Current Views (current + views)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Current Views of the Structure of the Mammalian Mitochondrial Ribosome

Abstract Mammalian mitochondria synthesize polypeptides crucial for energy generation using ribosomes with a number of unique features. These ribosomes are very protein rich and have very truncated ribosomal RNAs. The bulk of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome is composed of proteins, only about half of which are homologs of ribosomal proteins found in other translational systems. A number of distinctive features are found in these ribosomes. Among these is a gate-like structure that allows entrance of the primarily leaderless mRNAs that characterize this system. The exit tunnel of the large subunit is also quite unusual and includes a site in which the nascent peptide is visible to solvent prior to the normal exit site. Further, this region of the mitochondrial ribosome is dominated by ribosomal proteins rather than rRNA and is involved in the interaction of the ribosome with the inner membrane where all of the translation products are ultimately located. The proteins of the mitochondrial ribosome appear to play a number of important roles in the cell in addition to their function in protein biosynthesis, including roles in apoptosis and in cell cycle control. [source]

Current Views of European Anthropologists on Race: Influence of Educational and Ideological Background

Katarzyna A. Kaszycka
ABSTRACT, Significant differences in views on race (once a core anthropological concept) occur between scientists from different countries. In light of the ongoing race debate, we present the concept's current status in Europe. On three occasions in 2002,03, we surveyed European anthropologists' opinions toward the biological race concept. The participants were asked whether they agreed that there are biological races within the species Homo sapiens. A dependence was sought between the type of response and several factors. Three of these factors,country of academic education, discipline, and age,were found to be significant in differentiating the replies. Respondents educated in Western Europe, physical anthropologists, and middle-aged persons reject race more frequently than respondents educated in Eastern Europe, people in other branches of science, and those from both younger and older generations. The survey shows that the views of anthropologists on race are sociopolitically (ideologically) influenced and highly dependent on education. [Keywords: human races, race concept, physical anthropology, Europe] [source]

Time,Temperature,Transformation (TTT) Diagrams for Crystallization of Metal Oxide Thin Films

Jennifer L. M. Rupp
Abstract Time,temperature,transformation (TTT) diagrams are proposed for the crystallization of amorphous metal oxide thin films and their specific characteristics are discussed in comparison to glass-based materials, such as glass-ceramics and metallic glasses. The films crystallize from amorphous to full crystallinity in the solid state. As an example the crystallization kinetics for a single-phase metal oxide, ceria, and its gadolinia solid solutions are reported made by the precipitation thin-film method spray pyrolysis. The crystallization of an amorphous metal oxide thin film generally follows the Lijschitz,Sletow,Wagner (LSW) Ostwald ripening theory: Below the percolation threshold of 20 vol% single grains crystallize in the amorphous phase and low crystallization rates are measured. In this state no impact of solute on crystallization is measurable. Once the grains form primary clusters above the threshold the solute slows down crystallization (and grain growth) thus shifting the TTT curves of the doped ceria films to longer times and higher temperatures in comparison to undoped ceria. Current views on crystallization of metal oxide thin films, the impact of solute dragging, and primary TTT diagrams are discussed. Finally, examples on how to use these TTT diagrams for better thermokinetic engineering of metal oxide thin films for MEMS are given, for example, for micro-Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and resistive sensors. In these examples the electrical properties depend on the degree of crystallinity and, thereby, on the TTT conditions. [source]

Progress in understanding the biology of the human mutagen LINE-1,,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 6 2007
Daria V. Babushok
Abstract Long interspersed nucleotide element (LINE)-1 retrotransposon (L1) has emerged as the largest contributor to mammalian genome mass, responsible for over 35% of the human genome. Differences in the number and activity levels of L1s contribute to interindividual variation in humans, both by affecting an individual's likelihood of acquiring new L1-mediated mutations, as well as by differentially modifying gene expression. Here, we report on recent progress in understanding L1 biology, with a focus on mechanisms of L1-mediated disease. We discuss known details of L1 lifecycle, including L1 structure, transcriptional regulation, and the mechanisms of translation and retrotransposition. Current views on cell type specificity, timing, and control of retrotransposition are put forth. Finally, we discuss the role of L1 as a mutagen, using the latest findings in L1 biology to illuminate molecular mechanisms of L1-mediated gene disruption. Hum Mutat 28(6), 527,539, 2007. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Consequences of Test Score Use as Validity Evidence: Roles and Responsibilities

Paul D. Nichols
This article has three goals. The first goal is to clarify the role that the consequences of test score use play in validity judgments by reviewing the role that modern writers on validity have ascribed for consequences in supporting validity judgments. The second goal is to summarize current views on who is responsible for collecting evidence of test score use consequences by attempting to separate the responsibilities of the test developer and the test user. The last goal is to offer a framework that attempts to prescribe the conditions under which the responsibility for collecting evidence of consequences falls to the test developer or to the test user. [source]

Ecological control analysis: being(s) in control of mass flux and metabolite concentrations in anaerobic degradation processes

Wilfred F. M. Röling
Summary Identification of the functional groups of microorganisms that are predominantly in control of fluxes through, and concentrations in, microbial networks would benefit microbial ecology and environmental biotechnology: the properties of those controlling microorganisms could be studied or monitored specifically or their activity could be modulated in attempts to manipulate the behaviour of such networks. Herein we present ecological control analysis (ECA) as a versatile mathematical framework that allows for the quantification of the control of each functional group in a microbial network on its process rates and concentrations of intermediates. In contrast to current views, we show that rates of flow of matter are not always limited by a single functional group; rather flux control can be distributed over several groups. Also, control over intermediate concentrations is always shared. Because of indirect interactions, through other functional groups, the concentration of an intermediate can also be controlled by functional groups not producing or consuming it. Ecological control analysis is illustrated by a case study on the anaerobic degradation of organic matter, using experimental data obtained from the literature. During anaerobic degradation, fermenting microorganisms interact with terminal electron-accepting microorganisms (e.g. halorespirers, methanogens). The analysis indicates that flux control mainly resides with fermenting microorganisms, but can shift to the terminal electron-accepting microorganisms under less favourable redox conditions. Paradoxically, halorespiring microorganisms do not control the rate of perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene degradation even though they catalyse those processes themselves. [source]


EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2004
Erika I. Hersch
Abstract The advent of multiple regression analyses of natural selection has facilitated estimates of both the direct and indirect effects of selection on many traits in numerous organisms. However, low power in selection studies has possibly led to a bias in our assessment of the levels of selection shaping natural populations. Using calculations and simulations based on the statistical properties of selection coefficients, we find that power to detect total selection (the selection differential) depends on sample size and the strength of selection relative to the opportunity of selection. The power of detecting direct selection (selection gradients) is more complicated and depends on the relationship between the correlation of each trait and fitness and the pattern of correlation among traits. In a review of 298 previously published selection differentials, we find that most studies have had insufficient power to detect reported levels of selection acting on traits and that, in general, the power of detecting weak levels of selection is low given current study designs. We also find that potential publication bias could explain the trend that reported levels of direct selection tend to decrease as study sizes increase, suggesting that current views of the strength of selection may be inaccurate and biased upward. We suggest that studies should be designed so that selection is analyzed on at least several hundred individuals, the total opportunity of selection be considered along with the pattern of selection on individual traits, and nonsignificant results be actively reported combined with an estimate of power. [source]

The evolutionary history of crustacean segmentation: a fossil-based perspective

Dieter Waloszek
Summary The evolution of segmentation in Crustacea, that is, the formation of sclerotized and jointed body somites and arrangement of somites into tagmata, is viewed in light of historical traits and functional constraints. The set of Early to Late Cambrian ,Orsten' arthropods have informed our current views of crustacean evolution considerably. These three-dimensionally preserved fossils document ancient morphologies, as opposed to purely hypothetical models and, because of the unusual preservation of larval stages, provide us with unparalleled insight into the morphogenesis of body somites and their structural equipment. The variety of evolutionary levels represented in the ,Orsten' including lobopodians, tardigrades, and pentastomids also allows phylogenetic interpretations far beyond the Crustacea. The ,Orsten' evidence and data from representatives of the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang biota in southwestern China, including phylogenetically earlier forms, form the major source of our morphology-based review of structural and functional developments that led toward the Crustacea. The principal strategy of arthropods is the simultaneous development of head somites, as expressed in a basal "head larva," and a successive addition of postcephalic somites from a preterminal budding zone with progressive maturation of metameric structures. This can be recognized in the developmental patterns of extant and fossil representatives of several euarthropod taxa, particularly crustaceans, trilobites, and chelicerates (at least basally). The development of these taxa points to an early somite-poor and free-living hatching stage. Embryonic development to a late stage within an egg, as occurring in recent onychophorans and certain in-group euarthropods, is regarded as achieved several times convergently. [source]


Simeon StammArticle first published online: 13 MAR 200
This Note discusses domestic violence in the military. Currently, in cases of domestic violence in the military, the Case Review Committee uses the Incident Severity Index for Spouse Abuse to determine the severity of abuse. The Case Review Committee uses this index when determining treatment options for the perpetrator of domestic violence. However, this index is extremely inconsistent with the current views and emerging research of domestic violence. This Note identifies the problems with the current system and gives recommendations for ways to improve the system. The Note concludes that a new system would enhance the military's ability to combat domestic violence. [source]

The evolution of development in Streptomyces analysed by genome comparisons

Keith F. Chater
Abstract There is considerable information about the genetic control of the processes by which mycelial Streptomyces bacteria form spore-bearing aerial hyphae. The recent acquisition of genome sequences for 16 species of actinobacteria, including two streptomycetes, makes it possible to try to reconstruct the evolution of Streptomyces differentiation by a comparative genomic approach, and to place the results in the context of current views on the evolution of bacteria. Most of the developmental genes evaluated are found only in actinobacteria that form sporulating aerial hyphae, with several being peculiar to streptomycetes. Only four (whiA, whiB, whiD, crgA) are generally present in nondifferentiating actinobacteria, and only two (whiA, whiG) are found in other bacteria, where they are widespread. Thus, the evolution of Streptomyces development has probably involved the stepwise acquisition of laterally transferred DNA, each successive acquisition giving rise either to regulatory changes that affect the conditions under which development is initiated, or to changes in cellular structure or morphology. [source]

Valuing health: a new proposal

Daniel M. Hausman
Abstract After criticizing existing systems of health measurement for their unargued commitment to evaluating health states in terms of preferences or well-being, this essay argues that public rather than private values of health states should help guide the allocation of health-related resources. Private evaluation of health states is relative to a prior individual choice of specific activities and goals, while public evaluation is relative to the whole range of important activities and goals. Public evaluation is concerned with securing a wide range of choices as well as with success given one's choice. A reasonable simplification from the public perspective is to focus on just two features of health states: the subjective feelings attached to health states and the limitations that health states imply on the range of important activities that individuals can pursue. Focusing on just these two dimensions permits the construction of a parsimonious classification of health states with regard to what matters most from the public perspective. This classification, which resembles those in the HALex and the Rosser and Kind Disability and Distress Index, might best be built on top of existing health-state classifications, by mapping the health states they define to activity-limitation/feeling pairs. To assign values to these pairs, I propose relying on deliberative groups to make comparisons among the pairs with respect to the relation ,is a more serious limitation on the range of objectives and good lives available to members of the population'. A ranking according to this property, is not a preference ranking, because it is not a ranking in terms of everything that matters to individuals. Working back from the weights attached to the activity-limitation/feeling pairs, one can impute weights for the health states in other classification systems that were mapped to those pairs. If those weights coincide roughly with current weights, then one legitimizes current weights and provides a vehicle for their public discussion and possible revision. If those weights do not coincide, then one has both an argument for revising current views of the cost effectiveness of treatments and policies and a method to carry out such a revision. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

How newcomers learn the social norms of an organization: A case study of the socialization of newly hired engineers

Russell F. Korte
Current scholarship views organizational socialization as a learning process that is primarily the responsibility of the newcomer. Yet recent learning research recognizes the importance of the social interactions in the learning process. This study investigated how newly hired engineers at a large manufacturing company learned job-related tasks and the social norms of the organization. From the perspective of social exchange theory, two major findings emerged from the data: (1) relationship building was the primary driver of socialization, and (2) the work group was the primary context for socialization. These findings challenge the current views of organizational socialization by accentuating the relational processes that mediate learning during socialization. [source]

The importance of nest cleaning in egg rejection behaviour of great reed warblers Acrocephalus arandinaceas

Csaba Moskát
We tested the importance of nest cleaning in egg rejection behaviour of the great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus in a highly parasitised population in which about 64% of nests are parasitised by the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus. Three types of objects of the same weight, texture and colour but with different shapes (dummy cuckoo eggs, sticks and disks) were placed into great reed warbler nests. We investigated the response of hosts in two stages of breeding: pre-incubation when the risk of brood parasitism is high, and during incubation when the risk of parasitism is low. The dummy cuckoo eggs were rejected less often than the other objects in both breeding stages, although we did not find any difference in the frequency of rejection between pre-incubation and incubation. We integrate these results into current views on the evolution of host,parasite interactions, and propose a hierarchical concept to understand egg rejection behaviour: (1) hosts reject all non-egg shaped objects as a general cleaning mechanism; (2) adaptations for the hosts' ability to recognise their own eggs allows them to distinguish these eggs from similar objects and parasitic eggs. [source]

A critical evaluation of current views regarding eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Clarifying points of confusion

Byron R. Perkins
EMDR is an active psychological treatment for PTSD that has received widely divergent reactions from the scientific and professional community. This article examines points of confusion in the published literature on EMDR, including the theoretical, empirical, and historical issues around EMDR and placebo effects, exposure procedures, the eye movement component, treatment fidelity issues, and outcome studies. It also examines historical information relevant to the scientific process and charges of "pseudoscience" regarding EMDR. We conclude that the confusion in the literature is due to (a) the lack of an empirically validated model capable of convincingly explaining the effects of the EMDR method, (b) inaccurate and selective reporting of research, (c) some poorly designed empirical studies, (d) inadequate treatment fidelity in some outcome research, and (e) multiple biased or inaccurate reviews by a relatively small group of authors. Reading the original research articles frequently helps to reduce the confusion arising from the research review literature. © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Clin Psychol 58: 77,97, 2002. [source]

Fish functional design and swimming performance

R. W. Blake
Classifications of fish swimming are reviewed as a prelude to discussing functional design and performance in an ecological context. Webb (1984a, 1998) classified fishes based on body shape and locomotor mode into three basic categories: body and caudal fin (BCF) periodic, BCF transient (fast-starts, turns) and median and paired fin (MPF) swimmers. Swimming performance and functional design is discussed for each of these categories. Webb hypothesized that specialization in any given category would limit performance in any other. For example, routine MPF swimmers should be penalized in BCF transient (fast-start propulsion). Recent studies offer much support for Webb's construct but also suggest some necessary amendments. In particular, design and performance compromises for different swimming modes are associated with fish that employ the same propulsor for more than one task (coupled, e.g. the same propulsor for routine steady swimming and fast-starts). For example, pike (BCF transient specialist) achieve better acceleration performance than trout (generalist). Pike steady (BCF periodic) performance, however, is inferior to that of trout. Fish that employ different propulsors for different tasks (decoupled, e.g. MPF propulsion for low-speed routine swimming and BCF motions for fast-starts) do not show serious performance compromises. For example, certain MPF low-speed swimmers show comparable fast-start performance to BCF forms. Arguably, the evolution of decoupled locomotor systems was a major factor underlying the adaptive radiation of teleosts. Low-speed routine propulsion releases MPF swimmers from the morphological constraints imposed by streamlining allowing for a high degree of variability in form. This contrasts with BCF periodic swimming specialists where representatives of four vertebrate classes show evolutionary convergence on a single, optimal ,thunniform' design. However, recent experimental studies on the comparative performance of carangiform and thunniform swimmers contradict some of the predictions of hydromechanical models. This is addressed in regard to the swimming performance, energetics and muscle physiology of tuna. The concept of gait is reviewed in the context of coupled and decoupled locomotor systems. Biomimetic approaches to the development of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles have given a new context and impetus to research and this is discussed in relation to current views of fish functional design and swimming performance. Suggestions are made for possible future research directions. [source]

The Psycho-Ecology of Armed Conflict

Deborah Du Nann Winter
As natural resources are depleted and global population grows, environmental security is becoming an increasingly salient dimension of long-term peace. In this article, we discuss current views of environmental security and go on to argue that the social psychological dimensions of resource-based conflict should also be addressed. We briefly describe six examples of such conflicts, and conclude that psychologists can play an important role in promoting peace, by bringing attention to, and helping find ways to mitigate, the psycho-ecological dimensions of armed conflict. [source]

Plant neurobiology and green plant intelligence: science, metaphors and nonsense

Paul C Struik
Abstract This paper analyses the recent debates on the emerging science of plant neurobiology, which claims that the individual green plant should be considered as an intelligent organism. Plant neurobiology tries to use elements from animal physiology as elegant metaphors to trigger the imagination in solving complex plant physiological elements of signalling, internal and external plant communication and whole-plant organisation. Plant neurobiology proposes useful concepts that stimulate discussions on plant behaviour. To be considered a new science, its added value to existing plant biology needs to be presented and critically evaluated. A general, scientific approach is to follow the so-called ,parsimony principle', which calls for simplest ideas and the least number of assumptions for plausible explanation of scientific phenomena. The extent to which plant neurobiology agrees with or violates this general principle needs to be examined. Nevertheless, innovative ideas on the complex mechanisms of signalling, communication, patterning and organisation in higher plants are badly needed. We present current views on these mechanisms and the specific role of auxins in regulating them. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Urgency: All or none phenomenon?,

Stefan De Wachter
Abstract Urgency is the key symptom of a very prevalent symptom complex, the overactive bladder syndrome. Addressing urgency as a hallmark for detrusor overactivity is for physicians very comfortable, but appears to be an oversimplification of a very complex symptom entity. This overview tries to put the relevant literature on urgency against the question whether urgency is an all or none phenomenon, and summarizes the current views on how urgency is perceived. Neurourol. Urodynam. 29:616,617, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The ageing male reproductive tract,

N Sampson
Abstract Ageing of the male reproductive system is characterized by changes in the endocrine system, hypogonadism, erectile dysfunction and proliferative disorders of the prostate gland. Stochastic damage accumulating within ageing leads to progressive dysregulation at each level of the hypothalamic,pituitary,gonadal (HPG) axis and in local auto/paracrine interactions, thereby inducing morphological changes in reproductive target organs, such as the prostate, testis and penis. Despite age-related changes in the HPG axis, endocrine functions are generally sufficient to maintain fertility in elderly men. Ageing of the male reproductive system can give rise to clinically relevant manifestations, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer (PCa) and erectile dysfunction (ED). In this review, we discuss morphological/histological changes occurring in these organs and current views and concepts of the underlying pathology. Moreover, we emphasize the molecular/cellular pathways leading to reduced testicular/penile function and proliferative disorders of the prostate gland. Copyright © 2007 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


John Y. S. Choi
Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) is an increasingly recognized syndrome of intra-abdominal hypertension and generalized physiological dysfunction in critically ill patients. Patients suffering a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) are at risk of developing ACS. The objective of the study was to compare the current views on the importance, prevalence and management of ACS after rAAA among Australian vascular surgeons and intensivists. A questionnaire was mailed to 116 registered vascular fellows from the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and 314 registered fellows of the Joint Faculty of Intensive Care Medicine. Data were collected on the prevalence and importance of ACS after rAAA and whether prophylactic measures were or should be taken to prevent ACS. Hypothetical clinical scenarios representing a range of ACS after rAAA were also presented. The responses were compared using ,2 -test and t -test. Sixty-seven per cent (78 of 116) of surgeons and 39% (122 of 314) of intensivists responded. Both groups estimated the prevalence of ACS after rAAA as between 10 and 30% and considered it an important entity. Only 30% of surgeons and 50% of intensivists suggested routine intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) monitoring. In patients with borderline IAP (18 mmHg), both groups believed that surgical intervention was unnecessary. Intensivists were more inclined to suggest surgical intervention for clinically deteriorating patients with an increased IAP (30 mmHg) compared with surgeons. Forty-three per cent of intensivists and 17% of surgeons suggested prophylactic (leaving the abdomen open) measures to prevent ACS in high-risk patients. Surgeons and intensivists have similar views on the prevalence and clinical importance of ACS after rAAA. Intensivists more frequently monitored IAP and suggested both early prophylactic and therapeutic intervention for ACS based on physiological and IAP findings. [source]

The cell death machinery governed by the p53 tumor suppressor in response to DNA damage

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 4 2010
Kiyotsugu Yoshida
The cellular response to genotoxic stress that damages DNA includes cell cycle arrest, activation of DNA repair, and in the event of irreparable damage, induction of apoptosis. However, the signals that determine cell fate, that is, survival or apoptosis, are largely unclear. The tumor suppressor p53 has been implicated in many important cellular processes, including regulation of apoptotic cell death. When cells encounter genotoxic stress, certain sensors for DNA lesions eventually stabilize and activate p53. Subsequently, p53 exerts its tumor suppressor function by transactivating numerous target genes. Active p53 is subjected to a complex and diverse array of covalent post-translational modifications, which selectively influence the expression of p53 target genes. In this regard, the molecular basis for how p53 induces apoptosis has been extensively studied; however, the relative contribution of each downstream effecter is still to be explored. Moreover, little is known about precise mechanisms by which modified p53 is capable of apoptosis induction. A thorough understanding for the whole picture of p53 modification in apoptosis will be extremely valuable in the development of highly effective and specific therapies for caner patients. This review is focused on the current views regarding the regulation of cell fate by p53 in the apoptotic response to DNA damage. (Cancer Sci 2010; 101: 831,835) [source]

Towards integrated paediatric services in the Netherlands: a survey of views and policies on collaboration in the care for children with cerebral palsy

B. J. G. Nijhuis
Abstract Aim, Worldwide, family-centred and co-ordinated care are seen as the two most desirable and effective methods of paediatric care delivery. This study outlines current views on how team collaboration comprising professionals in paediatric rehabilitation and special education and the parents of children with disabilities should be organized, and analyses the policies of five paediatric rehabilitation settings associated with the care of 44 children with cerebral palsy (CP) in the Netherlands. Methods, For an overview of current ideas on collaboration, written statements of professional associations in Dutch paediatric rehabilitation were examined. The policy statements of the five participating settings were derived from their institutional files. Documents detailing the collaborative arrangements involving the various professionals and parents were evaluated at the institutional level and at the child level. Involvement of the stakeholders was analysed based on team conferences. Results, Also in the Netherlands collaboration between rehabilitation and education professionals and parents is endorsed as the key principle in paediatric rehabilitation, with at its core the team conference in which the various priorities and goals are formulated and integrated into a personalized treatment plan. As to their collaborative approaches between rehabilitation centre and school, the five paediatric settings rarely differed, but at the child level approaches varied. Teams were large (averaging 10.5 members), and all three stakeholder groups were represented, but involvement differed per setting, as did the roles and contributions of the individual team members. Conclusion, Collaboration between rehabilitation and education professionals and parents is supported and encouraged nationwide. Views on collaboration have been formulated, and general guidelines on family-centred and co-ordinated care are available. Yet, collaborative practices in Dutch paediatric care are still developing. Protocols that carefully delineate the commitments to collaborate and that translate the policies into practical, detailed guidelines are needed, as they are a prerequisite for successful teamwork. [source]

Humoral immunity in renal transplantation: clinical significance and therapeutic approach

Ajda T. Rowshani
Abstract:, Donor-specific antibodies (DSA) form a significant barrier in solid organ transplantation of highly pre-sensitized candidates. Although avoiding transplantation over a positive cross-match test can largely prevent the occurrence of hyperacute antibody-mediated rejection, transplantation of highly pre-sensitized candidates is often complicated by the occurrence of acute and chronic antibody-mediated graft rejection leading to diminished graft function and survival. The pre-existent HLA and/or non-HLA-specific antibodies are without any doubt important contributing factors underlying humoral-mediated graft injury. Furthermore, increasing evidence underlines the association of newly formed de novo DSA after transplantation with poor graft function and survival. There is still a need to further develop desensitizing therapies not only to make transplantation of highly pre-sensitized candidates feasible, but also to reduce the new formation of allo-antibodies. Here, we summarize current views on desensitization therapies and the impact of the presence of DSA on the fate of the kidney graft. [source]