Current Topics (current + topics)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Primer and interviews: Gene regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

Julie C. Kiefer
Abstract The animal and plant kingdoms use many of the same molecular tools to build decidedly different multicellular organisms. Learning how plants approach challenges common to both kingdoms can inspire new ways of thinking in the animal biologist. This primer introduces how a weed from the mustard family, Arabidopsis thaliana, has been used to work through developmental problems. It also compares and contrasts gene regulation tools in animals and plants. Accompanying the primer is a discussion of current topics in root development with Arabidopsis researchers Philip N. Benfey, Ph.D., and Kenneth D. Birnbaum, Ph.D. Developmental Dynamics 238:2449,2458, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The role of research for integrated management of invasive species, invaded landscapes and communities

Yvonne M. Buckley
Summary 1Invaded landscapes and ecosystems are composed of multiple interacting networks and feed-back loops, sometimes leading to unexpected effects of management actions. In order to plan management for invaded systems we need to explicitly consider management goals before putting actions in place. Actions taken must be justified in terms of their amelioration of impacts of invaders, contribution to the management goals and the costs incurred. 2This Special Profile brings together papers on the management of invasive plants, transgenes, animals and diseases, leading to conclusions with clear policy and management relevance and contributing to some of the hottest current topics in invasion ecology: unexpected impacts of invaders, restoration of invasion resistance, distribution mapping, spatial epidemiology, escape of transgenes, community interactions and complex effects of management. 3As papers in this Special Profile demonstrate, management for amelioration of the impacts of invasive species will include a wide range of manipulations, not just of the invader itself but of both abiotic and biotic components of the system. In fact, several papers in this Special Profile show that indirect management of the community may be more effective than removal of the invader alone. 4As little information is generally available at the beginning of a management programme, an adaptive approach should be taken and the management objectives/goals revised throughout the management process. New methods are emerging for adaptive management; an example is presented in this Special Profile where a Bayesian model used for assessing eradication goals can be updated throughout the management process leading to refinement of management. 5Synthesis and applications. Applied research should be directed at providing decision support for managers throughout the management process and can be used to provide predictive tools for risk assessment of new invaders. The science of invasion ecology has much to contribute to the new challenge of natural or enhanced movement of organisms in relation to climate change. Methods and information from invasion ecology can be used to assess management goals, management actions and the risks of potential translocations before they are put in place. [source]

Nuclear receptors and drug disposition gene regulation

Rommel G. Tirona
Abstract In this minireview, the role of various nuclear receptors and transcription factors in the expression of drug disposition genes is summarized. Specifically, the molecular aspects and functional impact of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), nuclear factor-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), hepatocyte nuclear factor 1, (HNF1,), constitutive androstane receptor (LAR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor , (PPAR,), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, (HNF4,), vitamin D receptor (VDR), liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH1), liver X receptor (LXR,), small heterodimer partner-1 (SHP-1), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) on gene expression are detailed. Finally, we discuss some current topics and themes in nuclear receptor-mediated regulation of drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 94:1169,1186, 2005 [source]

Untangling Alzheimer's disease from fibrous lesions of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques

Hiroshi Mori
Neuropathological evidence suggests that the two fibril lesions of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and senile plaques are the major findings in brain tissue of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and that their occurrence is strongly associated with the symptoms of dementia. Genetic findings have indicated that the pathological molecules from the lesions function as causal agents. There is little evidence, however, to directly indicate that fibril lesions themselves kill neuronal cells in vivo. In spite of such limitations it is important to consider the molecular events involved in AD etiology. In this review of the contribution of Japanese neuropathologists to studies of AD, I will introduce briefly their work and highlight some current topics for consideration on the etiology of AD, and the basis of cell death, and will offer my perspective on outstanding conflicting issues. [source]

Nitrides as spintronic materials

Tomasz Dietl
The Guest Editors of the Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS-5), Hiroshi Amano and Takashi Udagawa, have nominated the invited presentation by Tomasz Dietl [1] as Editor's Choice of the present issue of physica status solidi (b). This paper is a progress report on spintronics-related issues in Mn-based III-nitrides as potential diluted magnetic semiconductors. The cover picture shows the computed values of the Curie temperature for various p-type III,V compounds containing 5% of Mn in the S = 5/2 high spin state and 3.5 1020 holes per cm3, predicting that TC should exceed room temperature in the Mn-based nitrides. Thomas Dietl is head of the Low-Temperature Physics Group and professor at the Institute of Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences. He is one of the most experienced researchers in the area of ferromagnetic semiconductors, spin-related phenomena and other current topics of semiconductor physics with many publications and invited talks at conferences and seminars world-wide. The full Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS-5) are published in physica status solidi (c) , conferences and critical reviews, Vol. 0, No. 7 (November 2003) (ISBN 3-527-40489-9). Conference papers can also be found in phys. stat. sol. (a) 200, No. 1 (2003). [source]


Hisaki KONO
F35; O19 "Microfinance revolution" is the term often applied to the successful expansion of small-scale financial services to the poor with high repayment records in developing countries. The present paper investigates the extent to which the microfinance revolution is truly revolutionary. More specifically, it explores the impact of microfinance institutions on the poor, the mechanisms underlying high repayment rates and their innovations, and the new challenges microfinance institutions are currently facing. Different from the existing published survey literature, we focus on current topics and attempt to show recent theoretical developments in a comprehensive manner using simplified models with very similar settings. We contend that microfinance is developing in a promising direction but has yet to reach its full potential. [source]