Current Threats (current + threat)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The role of shame and self-critical thinking in the development and maintenance of current threat in post-traumatic stress disorder

Rachel Harman
Abstract There is increasing recognition of emotions other than fear in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and recent research has looked at the role of shame. Cognitive theory suggests that PTSD is caused by traumatic experiences being processed in a way that causes ongoing current threat. In this paper we suggest that shame might contribute to the creation/maintenance of ongoing current threat as it attacks an individual's psychological integrity. A correlational design was used to investigate some of the factors that might contribute to a shame response within a PTSD sample. It was hypothesized that individuals with PTSD who report higher levels of shame would be more prone to engage in self-critical thinking and less prone to engage in self-reassuring thinking than individuals with PTSD who report lower levels of shame. Data were gathered using self-report questionnaires, and results supported the hypotheses. It is suggested therapy for shame-based PTSD needs to incorporate strategies to help individuals develop inner caring, compassion and self-reassurance. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: , Some individuals with PTSD report high levels of shame. , High levels of shame are associated with high levels of self-critical thinking and low levels of self-reassuring thinking. , Therapy for shame-based PTSD needs to incorporate strategies that help individuals develop inner caring, compassion and self-reassurance. [source]


Jeffrey Stout
ABSTRACT If militarism violates the ideals of liberty and justice in one way, and rapidly increasing social stratification violates them in another, then American democracy is in crisis. A culture of democratic accountability will survive only if citizens revive the concerns that animated the great reform movements of the past, from abolitionism to civil rights. It is crucial, when reasoning about practical matters, not only to admit how grave one's situation is, but also to resist despair. Therefore, the fate of democracy depends, to some significant degree, on how we choose to describe the crisis. Saying that we have already entered the new dark ages or a post-democratic era may prove to be a self-fulfilling prophecy, because anyone who accepts this message is apt to give up on the hard work of organizing and contestation that is needed to hold political representatives accountable to the people. This paper asks how one might strike the right balance between accuracy and hope in describing the democracy's current troubles. After saying what I mean by democracy and what I think the current threats to it are, I respond to Romand Coles's criticisms of reservations I have expressed before about rhetorical excess in the works of Stanley Hauerwas, Alasdair MacIntyre, and Richard Rorty. This leads to a discussion of several points raised against me by Hauerwas. A digression offers some of my reasons for doubting that John Howard Yoder's biblical scholarship vindicates Hauerwas's version of pacifism. The paper concludes by arguing that Sheldon Wolin's work on the evisceration of democracy, though admirably accurate in its treatment of the dangers posed by empire and capital, abandons the project of democratic accountability too quickly in favor of the romance of the fugitive. [source]

Biology, ecology and status of Iberian ibex Capra pyrenaica: a critical review and research prospectus

MAMMAL REVIEW, Issue 1 2009
ABSTRACT 1The Iberian ibex Capra pyrenaica is endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and of the four subspecies originally recognized, recent extinctions mean that only two now persist. Recent genetic analyses have cast doubt on the generally accepted taxonomy of the species, where four subspecies were distinguished by coat colour and horn morphology, and propose the distinction of two subspecies based on their mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphism. These analyses make clear the need for a comprehensive revision that integrates genetic and morphological approaches resulting in a definitive description and differentiation of the subspecies. 2Studies of ibex behavioural ecology and health status are scarce and generally descriptive. They should be implemented in an integrative way, taking into account the ecological requirements of the species, current population status, the presence of other sympatric wild and domestic ungulates, and the type of hunting regime and management in their distribution areas. 3A natural expansion of the species is currently taking place. Ibexes are present and well established in all the main mountain ranges of the Spanish Iberian Peninsula, and have recently expanded their range into the north of Portugal. Other authors estimated a total population of more than 50 000 individuals 10 years ago, distributed over more than 60 000 km2, with an average population density of 2.7 ibex/km2. However, these estimates were obtained prior to the species' recovery from recent epizootics of sarcoptic mange and should be updated. Survey methods, mainly direct count-based methods, should be adjusted to suit mountainous conditions, where it is difficult to estimate accurately the surveyed surface. 4A series of threats to ibex conservation have been identified, such as population overabundance, disease prevalence and potential competition with domestic livestock and invasive ungulates, along with negative effects of human disturbance through tourism and hunting. 5Applied ecological issues focused on the proper management of populations should be prioritized, along with the identification of current threats based on empirical, ecological data obtained from populations living in various ecological conditions in different regions. [source]

Potential impacts of projected sea-level rise on sea turtle rookeries

MMPB Fuentes
Abstract 1.Projected sea-level rise (SLR) is expected to cause shoreline erosion, saline intrusion into the water table and inundation and flooding of beaches and coastal areas. Areas most vulnerable to these physical impacts include small, tropical low-lying islands, which are often key habitat for threatened and endemic species, such as sea turtles. 2.Successful conservation of threatened species relies upon the ability of managers to understand current threats and to quantify and mitigate future threats to these species. This study investigated how sea-level rise might affect key rookeries (nesting grounds) (n=8) for the northern Great Barrier Reef (nGBR) green turtle population, the largest green turtle population in the world. 3.3-D elevation models were developed and applied to three SLR scenarios projected by the IPCC 2007 and an additional scenario that incorporates ice melting. Results indicate that up to 38% of available nesting area across all the rookeries may be inundated as a result of SLR. 4.Flooding, as a result of higher wave run-up during storms, will increase egg mortality at these rookeries affecting the overall reproductive success of the nGBR green turtle population. Information provided will aid managers to prioritize conservation efforts and to use realistic measures to mitigate potential SLR threats to the nGBR green turtle population. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]