokeratin (CK) markers, Her2/neu, oestrogen receptor (ER), and basal myoepithelial cell markers have identified five breast tumour subtypes: (i) luminal A (ER+; Her2/neu,), (ii) luminal B (ER+; Her2/neu+), (iii) Her2 overexpression (ER,; Her2/neu+), (iv) basal-like (ER,; Her2/neu,, CK5/6 and 14+), and (v) negative for all markers. Luminal carcinomas express cytokeratins in a luminal pattern (CK8/18), and the basal-like type expresses CK5/6 and CK14 or basal epithelial cell markers. CK5/6, CK8/18, and smooth muscle actin (SMA) expression were assessed in cell blocks and compared with expression in surgical specimens. Methods:, Sixty-two cases of breast carcinoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology with cell blocks and available surgical specimens were included. Cell blocks containing at least 10 high-power fields each with at least 10 tumour cells and surgical specimens were immunostained for CK5/6, CK8/18 and SMA. Results:, Percentage sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were, respectively, 77, 100, 100, 92 and 94 for CK5/6; 98, 66, 96, 80 and 95 for CK8/18; and 92, 96, 85, 98 and 95 for SMA. Conclusion:, The identification of CK5/6, CK8/18 and SMA by immunohistochemistry in cell blocks can be a reliable method that yields results close to those obtained in surgical specimens, and can contribute to the classification of breast carcinomas with luminal and basal expression patterns, providing helpful information in the choice of treatment and in the evaluation of prognostic and predictive factors. [source]

    Skin Repair Using a Porcine Collagen I/III Membrane,Vascularization and Epithelization Properties

    BACKGROUND Collagen membranes have been developed to overcome the problem of limited availability of skin grafts. Vascularization and restricted functional epithelization limit the success of bioartificial constructs. OBJECTIVE To compare the vascularization, epithelization, and integration of a porcine collagen I/III membrane with that of split-thickness skin grafts on skin wounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS In 21 adult pigs, full-thickness skin defects on the rear side of the ear healed by split-thickness skin grafting, by covering with the membrane, or by free granulation. Skin samples on postoperative days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 were evaluated histologically (hematoxylin-eosin, Sirius Red) and using immunohistochemistry (cytokeratin 5/6, transforming growth factor beta receptor (TGF,R-III) and immunoblot (TGF,1,3, Smad2/3). Epithelial thickness and TGF,R-III-positive capillary area were quantitatively assessed. RESULTS Epithelization and vascularization in the membrane group were not significantly different from in the group treated with a split-thickness skin graft. Free granulation showed significantly slower epithelization and vascularization (p<.05). TGF,1 and Smad2/3 complex expression were high during free granulation. Matrix was distinguishable until day 7. CONCLUSIONS This membrane serves as a suitable full-thickness dermal substitute, because the membrane is vascularized faster than free granulation tissue and enables early epithelization. Geistlich Biomaterials (Wolhusen, Switzerland) provided the collagen membrane used in this study [source]

    Multiply Recurrent Trichilemmal Carcinoma With Perineural Invasion and Cytokeratin 17 Positivity

    Julie E. Allee MD
    Background. Trichilemmal carcinoma is an uncommon cutaneous malignancy that is thought to be the malignant counterpart of the trichilemmoma. Despite histologic features such as pronounced cytologic atypia, trichilemmal carcinoma is often described as having a rather benign clinical course. Cases of tumor recurrence after therapy are uncommon, and tumor neurotropism has never been described. objective. A case of multiply recurrent trichilemmal carcinoma with perineural invasion is described. The outer root sheath differentiation of this neoplasm is confirmed with the use of novel antibodies directed toward cytokeratins that are expressed in this area of the hair follicle. Methods. The trichilemmal carcinoma was excised using the Mohs surgical technique. Tissue obtained during the extirpation of the tumor was subjected to immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin 15, cytokeratin 17, and c-erb-B2. Results. Tumor neurotropism was noted. The trichilemmal carcinoma demonstrated abundant cytoplasmic staining for cytokeratin 17 and c-erb-B2. Conclusions. In distinction to previous reports, this case reveals that trichilemmal carcinoma can demonstrate significant biological aggression, as reflected by tumor neurotropism and by failure to respond to multiple surgical excisions. The purported outer root sheath differentiation of this neoplasm is confirmed with the use of novel immunohistochemical staining. This immunohistochemical staining may be useful in differentiating trichilemmal carcinoma from other clear cell neoplasms. [source]

    Pulmonary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of diffuse large B-cell type with simultaneous humeral involvement in a young lady: An uncommon presentation with cytologic implications

    C.T., Irene Ruben B.Sc.
    Abstract A bronchogenic carcinoma, almost invariably, presents as a lung mass. Primary pulmonary lymphomas are rare. We report an unusual case of a pulmonary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) with simultaneous involvement of the right humerus in a 37 year old lady. Bronchial lavage smears showed atypical cells with irregular nuclear membranes raising a suspicion of a hematolymphoid tumor, over a small cell carcinoma that was the closest differential diagnosis. Biopsy from the lung mass and from the lesion in the humerus showed an identical malignant round cell tumor with prominent apoptosis. On immunohistochemistry (IHC), tumor cells were diffusely positive for leukocyte common antigen (LCA), CD20 and MIB1 (70%), while negative for cytokeratin (CK), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) synaptophysin, chromogranin, neuron specific enolase (NSE), CD3, and CD10. Diagnosis of a pulmonary NHL of diffuse large B-cell type with involvement of the humerus was formed. The case is presented to create an index of suspicion for the possibility of a NHL on respiratory samples, while dealing with small round cells with irregular nuclear membranes. IHC is necessary to confirm he diagnosis. A simultaneous association in the humerus in our case makes it unusual. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Cytology of metastatic cervical squamous cell carcinoma in pleural fluid: Report of a case confirmed by human papillomavirus typing

    Roberto G. Gamez M.D.
    Abstract Cervical squamous cell carcinomas are rarely the cause of malignant effusions. Their identification can be relatively easy when keratinizing atypical squamous cells are present, but may be very difficult when only nonkeratinizing malignant cells are present. We present the case of a 47-year-old woman who presented with a large left pleural effusion after having recently completed chemoradiation therapy for stage IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Cytologic examination of the fluid showed a uniform population of single atypical cells with finely vacuolated cytoplasm, ectoendoplasmic demarcation, cell-in-cell arrangements, and short rows of cells with intervening "windows," all features reminiscent of mesothelial cells. No keratinization or three-dimensional cell clusters were identified. A panel of immunohistochemical stains was performed on the cell block material, and the atypical cells were positive for cytokeratin 5/6, p63, and p16 but not for cytokeratin 7, calretinin, WT1, or Ber-EP4 or TTF1. These findings were consistent with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. HPV DNA determination and typing by PCR confirmed the presence of HPV16 in an aliquot of pleural fluid. This is to our knowledge the first reported case of pleural fluid involved by metastatic squamous cell carcinoma where HPV DNA testing was used to confirm the origin of the metastasis. Despite its rarity, metastatic nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma should be considered when a single cell population of large atypical cells is found in effusions. Immunoperoxidase stains and HPV testing can be performed to establish the diagnosis and confirm the origin from a cervical primary. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Secondary prostatic adenocarcinoma: A cytopathological study of 50 cases

    F.R.C.P.C., Kien T. Mai M.D.
    Abstract Positive diagnosis of metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma (PAC) can be made by microscopic examination of the cytologic specimens and immunostaining for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate acid phosphatase (PAP). Immunohistochemical markers have been known to display negative, weak, or focal staining in poorly differentiated PAC and in patients with prior hormonal and/or radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to characterize the cytopathology of metastatic PAC as it has not been documented in large series. Fifty cases of metastatic PAC with cytological specimens consisting of 41 fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB), 6 pleural fluid aspirates, and 3 catheterized urine samples were reviewed and correlated with the surgical specimens and the clinical charts. Immunostaining for PSA, PAP, cytokeratin AE1/3, cytokeratin 7 (CK7), cytokeratin 20 (CK20), vimentin, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was done. Mean patient age was 77 ± 8 yr; serum PSA, 4.1 ± 2.3; and primary PAC Gleason score, 8.1 ± 1.5. Cytologically, the specimens consisted of cell clusters or cell sheets with overlapping uniform hyperchromatic nuclei with or without nucleoli. Twelve cases were not reactive to PSA and PAP and 44 cases displayed negative immunoreactivity to both CK7 and CK20. Carcinoid-like lesions and small cell carcinomas were seen in 4 cases and were misdiagnosed as nonprostatic origin based on the following features: negative immunoreactivity to PSA and PAP with or without positive reactivity to CEA, and different histopathological features when compared with the primary PAC. In addition to the frequency of high-grade PAC, awareness of the negative immunoreactivity to PSA and PAP, the discrepancy in the histopathological patterns between the primary and secondary tumors, especially the frequent neuroendocrine differentiation, are helpful features for the diagnosis of metastases of prostatic origin. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2007;35:91,95. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Desmoplastic round cell tumor of childhood: Can cytology with immunocytochemistry serve as an alternative for tissue diagnosis?

    Dr Brijal Dave M.D.
    Abstract There are limited reports on the cytology of desmoplastic small round cell tumors (DSRCT). Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) findings in seven aspirates from four cases of histologically and immunohistochemically confirmed cases were analyzed with the main intention of ascertaining if cytological diagnosis of DSRCT is possible. Also assessed were the immunocytochemistry(ICC) findings in these cases. The basic cytological impression was that of a cohesive small round cell tumor. Nuclei showed granular chromatin with grooves, nuclear molding and inconspicuous nucleoli. Stromal fragments were noted in all four cases. In two cases, awareness of cytological features in the appropriate clinical context led to a suggestion of the diagnosis of DSRCT on cytology itself. ICC on destained smears showed positivity for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), desmin and WT-1 in two cases. In conclusion, given the right clinical setting, a cytological diagnosis of DSRCT is plausible and in conjunction with ICC may help in documenting the polyphenotypic nature and thereby confirming the diagnosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2005;32:330,335. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Salivary duct carcinoma with neuroendocrine features: Report of a case with cytological and immunohistochemical study

    Juan B. Laforga M.D.
    Abstract We report a salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) of parotid gland in a 75-year-old male. Initially, it was studied by fine-needle aspiration, which disclosed features of malignancy consistent with a high-grade carcinoma. Histologically, the tumor showed typical features of SDC, predominantly with a solid and apocrine pattern. The aggressive behavior of this tumor was documented by facial palsy and the presence of 12 regional lymph node metastases. Immunohistochemical study showed positivity for cytokeratins (AE1/AE3), cytokeratin 7, GCDFP-15, C-erbB-2, Mib-1, topoisomerase II ,, p53, and androgen receptors. Diffuse positivity with chromogranin-A, synaptophysin, and Grimelius stains was also observed, suggesting endocrine features. Phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin, antimitochondrial antigen, progesterone and estrogen receptors, cytokeratin 20, and S-100 stains were negative. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported of SDC exhibiting neuroendocrine differentiation. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2004;31:189,192. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Role of immunocytochemistry and DNA flow cytometry in the fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of malignant small round-cell tumors

    Urmil Brahmi M.Sc.
    Abstract In the present study, DNA flow cytometry (FCM) and immunocytochemistry (ICC) with a selected panel of antibodies were performed on 51 cases of malignant tumors which were referred for fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to our Department of Cytology for the last 2 yr. Twelve cases were diagnosed as neuroblastoma, 16 as Ewing's sarcoma, 2 as retinoblastoma, 5 as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 5 as rhabdomyosarcoma, 2 as peripheral neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), and 8 as Wilms' tumor. Eleven of 12 neuroblastomas were diploid by FCM, and 1 was aneuploid, with an S-phase fraction (SPF) of 8.3%. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) was negative in 3 and positive in 8 cases of neuroblastoma, whereas neuroblastoma marker was positive in 3/11. Sixteen of 17 Ewing's sarcomas were diploid, and 1 showed tetraploid aneuploidy, with an SPF of 10.06%. Eight of 13 Ewing's sarcomas were positive for Mic-2 gene product (Ewing's marker). All 5 NHL were positive for leukocyte-common antigen (LCA). Three of 5 rhabdomyosarcomas were diploid, and 2 cases showed aneuploidy. Rhabdomyosarcoma showed muscle-specific actin positivity in 4 and desmin positivity in 3 cases. All 3 cases of PNET were diploid and positive for the Mic-2 gene product, whereas NSE and vimentin were positive in 2 cases. Both cases of retinoblastoma were diploid. Immunostaining was noncontributory in 1 case, and the other showed positivity for the retinoblastoma gene product, NSE, and chromogranin. Seven of 8 Wilms' tumors were diploid, and 1 showed aneuploid, with an SPF of 11.13%. Seven of 8 Wilms' tumors were positive for cytokeratin (CK), 5 were positive for NSE, 6 were positive for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), and 5 were positive for vimentin. FNAB diagnosis of malignant round-cell tumors is difficult only by light microscopy. Due to the availability of specific markers for subgrouping tumors, ICC has proved to be more useful these days, while DNA FCM has little diagnostic value, as most of them are diploid. Further ancillary studies, e.g., electron microscopy, image analysis, and other molecular investigations, are required to further categorize these tumors more precisely for better clinical management of these cases. Diagn. Cytopathol. 24:233,239, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Structure of adhesive organ of the mountain-stream catfish, Pseudocheneis sulcatus (Teleostei: Sisoridae)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 4 2005
    Debasish Das
    Abstract The structure and ultrastructure of the adhesive organ (AO) in the catfish, Pseudocheneis sulcatus (Sisoridae), an inhabitant of the sub-Himalayan streams of India, is described. The surface of the AO is thrown into folds, the ridges of which bear curved spines. The AO epidermis consists of 10,12 tiers of filament-rich cells, of which the outer tier cells project spines lined with a thick plasma membrane and bear bundles of tonofilaments (TF). Their cytoplasm contains TF and large mucus-like granules, but no obvious organelles. A second tier of living cells with spines is present beneath the outer tier and seems to replace the latter when its spines are damaged or shed. The outer tier cells react positively with antibody to cytokeratin. Actin labelling is clearly absent from the outer tier, indicating that keratinization of the outer tier occurs in the absence of actin filaments. In the cells of the third to fifth tiers, the cytoplasm possesses abundant small mucous granules (0.1,0.3 µm), and fewer TF compared to the cytoplasm in the spines. The cells of the innermost tiers and the basal layer possess few TF bundles, but no mucous granules. The potential of AO filament cells to produce both mucous granules and keratin filaments is noteworthy. The observations provide evidence that specific regions of fish epidermis can actually undergo a true process of keratinization. [source]

    Differentiation of human ameloblast-lineage cells in vitro

    Qiaomei Yan
    Previous studies have shown that ameloblast-like cells can be selectively cultured from the enamel organ in a serum-free medium with low calcium concentrations. The purpose of this study was to further characterize this culture system to identify differentiated ameloblast-lineage cells. Tooth organs from 19,24-wk-old fetal cadavers were either frozen and cryosectioned for immunostaining, or digested in collagenase/dispase for cell culture. The cells were grown in keratinocyte media supplemented with 0.05 mM calcium, and characterized by morphology and immunofluorescence. Epithelial clones with two distinct morphologies, including smaller cobblestone-shaped cells and larger (5,15 times in size) rounded cells, began to form between day 8 and day 12 after culture. The cobblestone-shaped cells continued to proliferate in culture, while the larger cells proliferated slowly or not at all. These larger cells formed filopodia, usually had two or more nuclei and a radiating cytoplasm at the cell margin, and were more abundant with increasing time in culture. Both cell types stained for cytokeratin 14, and the larger cells appeared more differentiated, showing stronger staining for amelogenin and ameloblastin. Immunofluorescence of the tooth bud sections showed staining for these matrix proteins as ameloblasts differentiated from the inner enamel epithelium. These results show the successful culture of differentiating ameloblast-lineage cells, and lay a foundation for use of these cells to further understand ameloblast biology with application to tooth enamel tissue engineering. [source]

    Myoepithelioma of the soft tissue of the head and neck: a case report and review of the literature

    Antonio Galvao Neto MD
    Abstract Background. Extraglandular myoepitheliomas are neoplasms that seldom occur in the soft tissue of the head and neck region. Misdiagnosis of these neoplasms as more aggressive tumors can lead to unnecessary treatment. Methods. We describe a myoepithelioma of cervical soft tissue. The histopathology of the tumor, its immunophenotype, its differential diagnosis, and a review of the literature are presented. Results. Histopathologically, the tumor was composed of epithelioid cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and eccentric nuclei arranged in cords and files. On immunohistochemical analysis, the cells expressed cytokeratin 14, calponin, glial fibrillary acid protein, and p63 and showed focal positivity for S-100 protein. Together, these markers identified the cells as myoepithelial type. A literature review identified only five cases of myoepithelioma in the soft tissue of the head and neck region in which detailed clinical information was provided. Conclusions. Myoepitheliomas can have cells with variable morphology arranged in different histologic patterns. Immunohistochemical analysis is crucial for unequivocal diagnosis when myoepitheliomas occur in extraglandular locations. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck26: 470,473, 2004 [source]

    Sentinel node biopsy in oral cavity cancer: Correlation with PET scan and immunohistochemistry

    Francisco J. Civantos MD
    Abstract Background. Lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel node biopsy (LS/SNB) is a minimally invasive technique that samples first-echelon lymph nodes to predict the need for more extensive neck dissection. Methods. We evaluated this technique in 18 oral cavity cancers, stages T1,T3, N0. Patients underwent CT and positron emission tomography (PET) of the neck, followed by LS/SNB, frozen section, immediate selective neck dissection, definitive histology, and immunoperoxidase staining for cytokeratin. Histopathology of the sentinel node was correlated with that of the neck specimen. Results. There were 10 true positives: 6 identified on frozen section; 2 on permanent histology; and 2 only on immunoperoxidase staining. In six, the sentinel node was the only positive node. There were seven true negatives and one false negative. Conclusions. Gross tumor replacement of lymph node architecture may obstruct and redirect lymphatic flow. Overall LS/SNB holds promise for oral cancer. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 25: 000,000, 2003 [source]

    Tumor necrosis factor,like weak inducer of apoptosis is a mitogen for liver progenitor cells,,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Janina E. E. Tirnitz-Parker
    Liver progenitor cells (LPCs) represent the cell compartment facilitating hepatic regeneration during chronic injury while hepatocyte-mediated repair mechanisms are compromised. LPC proliferation is frequently observed in human chronic liver diseases such as hereditary hemochromatosis, fatty liver disease, and chronic hepatitis. In vivo studies have suggested that a tumor necrosis factor family member, tumor necrosis factor,like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), is promitotic for LPCs; whether it acts directly is not known. In our murine choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) model of chronic liver injury, TWEAK receptor [fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14)] expression in the whole liver is massively upregulated. We therefore set out to investigate whether TWEAK/Fn14 signaling promotes the regenerative response in CDE-induced chronic liver injury by mitotic stimulation of LPCs. Fn14 knockout (KO) mice showed significantly reduced LPC numbers and attenuated inflammation and cytokine production after 2 weeks of CDE feeding. The close association between LPC proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells in chronic liver injury prompted us to investigate whether fibrogenesis was also modulated in Fn14 KO animals. Collagen deposition and expression of key fibrogenesis mediators were reduced after 2 weeks of injury, and this correlated with LPC numbers. Furthermore, the injection of 2-week-CDE-treated wildtype animals with TWEAK led to increased proliferation of nonparenchymal pan cytokeratin,positive cells. Stimulation of an Fn14-positive LPC line with TWEAK led to nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF,B) activation and dose-dependent proliferation, which was diminished after targeting of the p50 NF,B subunit by RNA interference. Conclusion: TWEAK acts directly and stimulates LPC mitosis in an Fn14-dependent and NF,B-dependent fashion, and signaling via this pathway mediates the LPC response to CDE-induced injury and regeneration. (HEPATOLOGY 2010) [source]

    Human skin fibroblasts: From mesodermal to hepatocyte-like differentiation,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 5 2007
    Philippe A. Lysy
    The phenotypic homology of fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been recently described. Our study investigated the in vitro potential of human skin fibroblasts to differentiate into mesodermal (osteocyte and adipocyte) and endodermal (hepatocyte) cell lineages by comparison with human bone marrow (hBM) MSCs. The endodermal potential of fibroblasts was then explored in vivo in a mouse model of liver injury. Fibroblasts were able to acquire osteocyte and adipocyte phenotypes as assessed by cytochemistry and gene expression analyses. After exposure to a specific differentiation cocktail, these cells presented hepatocyte-like morphology and acquired liver-specific markers on protein and gene expression levels. Furthermore, these fibroblast-derived hepatocyte-like cells (FDHLCs) displayed the ability to store glycogen and synthesize small amounts of urea. By gene expression analysis, we observed that fibroblasts remained in a mesenchymal-epithelial transition state after hepatocyte differentiation. Moreover, FDHLCs lost their hepatocyte-like phenotype after dedifferentiation. In vivo, human fibroblasts infused directly into the liver of hepatectomized severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice engrafted in situ and expressed hepatocyte markers (albumin, alpha-fetoprotein, and cytokeratin 18) together with the mesodermal marker fibronectin. Despite lower liver-specific marker expression, the in vitro and in vivo differentiation profile of fibroblasts was comparable to that of mesenchymal-derived hepatocyte-like cells (MDHLCs). In conclusion, our work demonstrates that human skin fibroblasts are able to display mesodermal and endodermal differentiation capacities and provides arguments that these cells share MSCs features both on the phenotypic and functional levels. (HEPATOLOGY 2007;46:1574,1585.) [source]