Current Study (current + study)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


III. THE CURRENT STUDY

MONOGRAPHS OF THE SOCIETY FOR RESEARCH IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2007
Article first published online: 28 JUN 200
First page of article [source]


Prognostic factors for classifying extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type, as lymphoid neoplasia

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
Im I. Na
Abstract This study evaluated the applicability of prognostic factors commonly used for diagnosis of classical lymphoma outcomes to extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (NTCL). Clinical features and their associations with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were evaluated in 70 patients. RLDH was defined as the ratio of LDH to the upper normal limit. RLDH was associated with stage (I,II vs. III,IV), lymph node involvement (LNI), and International Prognostic Index score (<2 vs. ,2). Poor performance status and advanced stage were common in patients with local tumor invasiveness (LTI). LDH level, classified into three levels (low, high, and very high) was associated with survival (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the predictive values of LDH level, B symptom, performance status, and stage remained significant whereas those of LTI and LNI did not. Scoring was performed by weighting each factor with 0.5 or 1.0 according to its hazard ratio. Scores were classified into four groups. Groups with high scores were associated with unfavorable outcomes (P < 0.001). Current study suggests that prognostic factors for NHL may be useful to predict the outcome of NTCL but the model should take LDH level and the prognostic weight of each factor into account. [source]


Genotoxicity of Achillea millefolium essential oil in diploid cells of Aspergillus nidulans

PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH, Issue 2 2009
Juliane Rocha de Sant'Anna
Abstract The essential oil of Achillea millefolium is commonly used in folk medicine for the treatment of several diseases and has been demonstrated previously to exert an in vitro antimicrobial activity against human pathogens. Current study investigates the genotoxic activity of A. millefolium oil. The oil's major constituents are: chamazulene (42.15%), sabinene (19.72%), terpin-4-ol (5.22%), , -caryophyllene (4.44%) and eucalyptol (3.10%), comprising 74.63% of the total. The oil's genotoxic evaluation was performed at concentrations of 0.13 無/mL, 0.19 無/mL and 0.25 無/mL with a heterozygous diploid strain of Aspergillus nidulans, named A757//UT448, with green conidia. A statistically significant increasing number of yellow and white mitotic recombinants, per colony, of the diploid strain was reported after oil treatment with 0.19 無/mL and 0.25 無/mL concentrations. The genotoxicity of the oil was associated with the induction of mitotic non-disjunction or crossing-over by oil. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


The continuing rise of contact dermatitis, Part 2: The scientific journal

CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 4 2009
Derek R. Smith
Background: Although citation analysis represents an increasingly common method for examining the performance of scientific journals, few longitudinal studies have been conducted in the specialist fields of dermatology. Objectives: The objective of this study was to provide the first comprehensive bibliometric analysis of Contact Dermatitis for the 30-year period between 1977 and 2006. Materials and Methods: Detailed historical data were extracted from the Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and systematically analysed. The most highly cited articles published in the journal were also identified and then examined for citation frequency and lag time. Results: Citation analysis showed that the impact factor of Contact Dermatitis has increased significantly over the past 30 years, experiencing a sixfold improvement between 1977 and 2006. Conclusions: Bibliometric trends as identified in the current study clearly demonstrate the ongoing rise of Contact Dermatitis, from early beginnings in the mid-1970s, into the leading scientific periodical we know today. [source]


Hand eczema: causes, course, and prognosis I

CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 6 2008
Niels K. Veien
Background:, Hand eczema is a common dermatosis. The course is often protracted. The prognosis is not well described. Objective:, To describe in detail a consecutive cohort of hand eczema patients with regard to aetiology and morphology as well as the dynamics of the hand eczema. Patients and Methods:, This prospective study included 522 consecutive patients (175 men and 347 women with hand eczema) seen in 1 year in a private practice of dermatology. 425 (81%) of the patients were patch tested in relation to the current study. Most of the remainder had been previously patch tested. Results:, 38% had mild dermatitis, 49% had dermatitis of moderate severity, and 11% had severe dermatitis. 23% had had dermatitis for more than 10 years. 33% had irritant contact dermatitis, 13% of the men and 20% of the women had allergic contact dermatitis, and 15% of the men and 16% of the women had atopic dermatitis. For 34% of the men and 29% of the women, the dermatitis was certainly or possibly occupational. There was no relationship to smoking. Conclusions:, The majority of this cohort of hand eczema patients had long-standing disease. Irritant contact dermatitis was the most common aetiological diagnosis. [source]


Acute exercise reverses TRB3 expression in the skeletal muscle and ameliorates whole body insulin sensitivity in diabetic mice

ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2010
A. Matos
Abstract Aim:, TRB3 became of major interest in diabetes research when it was shown to interact with and inhibit the activity of Akt. Conversely, physical exercise has been linked to improved glucose homeostasis. Thus, the current study was designed to investigate the effects of acute exercise on TRB3 expression and whole body insulin sensitivity in obese diabetic mice. Methods:, Male leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice swam for two 3-h-long bouts, separated by a 45-min rest period. After the second bout of exercise, food was withdrawn 6 h before antibody analysis. Eight hours after the exercise protocol, the mice were submitted to an insulin tolerance test (ITT). Gastrocnemius muscle samples were evaluated for insulin receptor (IR) and IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, Akt serine phosphorylation, TRB3/Akt association and membrane GLUT4 expression. Results:, Western blot analysis showed that TRB3 expression was reduced in the gastrocnemius of leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice submitted to exercise when compared with respective ob/ob mice at rest. In parallel, there was an increase in the insulin-signalling pathway in skeletal muscle from leptin-deficient mice after exercise. Furthermore, the GLUT4 membrane expression was increased in the muscle after the exercise protocol. Finally, a single session of exercise improved the glucose disappearance (KITT) rate in ob/ob mice. Conclusion:, Our results demonstrate that acute exercise reverses TRB3 expression and insulin signalling restoration in muscle. Thus, these results provide new insights into the mechanism by which physical activity ameliorates whole body insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. [source]


Overload-induced skeletal muscle extracellular matrix remodelling and myofibre growth in mice lacking IL-6

ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2009
J. P. White
Abstract Aim:, Overloading healthy skeletal muscle produces myofibre hypertrophy and extracellular matrix remodelling, and these processes are thought to be interdependent for producing muscle growth. Inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene expression is induced in overloaded skeletal muscle, and the loss of this IL-6 induction can attenuate the hypertrophic response to overload (OV). Although the OV induction of IL-6 in skeletal muscle may be an important regulator of inflammatory processes and satellite cell proliferation, less is known about its role in the regulation of extracellular matrix remodelling. The purpose of the current study was to examine if OV-induced extracellular matrix remodelling, muscle growth, and associated gene expression were altered in mice that lack IL-6, when compared with wild-type mice. Methods:, Male C57/BL6 (WT) and C57/BL6 IL-6,/, (IL-6,/,) mice (10 weeks of age) were assigned to either a sham control or synergist ablation OV treatments for 3, 21 or 56 days. Result:, Plantaris muscle mass increased 59% in WT and 116% in IL-6,/, mice after 21 day OV. Myofibre CSA was also increased by 21 day OV in both WT and IL-6,/, mice. OV induced a twofold greater increase in the volume of non-contractile tissue in IL-6,/, muscle compared to WT. OV also induced a significantly greater accumulation of hydroxyproline and procollagen-1 mRNA in IL-6,/, muscle, when compared with WT muscle after 21 day OV. Transforming growth factor-, and insulin-like growth factor-1 mRNA expression were also induced to a greater extent in IL-6,/, muscle when compared with WT muscle after 21 day OV. There was no effect of IL-6 loss on the induction of myogenin, and cyclin D1 mRNA expression after 3 day OV. However, MyoD mRNA expression in 3 day OV IL-6,/, muscle was attenuated when compared with WT OV mice. Conclusion:, IL-6 appears to be necessary for the normal regulation of extracellular matrix remodelling during OV-induced growth. [source]


The World Has Changed,Have Analytical Procedure Practices?

CONTEMPORARY ACCOUNTING RESEARCH, Issue 2 2010
GREG TROMPETER
M1; M42 Analytical Procedures (APs) provide a means for auditors to evaluate the "reasonableness" of financial disclosures by comparing a client's reported performance to expectations gained through knowledge of the client based on past experience and developments within the company and its industry. Thus, APs are fundamentally different than other audit tests in taking a broader perspective of an entity's performance vis--vis its environment. As such, APs have been found to be a cost-effective means to detect misstatements, and many have argued that a number of prior financial frauds would have been detected had auditors employed effective APs. With several dramatic and far-reaching developments over the past decade, the current study examines whether and how APs have changed during this period. In particular, we focus on the impact of significant "enablers" and "drivers" of change such as technological advancements and the enactment of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We also compare our findings to an influential study of the practices of APs by Hirst and Koonce (1996) that was conducted over 10 years ago. We interview 36 auditors (11 seniors, 13 managers, and 12 partners) from all of the Big 4 firms using a structured questionnaire. The data reveal some similarities in findings when compared to prior research (e.g., auditors continue to use fairly simple analytical procedures). However, there are a number of significant differences reflecting changes in AP practices. For instance, as a result of technology auditors now rely more extensively on industry and analyst data than previously. Further, auditors report that they develop more precise quantitative expectations and use more non-financial information. They also appear to rely more on lower level audit staff to perform APs, conduct greater inquiry of non-accounting personnel, and are willing to reduce substantive testing to a greater extent as a result of APs conducted in the planning phase. Finally, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act has had an impact in greater consideration and knowledge of internal controls, which is seen as the most important factor driving the use and reliance on APs. [source]


Different adaptations of alpha-actinin isoforms to exercise training in rat skeletal muscles

ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2009
Y. Ogura
Abstract Aim:, Alpha (,)-actinins are located in the skeletal muscle Z-line and form actin,actin cross-links. Mammalian skeletal muscle has two isoforms: ,-actinin-2 and ,-actinin-3. However, the response of ,-actinin to exercise training is little understood. Therefore, the current study examined the effects of exercise training on the expression level of two ,-actinin isoforms in skeletal muscles. Methods:, Twelve male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to a control (C; n = 6) or exercise training (T; n = 6) group. After T animals were trained on an animal treadmill for 9 weeks, ,-actinin-2 and ,-actinin-3 levels in the plantaris, white and red gastrocnemius muscles were analysed. In addition, changes in the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition were assessed, and muscle bioenergetic enzyme activities were measured. Results:, Results show that exercise training increased ,-actinin-2 expression levels in all muscles (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found in ,-actinin-3 expression levels between C and T animals. Subsequent MyHC analyses of all muscle showed an MyHC shift with direction from IIb to IIa. Furthermore, enzymatic analysis revealed that exercise training improved enzyme activities related to aerobic metabolism. Conclusion:, The results of this study demonstrate that exercise training alters the expression level of ,-actinin at the isoform level. Moreover, the increase in expression levels of ,-actinin-2 is apparently related to alteration of skeletal muscle: its aerobic capacity is improved. [source]


CULTURALLY-FOCUSED BATTERER COUNSELING FOR AFRICAN-AMERICAN MEN,

CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 2 2007
EDWARD W. GONDOLF
Research Summary: Clinicians and researchers have strongly recommended culturally-focused counseling with African-American men arrested for domestic violence. An experimental clinical trial tested the effectiveness of this approach against conventional cognitive-behavioral counseling in all-African-American groups and in racially-mixed groups (N = 501). No significant difference was found in the reassault rate reported by the men's female partners over a 12-month follow-up period (23% overall). During that period, men in the racially-mixed groups were, moreover, half as likely to be rearrested for domestic violence as the men in the culturally-focused groups. The men's level of racial identification did not significantly affect the outcomes of the counseling options. Policy Implications: Simply adding a culturally-focused counseling group to domestic violence programs does not seem in itself to improve outcomes. In the current study, the culturally-focused counseling was an appendage to an existing agency closely linked to the criminal justice system. Culturally-focused counseling may prove to be more effective within community-based organizations tied to local services and supports. [source]


How predictive is a cervical smear suggesting invasive squamous cell carcinoma?

CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
S. J. Johnson
How predictive is a cervical smear suggesting invasive squamous cell carcinoma? Features have been described in severely dyskaryotic cervical smears that suggest frankly invasive or microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma. These are reported in three separate categories in our department. The aim of the current study was to assess the positive predictive value of these categories for invasive disease on histology. All smears reported in these categories over a five year period were correlated with the histology results. 527 smears were assessed. The positive predictive value of a smear suggesting frank invasion was 55.7% for all invasive squamous carcinomas and 40% for stage IB or above. Smears suspicious of invasion or microinvasion predicted invasive disease in 22.3% and 17.2%, respectively, most carcinomas being stage IA. Invasive squamous cell carcinoma may be predicted to a limited degree by cervical cytology especially when the smear suggests frank invasion. [source]


Comparative assessment of time-related bioactive glass and calcium hydroxide effects on mechanical properties of human root dentin

DENTAL TRAUMATOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
Monika Marending
These materials have a disinfecting capacity similar to Ca(OH)2, but bear the advantage of bioactivity. However, because bioactive glasses initially act as alkaline biocides just as Ca(OH)2 does, they may also negatively affect mechanical dentin properties over time. This was assessed in the current study using standardized human root dentin bars. Specimens were immersed in 1:20 (wt vol,1) suspensions of nanometric bioactive glass 45S5 or calcium hydroxide for 1, 10, or 30 days. Control specimens were immersed in pure saline for 30 days (n = 20 per group). Subsequently, modulus of elasticity (E) and flexural strength (FS) of the specimens were determined. Results were compared between groups using one-way anova and Scheff's post-hoc test. Ca(OH)2 caused a significant (P < 0.001) 35% drop in mean flexural strength values compared to the control treatment after 10 days. No further change was observed between 10 days and 30 days. Bioactive glass caused a 20% drop in mean flexural strength as compared to the control after 10 days. However, this difference did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05). No effects of either material on dentin modulus of elasticity values were observed. It was concluded that the calcium hydroxide suspension affected the dentin more than the bioactive glass counterpart; however, the effect was self-limiting and probably restricted to superficial dentin layers, as suggested by the mere decrease in flexural strength but not in modulus of elasticity values. [source]


Role for primary cilia in the regulation of mouse ovarian function

DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 8 2008
Ellen T. Johnson
Abstract Ift88 is a component of the intraflagellar transport complex required for formation and maintenance of cilia. Disruption of Ift88 results in depletion of cilia. The goal of the current study was to determine the role of primary cilia in ovarian function. Deletion of Ift88 in ovary using Cre-Lox recombination in mice resulted in a severe delay in mammary gland development including lack of terminal end bud structures, alterations in the estrous cycle, and impaired ovulation. Because estrogen drives the formation of end buds and Cre was expressed in the granulosa cells of the ovary, we tested the hypothesis that addition of estradiol to the mutant mice would compensate for defects in ovarian function and rescue the mammary gland phenotype. Mammary gland development including the formation of end bud structures resumed in mutant mice that were injected with estradiol. Together the results suggest that cilia are required for ovarian function. Developmental Dynamics 237:2053,2060, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Analysis of Meox - 2 mutant mice reveals a novel postfusion-based cleft palate

DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 2 2006
Jiu-Zhen Jin
Abstract Cleft palate represents a common human congential disease involving defects in the development of the secondary palate. Major steps in mammalian palatogenesis include vertical growth, elevation, and fusion of the palate shelves. Our current study with the homeobox gene Meox - 2 during mouse secondary palate development reveals a novel postfusion-based mechanism for cleft palate. Meox - 1 and Meox - 2 are two functionally related homeobox genes playing important roles in somitogenesis and limb muscle differentiation. We found that the expression of Meox - 2, not Meox - 1, marks the specification of early mouse palatal mesenchymal cells in the maxillary processes at embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5). From E12.5 to E15.5, the expression of Meox - 2 occupies only the posterior part of the palate, providing an early molecular marker for the anterior,posterior polarity in mouse secondary palate formation. A total of 35.3% of Meox - 2,/, (n = 17) and 25.5% of Meox - 2+/, (n = 55) mouse embryos display a cleft palate phenotype at E15.5, indicating that the reduction of Meox - 2 function is associated with susceptibility to cleft palate. Unlike previously reported clefts, none of the clefts found in Meox - 2 mutants contain any epithelial sheets in the medial edge areas, and detailed examination revealed that the clefts resulted from the breakdown of newly fused palates. This article is the first report of a gene required to maintain adherence of the palatal shelves after fusion. Developmental Dynamics 235:539,546, 2006. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Contractile activity of skeletal musculature involved in breathing is essential for normal lung cell differentiation, as revealed in Myf5,/,:MyoD,/, embryos

DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 3 2005
Mohammad Reza Inanlou
Abstract In the current study, the role of contractile activity of respiratory muscles in fetal lung growth and cell differentiation was examined using Myf5,/,:MyoD,/, mouse embryos. As previously found, Myf5,/,:MyoD,/, mouse embryos had no respiratory musculature. Consequently, they suffered from pulmonary hypoplasia and died shortly after birth. The hypoplastic lung had decreased proliferation and increased apoptotic index as early as embryonic day 14.5. By contrast, only at the last gestational day, the number of lung cells expressing platelet derived growth factor B and insulin growth factor I was decreased, while the gradient of the thyroid transcription factor 1 was not maintained. Type II pneumocytes had a failure in glycogen utilization and surfactant storage and secretion but were able to synthesize the surfactant-associated proteins. Type I pneumocytes were readily detectable using an early differentiation marker (i.e., Gp38). However, the late differentiation of type I pneumocytes never occurred, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Together, our findings suggest that pulmonary distension due to fetal breathing-like movements plays an important role not only in lung growth but also in lung cell differentiation. Developmental Dynamics 233:772,782, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


ROCK inhibitor (Y27632) increases apoptosis and disrupts the actin cortical mat in embryonic avian corneal epithelium

DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 3 2004
Kathy K.H. Svoboda
Abstract The embryonic chicken corneal epithelium is a unique tissue that has been used as an in vitro epithelial sheet organ culture model for over 30 years (Hay and Revel [1969] Fine structure of the developing Avian cornea. Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger A.G.). This tissue was used to establish that epithelial cells could produce extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as collagen and proteoglycans (Dodson and Hay [1971] Exp Cell Res 65:215,220; Meier and Hay [1973] Dev Biol 35:318,331; Linsenmayer et al. [1977] Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 74:39,43; Hendrix et al. [1982] Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 22:359,375). This historic model was also used to establish that ECM proteins could stimulate actin reorganization and increase collagen synthesis (Sugrue and Hay [1981] J Cell Biol 91:45,54; Sugrue and Hay [1982] Dev Biol 92:97,106; Sugrue and Hay [1986] J Cell Biol 102:1907,1916). Our laboratory has used the model to establish the signal transduction pathways involved in ECM-stimulated actin reorganization (Svoboda et al. [1999] Anat Rec 254:348,359; Chu et al. [2000] Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41:3374,3382; Reenstra et al. [2002] Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43:3181,3189). The goal of the current study was to investigate the role of ECM in epithelial cell survival and the role of Rho-associated kinase (p160 ROCK, ROCK-1, ROCK-2, referred to as ROCK), in ECM and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) -mediated actin reorganization. Whole sheets of avian embryonic corneal epithelium were cultured in the presence of the ROCK inhibitor, Y27632 at 0, 0.03, 0.3, 3, or 10 ,M before stimulating the cells with either collagen (COL) or LPA. Apoptosis was assessed by Caspase-3 activity assays and visualized with annexin V binding. The ROCK inhibitor blocked actin cortical mat reformation and disrupted the basal cell lateral membranes in a dose-dependent manner and increased the apoptosis marker annexin V. In addition, an in vitro caspase-3 activity assay was used to determine that caspase-3 activity was higher in epithelia treated with 10 ,M Y-27632 than in those isolated without the basal lamina or epithelia stimulated with fibronectin, COL, or LPA. In conclusion, ECM molecules decreased apoptosis markers and inhibiting the ROCK pathway blocked ECM stimulated actin cortical mat reformation and increased apoptosis in embryonic corneal epithelial cells. Developmental Dynamics 229:579,590, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Ephrin-A5 regulates the formation of the ascending midbrain dopaminergic pathways

DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
Margaret A. Cooper
Abstract Dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain project to the caudate/putamen and nucleus accumbens, respectively, establishing the mesostriatal and the mesolimbic pathways. However, the mechanisms underlying the development of these pathways are not well understood. In the current study, the EphA5 receptor and its corresponding ligand, ephrin-A5, were shown to regulate dopaminergic axon outgrowth and influence the formation of the midbrain dopaminergic pathways. Using a strain of mutant mice in which the EphA5 cytoplasmic domain was replaced with ,-galactosidase, EphA5 protein expression was detected in both the ventral tegmental area and the substantia nigra of the midbrain. Ephrin-A5 was found in both the dorsolateral and the ventromedial regions of the striatum, suggesting a role in mediating dopaminergic axon-target interactions. In the presence of ephrin-A5, dopaminergic neurons extended longer neurites in in vitro coculture assays. Furthermore, in mice lacking ephrin-A5, retrograde tracing studies revealed that fewer neurons sent axons to the striatum. These observations indicate that the interactions between ephrin-A ligands and EphA receptors promote growth and targeting of the midbrain dopaminergic axons to the striatum. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2009 [source]


Effects of auditory input in individuation tasks

DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE, Issue 6 2008
Christopher W. Robinson
Under many conditions auditory input interferes with visual processing, especially early in development. These interference effects are often more pronounced when the auditory input is unfamiliar than when the auditory input is familiar (e.g. human speech, pre-familiarized sounds, etc.). The current study extends this research by examining how auditory input affects 8- and 14-month-olds' performance on individuation tasks. The results of the current study indicate that both unfamiliar sounds and words interfered with infants' performance on an individuation task, with cross-modal interference effects being numerically stronger for unfamiliar sounds. The effects of auditory input on a variety of lexical tasks are discussed. [source]


Administration of myostatin does not alter fat mass in adult mice

DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, Issue 2 2008
L. E. Stolz
Aim: Myostatin, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, is produced by skeletal muscle and acts as a negative regulator of muscle mass. It has also been suggested that low-dose administration of myostatin (2 ,g/day) in rodents can reduce fat mass without altering muscle mass. In the current study, we attempted to further explore the effects of myostatin on adipocytes and its potential to reduce fat mass, since myostatin administration could potentially be a useful strategy to treat obesity and its complications in humans. Methods: Purified myostatin protein was examined for its effects on adipogenesis and lipolysis in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes as well as for effects on fat mass in wild-type, myostatin null and obese mice. Results: While myostatin was capable of inhibiting adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, it did not alter lipolysis in fully differentiated adipocytes. Importantly, pharmacological administration of myostatin over a range of doses (2,120 ,g/day) did not affect fat mass in wild-type or genetically obese (ob/ob, db/db) mice, although muscle mass was significantly reduced at the highest myostatin dose. Conclusions: Our results suggest that myostatin does not reduce adipose stores in adult animals. Contrary to prior indications, pharmacological administration of myostatin does not appear to be an effective strategy to treat obesity in vivo. [source]


Cancer risk among patients hospitalized for Type 1 diabetes mellitus: a population-based cohort study in Sweden

DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 7 2010
X. Shu
Diabet. Med. 27, 791,797 (2010) Abstract Aims, Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease with potential mechanistic links to immune-related cancers. We aimed at examining the overall and specific cancer risks among hospitalized T1DM patients from the national registers in Sweden. Methods, A T1DM research cohort was created by identifying T1DM patients from the Hospital Discharge Register and linking them with the Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for subsequent cancers were calculated among patients with T1DM compared with those without T1DM. Results, Two hundred and fifty-eight cases were ascertained with subsequent cancers during the follow-up duration from 1964 to 2006, with an increased overall SIR of 1.17 (95% CI 1.04,1.33) among 24 052 T1DM patients identified at baseline. Significant excess was noted for gastric and skin (squamous cell carcinoma) cancers and for leukaemia. Increased risk of acute lymphatic leukaemia accounted for most of the variation of leukaemia risk (SIR = 5.31, 95% CI 3.32,8.05). Cancer risk varied with sex, age at first hospitalization and numbers of hospitalizations. The risk was higher in women compared with men and in those hospitalized for T1DM at age over 10 years compared with the younger patients. Higher risks were also found among those with more hospital visits. Conclusion, By quantifying the variations of overall and site-specific cancer risks after T1DM, the current study provides novel associations between T1DM and subsequent cancers, the mechanisms of which remain to be established. [source]


Papillary thyroid carcinoma with atypical histiocytoid cells on fine-needle aspiration

DIAGNOSTIC CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
Manju Harshan M.D.
Abstract Although papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) usually has classic cytological characteristics on fine-needle aspiration (FNA), it can present rarely with aberrant features resembling those of histiocytes in a cystic nodule. The aim of the current study was to describe PTC with atypical histiocytoid cells and distinguish it from benign histiocytes. A retrospective computerized search for FNAs with atypical features suggestive of PTC and cystic degeneration was performed, and if available, the corresponding resection specimens were compared. Four cases met the criteria for FNAs and three had surgical pathology follow-up, which showed PTC. One aspirate had some features typical of PTC, but the remaining FNAs had atypical histiocytoid cells, which had traits intermediate between those of PTC and histiocytes. Large cell size, pseudoinclusions, nuclear grooves, and multiple well-defined vacuoles in atypical histiocytoid cells favor PTC over benign histiocytes. Ancillary immunocytochemical studies can also be useful in confirming the diagnosis. Histiocytic cells are frequently present in thyroid aspirates, and occasionally, they have atypical features that represent an unusual presentation of PTC. Closer examination of these cells can provide diagnostic clues for preventing false-negative diagnosis of PTC. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Role of computerized morphometric analysis in diagnosis of effusion specimens

DIAGNOSTIC CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 10 2006
B. Arora M.D.
Abstract The present study was undertaken to compare morphometric analysis of cells in 100 effusion samples, with unaided cytological diagnosis. All the cases in the form of Leishman's stained smears were subjected to computerized-interactive morphometry (CIM) by usage of Image analysis software. On routine cytological examination, 44 cases were benign, 26 were malignant, and 30 cases were placed in "atypical" category. On morphometry, values for mean nuclear area (MNA) and mean cytoplasmic area (MCA) in benign cases were found to be 58.39 12.22 ,m2 and 185.70 43.69 ,m2, while for malignant cases were 120.12 16.28 ,m2 and 274.65 61.01 ,m2, respectively (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, highly significant). Significant differences were also noted among benign, atypical, and malignant cases for MNA (P < 0.001). The differences between atypical and malignant cases for N/C (nuclear/cytoplasmic) ratio were also found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). Finally, 46 cases were found to be benign, 39 malignant, and 15 in the category of atypical cases. CIM helps in better and quicker sorting for malignant cells. MNA and N/C ratio are the most significant parameters in differentiating various cells in effusions. MCA constitutes as another useful parameter. Salient features of CIM, including their applications in the light of current study, are discussed. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2006;34:670,675. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Effects of (,)-carveol and HPMC on the in vitro ocular transport and the in vivo intraocular pressure lowering effects of dorzolamide formulations in normotensive New Zealand rabbits

DRUG DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH, Issue 3 2009
Mohsen I. Afouna
Abstract The objective of the current study was to maximize the ocular bioavailability of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, dorzolamide hydrochloride (DZD) via (a) enhancement of DZD corneal transport using terpene enhancers, (b) reducing pre-corneal loss of the installed dose via increased formulation viscosity, and (c) assessment of the in vivo intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effects of test formulations using rabbit. DZD was formulated as a 2% ophthalmic solution containing different concentrations of HPMC as a viscosity improving agent (VIA), and (,)-carveol as a corneal penetration enhancer. The transport of DZD from test formulations was quantitatively determined using in vitro diffusion experiments, the permeability parameters were mathematically calculated, and the in vivo IOP lowering effects were assessed using a Tono-Pen XL tonometer. The results revealed a good correlation between the in vitro permeability parameters and the in vivo ,IOP. The magnitude of the DZD-IOP lowering effects and durations of actions for DZD formulations were dependent on (a) the concentration of (,)-carveol, and (b) the contact period with ocular tissue which was found to be a single-valued function of the HPMC as VIA. Drug Dev Res 70, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


The histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 induces p21WAF1/Cip1 expression in human Hep3B hepatoma cells

DRUG DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH, Issue 2 2007
Haiyuan Zhang
Abstract MS-275 is a novel synthetic benzamide derivative histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, that has demonstrated antiproliferative activity in a variety of in vitro human cancer cell lines including breast, colon, lung, myeloma, ovary, pancreas, prostate, and leukemia. Currently, little information is available concerning the effects of MS-275 on liver cancer cells. In the current study, MS-275 was found to have potent actions against human hepatoma Hep3B cells including inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. MS-275 selectively up-regulated a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21WAF1/Cip1 without alteration of p27WAF1. Expression of p21WAF1/Cip1 is considered to play a pivotal role in Hep3B cell growth arrest and induction of apoptosis. Induction of p21WAF1/Cip1 expression was accompanied by an accumulation of acetylated histones H3 and H4 associated specifically with p21WAF1/Cip1 gene. ChIP analysis revealed remarkable alterations in protein components bound to the promoter region of p21WAF1/Cip1 gene in response to MS-275 treatment. These included the degradation of HDAC1, HDAC3, and c-Myc, and as well as increased p300 and RNA polymerase II. The selective effect of MS-275 on the up-regulation of the p21WAF1/Cip1 gene whose expression was suppressed in the hepatoma cancer cell line indicated that it would be a very attractive approach in clinical liver cancer therapy. Drug Dev Res 68:61,70, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Left Ventricular Function in Male Patients with Secondary Hypogonadism

ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2007
Oben Baysan M.D.
Background: In addition to the effects on ventricular repolarization, testosterone could also affect left ventricular performance. The enhancement of left ventricular contractility in testosterone-deficient rats following testosterone replacement implies to the possible testosterone effect. Objectives: The aim of the current study is to reveal the alterations of left ventricular functions, if any, in secondary hypogonadal male patients. Methods: Thirty-four males with secondary hypogonadism comprised the study group. The control group consisted of 30 healthy subjects. Echocardiographic measurements including left ventricular dimensions, ejection fraction, mitral inflow, and left ventricular outflow parameters were obtained from all subjects. Tissue Doppler parameters were also measured from left ventricular lateral wall and interventricular septum. Results: Left ventricular diameters, wall thicknesses, and performance parameters were similar in both groups. Mitral inflow parameters showed a statistically insignificant difference. Pulse-wave tissue Doppler interpretation of hypogonadal and healthy subjects were similar in terms of lateral and septal basal segment Sm, Em, and Am wave velocities. Conclusions: Regarding the findings of previous studies that showed impaired myocardial contractility and lusitropy in testosterone deficient rats and our study results, further studies are needed for better understanding of testosterone's effects on human myocardium. [source]


Transesophageal and Transpharyngeal Ultrasound Demonstration of Reversed Diastolic Flow in Aortic Arch Branches and Neck Vessels in Severe Aortic Regurgitation

ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2004
Deepak Khanna M.D.
In the current study, we describe an adult patient with torrential aortic regurgitation due to an aortic dissection flap interfering with aortic cusp motion, in whom a transesophageal echocardiogram with the probe positioned in the upper esophagus and transpharyngeal ultrasound examination demonstrated prominent reversed flow throughout diastole in the left subclavian, left vertebral, left common carotid, and left internal carotid arteries. Another unique finding was the demonstration of aortic valve leaflets held in the fully opened position in diastole by the dissection flap as it prolapsed into the left ventricular outflow tract, dramatically documenting the mechanism of torrential aortic regurgitation in this patient. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Volume 21, May 2004) [source]


Matching motivation enhancement treatment to client motivation: re-examining the Project MATCH motivation matching hypothesis

ADDICTION, Issue 8 2010
Katie Witkiewitz
ABSTRACT Aims The current study was designed to re-examine the motivation matching hypothesis from Project MATCH using growth mixture modeling, an analytical technique that models variation in individual drinking patterns. Design, setting and participants Secondary data analyses of data from Project MATCH (n = 1726), a large multi-site alcoholism treatment-matching study. Measurements Percentage of drinking days was the primary outcome measure, assessed from 1 month to 12 months following treatment. Treatment assignment, alcohol dependence symptoms and baseline percentage of drinking days were included as covariates. Findings The results provided support for the motivation matching hypothesis in the out-patient sample and among females in the aftercare sample: the majority of individuals with lower baseline motivation had better outcomes if assigned to motivation enhancement treatment (MET) compared to those assigned to cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT). In the aftercare sample there was a moderating effect of gender and alcohol dependence severity, whereby males with lower baseline motivation and greater alcohol dependence drank more frequently if assigned to MET compared to those assigned to CBT. Conclusions Results from the current study lend partial support to the motivation-matching hypothesis and also demonstrated the importance of moderating influences on treatment matching effectiveness. Based upon these findings, individuals with low baseline motivation in out-patient settings and males with low levels of alcohol dependence or females in aftercare settings may benefit more from motivational enhancement techniques than from cognitive,behavioral techniques. [source]


Variation among individual butterflies along a generalist,specialist axis: no support for the ,neural constraint' hypothesis

ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
BRIAN WEE
Abstract 1.,Degree of host specialisation was a continuous variable in a population of Edith's checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha). A novel host, Collinsia torreyi, had been added to the diet in response to anthropogenic disturbance, and then abandoned prior to the current study. Butterflies either showed no preference or preferred their traditional host, Pedicularis semibarbata. 2.,Strength of preference for Pedicularis over Collinsia was measured in the field and used to estimate host specialisation of individual butterflies. Efficiency was estimated from the times taken by each insect to perform two tasks: (i) identification of a Pedicularis plant as a host, and (ii) successful initiation of oviposition after the decision to do so had been made. 3.,There was no clear trend for association between host specialisation and either measure of efficiency. Generalists were not slower than specialists at identifying Pedicularis as a host or at handling it after deciding to oviposit. 4.,Prior work indicated that generalists paid no detectable cost in terms of reduced discrimination among individuals of their preferred host species. 5.,In contrast to other species, generalist E. editha paid in neither time nor accuracy. Why then does the diet not expand? Behavioural adaptations to the traditional host caused maladaptations to the novel host and generated short-term constraints to evolutionary expansion of diet breadth. To date, however, no long-term constraints have been found in this system. In those traits investigated to date, increased adaptation to the novel host has not caused reduced adaptation to the traditional host. [source]


Non-random distribution among a guild of parasitoids: implications for community structure and host survival

ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
ANTHONY M. ROSSI
Abstract 1.,Immature stages of the gall midge, Asphondylia borrichiae, are attacked by four species of parasitoids, which vary in size and relative abundance within patches of the gall midge's primary host plant, sea oxeye daisy (Borrichia frutescens). 2.,In the current study, a bagging experiment found that the smallest wasp, Galeopsomyia haemon, was most abundant in galls exposed to natural enemies early in the experiment, when gall diameter is smallest, while the wasp with the longest ovipositor, Torymus umbilicatus, dominated the parasitoid community in galls that were not exposed until the 5th and 6th weeks when gall diameter is maximal. 3.,Moreover, the mean number of parasitoids captured using large artificial galls were 70% and 150% higher compared with medium and small galls respectively, while stem height of artificial galls significantly affected parasitoid distribution. Galls that were level with the top of the sea oxeye canopy captured 60% more parasitoids compared with those below the canopy and 50% more than galls higher than the plant canopy. 4.,These non-random patterns were driven primarily by the differential distribution of the largest parasitoid, T. umbilicatus, which was found significantly more often than expected on large galls and the smallest parasitoid of the guild, G. haemon, which tended to be more common on stems level with the top of the plant canopy. 5.,Large Asphondylia galls, especially those located near the top of the Borrichia canopy, were more likely to be discovered by searching parasitoids. Results using artificial galls were consistent with rates of parasitism of Asphondylia galls in native patches of sea oxeye daisy. Gall diameter was 19% greater and the rate of parasitism was reduced by almost 50% on short stems; as a result, gall abundance was 24% higher on short stems compared with ones located near the top of the plant canopy. 6.,These results suggest that parasitoid community composition within galls is regulated by both interspecific differences in ovipositor length and preferences for specific gall size and/or stem length classes. [source]


Preventing growth in amphetamine use: long-term effects of the Midwestern Prevention Project (MPP) from early adolescence to early adulthood

ADDICTION, Issue 10 2009
Nathaniel R. Riggs
ABSTRACT Aim The aim of the current study was to examine the long-term effect of an early adolescent substance abuse prevention program on trajectories and initiation of amphetamine use into early adulthood. Design Eight middle schools were assigned randomly to a program or control condition. The randomized controlled trial followed participants through 15 waves of data, from ages 11,28 years. This longitudinal study design includes four separate periods of development from early adolescence to early adulthood. Setting The intervention took place in middle schools. Participants A total of 1002 adolescents from one large mid-western US city were the participants in the study. Intervention The intervention was a multi-component community-based program delivered in early adolescence with a primary emphasis on tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use. Measures At each wave of data collection participants completed a self-report survey that included questions about life-time amphetamine use. Findings Compared to a control group, participants in the Midwestern Prevention Project (MPP) intervention condition had reduced growth (slope) in amphetamine use in emerging adulthood, a lower amphetamine use intercept at the commencement of the early adulthood and delayed amphetamine use initiation. Conclusions The pattern of results suggests that the program worked first to prevent amphetamine use, and then to maintain the preventive effect into adulthood. Study findings suggest that early adolescent substance use prevention programs that focus initially on the ,gateway' drugs have utility for long-term prevention of amphetamine use. [source]