Current Ways (current + way)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


We present a tool to diagnose the behavior of planners in complex production processes and to establish improvement potential for the delivery performance by changing the planning behavior. Scientific literature on production control offers valuable knowledge, but the complexity of real-life processes makes it impossible to directly apply this knowledge in real-life. The presented tool identifies possible deficiencies in the current way of managing the business processes, by matching the scientific knowledge on order planning with data reflecting the real-life processes via logistic regression. A case study at a maintenance organization illustrates the diagnosis tool. [source]

Model uncertainty in the ecosystem approach to fisheries

Simeon L. Hill
Abstract Fisheries scientists habitually consider uncertainty in parameter values, but often neglect uncertainty about model structure, an issue of increasing importance as ecosystem models are devised to support the move to an ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF). This paper sets out pragmatic approaches with which to account for uncertainties in model structure and we review current ways of dealing with this issue in fisheries and other disciplines. All involve considering a set of alternative models representing different structural assumptions, but differ in how those models are used. The models can be asked to identify bounds on possible outcomes, find management actions that will perform adequately irrespective of the true model, find management actions that best achieve one or more objectives given weights assigned to each model, or formalize hypotheses for evaluation through experimentation. Data availability is likely to limit the use of approaches that involve weighting alternative models in an ecosystem setting, and the cost of experimentation is likely to limit its use. Practical implementation of an EAF should therefore be based on management approaches that acknowledge the uncertainty inherent in model predictions and are robust to it. Model results must be presented in ways that represent the risks and trade-offs associated with alternative actions and the degree of uncertainty in predictions. This presentation should not disguise the fact that, in many cases, estimates of model uncertainty may be based on subjective criteria. The problem of model uncertainty is far from unique to fisheries, and a dialogue among fisheries modellers and modellers from other scientific communities will therefore be helpful. [source]

Allen Denver Russell Memorial Lecture, 2006

The use of microbiocides in infection control: a critical look at safety, applications, testing
Abstract Microbial pathogens continue as major threats to health. Indeed, many ongoing societal changes are enhancing our vulnerability and exposure to several frank and opportunistic pathogens. This, together with rampant antimicrobial resistance and reduced prospects for newer drugs and vaccines, is forcing a higher reliance on microbiocides in infection prevention and control. That this reliance may not be well-founded becomes apparent from a closer look at current ways of testing and registering microbiocides, their label claims as well as human and environmental safety of certain widely used microbicidal chemicals. Many methods to test microbiocides for registration are flawed and/or entail test conditions irrelevant to field use. Pathogens listed on product labels may not be among those amenable to interruption through microbiocide use. The wide variations and discrepancies in existing national/regional regulations for registering microbiocides for sale stifle innovation. This is a critical look at the above-mentioned issues with emphasis on chemicals meant for use on environmental surfaces and medical devices. It highlights better ways to test microbiocides and to attain global harmonization of testing and product registration. It also details the known and potential dangers of microbiocide use and what to consider in choosing such formulations for optimal safety and effectiveness. End users are advised to be more critical and prudent in the selection and application of microbicidal chemicals, manufacturers are encouraged to explore infection control products and technologies that are safer in the workplace and for the environment, and regulators are urged to review and update the requirements and procedures for premarket review of microbiocide efficacy data and label claims. Independent investigations are also urgently needed to document the proportion of nosocomial infections that would be amenable to prevention through chemical disinfection of environmental surfaces. [source]

Commentary on Sprock and Fredendall's (2008), "Comparison of Prototypic Cases of Depressive Personality Disorder and Dysthymic Disorder"

Steven K. Huprich
Abstract In this commentary, the author discusses the merits and contributions of Sprock and Fredendall's (2008) study of depressive personality and dysthymia using a prototype methodology with experienced clinicians. Their article demonstrates the difficulty in differentiating depressive personality disorder from dysthymia, though it seems to raise even more salient questions about the current ways by which personality disorders are assessed and diagnosed. In light of these findings, the author offers some ways by which personality disorder assessment could be improved. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 64:1,5, 2008. [source]

Long-term study of a portable field robot in urban terrain

Carl Lundberg
The armed forces have a considerable amount of experience in using robots for bomb removal and mine clearing. Emerging technology also enables the targeting of other applications. To evaluate if real deployment of new technology is justified, tactical advantages gained have to be compared to drawbacks imposed. Evaluation calls for realistic tests which in turn require methods dictating how to deploy the new features. The present study has had two objectives: first, to gain a comprehensive view of a potential user of man-portable robots; second, to embed a robot system with users for assessment of present technology in real deployment. In this project we investigated an army company specialized in urban operations performing their tasks with the support of the iRobot Packbot Scout. The robot was integrated and deployed as an ordinary piece of equipment which required modifying and retraining a number of standard behaviors. The reported results were acquired through a long-term test ranging over a period of six months. This paper focuses on the characteristics of the users and their current ways of operation; how the robot was implemented and deployed. Additionally, this paper describes benefits and drawbacks from the users' perspective. A number of limitations in current robot technology are also identified. The findings show that the military relies on precise and thoroughly trained actions that can be executed with a minimum of ambiguity. To make use of robots, new behavioral schemes, which call for tactical optimization over several years, are needed. The most common application during the trials was reconnaissance inside buildings with uncertain enemy presence when time was not critical. Deploying the robot took more time than completing the task by traditional means, but in return kept the soldiers out of harm's way and enabled them to decrease weapon deployment. The range of the radio link, limited video feedback, and the bulky operator control unit were the features constraining the system's overall performance the most. On the other hand, did properties of the system, such as ruggedness, size, weight, terrain ability, and endurance, prove to match the application. The users were of the opinion that robots such as the Packbot Scout would be a valuable standard feature in urban intervention. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]