Current State (current + state)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


The Agency Costs of Overvalued Equity and the Current State of Corporate Finance

EUROPEAN FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, Issue 4 2004
Michael C. Jensen
First page of article [source]


Thoughts on the Current State of Criticism in Architecture

JOURNAL OF ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION, Issue 3 2009
GEORGE BAIRD
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Geomechanics and Tunnelling 2/2010

GEOMECHANICS AND TUNNELLING, Issue 1 2010
Article first published online: 24 FEB 2010
Semmering and Koralm tunnels Neue Südbahn, Semmering und Koralm Tunnel F. Bauer: Investment in the Austrian rail network , overview of new and upgrading projects , Investitionen in das österreichische Schienennetz , Überblick Neu- und Ausbauvorhaben G. Gobiet and D. Haas: New Semmering Base Tunnel project , an interdisciplinary challenge , Semmering Basistunnel Neu , eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung A. Fasching, R. Vanek, Th. Stadlmann, P. Reichl, G. Domberger, G. Forstinger and O. Wagner: New Semmering Base Tunnel , the investigation programme 2008/2009 and the knowledge gained in the areas of geology, hydrogeology and geotechnical engineering , Semmering-Basistunnel Neu , Das Erkundungsprogramm 2008/2009 und die daraus gewonnenen Erkenntnisse auf den Gebieten der Geologie, Hydrogeologie und Geotechnik J. Daller, A. Vigl and O. Wagner: New Semmering Base Tunnel , the current state of tunnel design taking the newest investigation results into account , Semmering-Basistunnel Neu , Aktueller Stand der Tunnelplanung unter Berücksichtigung der neuesten Erkundungsergebnisse R. Bopp, V. Langer, Ch. Neumann and O. Wagner: The ventilation and tunnel safety concept for the New Semmering Base Tunnel , Das Lüftungs- und Tunnelsicherheitskonzept für den Semmering-Basistunnel Neu G. Harer and J. Koinig: Current state of design, investigation and construction work at the Koralm Tunnel , Aktueller Stand der Planungs-, Erkundungs- und Ausführungsarbeiten beim Koralmtunnel P. Schubert, H. Hölzl, P. Sellner and F. Fasching: Geomechanical knowledge gained from the Paierdorf Investigation Tunnel in the section through the Lavanttal main fault zone , Geomechanischer Wissenszuwachs durch den Erkundungstunnel Paierdorf im Abschnitt der Lavanttaler Hauptstörungszone D. Handke, M. Nolden, K. Mussger and A. Steidl: Solution methods for the design and construction of contract KAT 3 , Lösungsansätze für Planung und Bauausführung des Bauloses KAT 3 M. Vill, H. Wagner, A. Schweighofer, H. Huber, W. Pichler and J. Kollegger: New development of a crack-limited invert slab , Neuentwicklung der rissebeschränkten Sohlplatte M. Stopka: Hengsberg Tunnel , the construction contract as seen by the contractor , Hengsbergtunnel , der Bauvertrag aus Sicht des Auftragnehmers T. Schachinger, H. Gaube and G. Krainer: Results from the Untersammelsdorf test field for the planning of the tunnelling work , Erkenntnisse aus dem Versuchsfeld Untersammelsdorf für die Gestaltung der Vortriebsmaßnahmen K. Chmelina and K. Rabensteiner: Improvement of the safety and profitability of tunnel drives through the use of automated measurement and alarm systems , examples in practice , Verbesserung der Sicherheit und Wirtschaftlichkeit von Tunnelvortrieben durch den Einsatz automatisierter Mess- und Alarm-systeme , Ausführungsbeispiele [source]


Current state and prospects of macromolecular crystallography

ACTA CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA SECTION D, Issue 1 2006
Zbigniew Dauter
The current situation and possible future development of macromolecular crystallography are reviewed. The rapid progress and maturation of this field in recent years have to a large extent been made possible by the inspiration and generous support of several active structural genomics initiatives. Two tendencies can be currently observed: one which treats protein crystallography as a highly automatic tool for investigating various biological problems without the need to engage in the intricacies of the technique and a second approach where this method is applied to crystals of difficult, large and complex biological systems, requiring a deeper knowledge of various aspects of crystallography. In the near future it is expected that these two trends will coexist, developing in a parallel fashion. [source]


Serious Games: Broadening Games Impact Beyond Entertainment

COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 3 2007
Ben Sawyer
Computer and videogames for many years has been an island of technology and design innovation largely left to itself as it morphed from a cottage business into a global media and software industry. While there have been pockets of derivative activity related to games and game technology only in the last half-dozen years has there been a real movement toward exploiting this industry in many new and exciting ways. Today the general use of games and game technologies for purposes beyond entertainment is collectively referred to as serious games. The Serious Games Initiative was formed in 2002 and since its inception has been among a number of critical efforts that has helped open up the world and many disciplines to the ideas and innovations that may be sourced from the commercial, independent, and academic game fields. This has been a person-by-person, project-by-project effort that not only has informed us about the potential of games but also in how you merge innovation and innovators from one discipline with those in another. In this talk we will explore the total gamut of the serious games field identifying past the obvious how games and game technologies are being applied to problems in a wide array of areas including healthcare, productivity, visualization, science, and of course training and education. Once a proper definition of serious games is established the talk will focus on the current state of the field as it relates to research and infrastructure issues that are needed to make the difference between seeing serious games take hold as a major new practice or having it devolve into another trend of the moment lost to history. [source]


Death Rides the Forest: Perceptions of Fire, Land Use, and Ecological Restoration of Western Forests

CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2004
J. BOONE KAUFFMAN
fuego prescrito; incendios catastróficos; incendios en áreas silvestres; incendios no controlados; reducción de riesgo de combustible; restauración de bosques; tala de bosques Abstract:,Large wild fires occurring in forests, grasslands, and chaparral in the last few years have aroused much public concern. Many have described these events as "catastrophes" that must be prevented through aggressive increases in forest thinning. Yet the real catastrophes are not the fires themselves but those land uses, in concert with fire-suppression policies that have resulted in dramatic alterations to ecosystem structure and composition. The first step in the restoration of biological diversity (forest health) of western landscapes must be to implement changes in those factors that have caused degradation or are preventing recovery. This includes changes in policies and practices that have resulted in the current state of wildland ecosystems. Restoration entails much more than simple structural modifications achieved though mechanical means. Restoration should be undertaken at landscape scales and must allow for the occurrence of dominant ecosystem processes, such as the natural fire regimes achieved through natural and/or prescribed fires at appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Resumen:,En años recientes, grandes incendios en bosques, pastizales y chaparrales han causado bastante preocupación en la opinión pública. Muchos han descrito estos eventos como "catástrofes" que deben ser prevenidas mediante incrementos agresivos en la tala de bosques. Pero los incendios mismos no son las verdaderas catástrofes, sino los usos del suelo en conjunto con políticas de supresión de fuego que han resultado en alteraciones dramáticas de la estructura y composición de ecosistemas. El primer paso en la restauración de la diversidad biológica (salud del bosque) en paisajes occidentales debe ser la implementación de cambios en los factores que causaron la degradación o que están impidiendo la recuperación. Esto incluye cambios en políticas y prácticas que han resultado en el estado actual de ecosistemas en áreas silvestres. La restauración implica mucho más que simples modificaciones estructurales obtenidas mediante medios mecánicos. La restauración debe llevarse a cabo a nivel de paisaje y debe permitir que ocurrencia de procesos ecológicos dominantes (por ejemplo, regímenes de incendios naturales logrados mediante incendios naturales y/o prescritos en escalas temporales y espaciales apropiadas). [source]


Geriatric Emergency Medicine and the 2006 Institute of Medicine Reports from the Committee on the Future of Emergency Care in the U.S. Health System

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 12 2006
Scott T. Wilber MD
Abstract Three recently published Institute of Medicine reports, Hospital-Based Emergency Care: At the Breaking Point, Emergency Medical Services: At the Crossroads, and Emergency Care for Children: Growing Pains, examined the current state of emergency care in the United States. They concluded that the emergency medicine system as a whole is overburdened, underfunded, and highly fragmented. These reports did not specifically discuss the effect the aging population has on emergency care now and in the future and did not discuss special needs of older patients. This report focuses on the emergency care of older patients, with the intent to provide information that will help shape discussions on this issue. [source]


Guest Lecture 9.00,9.45 Wednesday 17 September 2003

CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 2003
Peter A. Hall MD PhD FRCPath
The past decades have seen an explosion in our knowledge of the molecular events underpinning the pathogenesis of many disease processes. Furthermore, there have been enormous technical advances with the ability to identify, clone and sequence genes and to characterize their protein products now being common place in research settings. However, despite many claims as to the utility of molecular and biochemical methods in pathology only very few laboratories employ such methods in a clinical setting. Indeed the impact of molecular medicine has been more talked about than real. Why is this? The goal of this presentation is to address this question and present some perspectives on the future of Molecular Pathology. I shall overview, for the BSCC, the current state of the technology available for gene analysis and to explore the developments needed before the mirage of molecular pathology becomes a clinical reality. [source]


Pediatric psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis

DERMATOLOGIC THERAPY, Issue 5 2004
Debra Lewkowicz
ABSTRACT:, Psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are not uncommon among the pediatric population. Recognizing and treating these chronic disorders in children present unique challenges for the dermatologist. Paucity of clinical trials and a dearth of available treatment modalities, many of which carry significant risk or adverse effects, can make treating pediatric psoriasis and PsA a daunting task. This review attempts to define and consolidate the current state of knowledge with regards to this disease spectrum. The need for further clinical trials to investigate treatment options in the pediatric population is also discussed. [source]


Epidemiology of Down syndrome

DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES RESEARCH REVIEW, Issue 3 2007
Stephanie L. Sherman
Abstract Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur in ,1 in 732 infants in the United States, although there is some evidence that variability in prevalence of estimates exist among racial/ethnic groups. Progress has been made in characterizing the specific types of chromosome errors that lead to DS and in identifying associated factors that increase the risk of chromosome 21 malsegregation, i.e., advanced maternal age and recombination. Studies to examine the variability of the presence of specific DS-associated birth defects and medical conditions provide evidence for genetic and environmental modifiers. Here, we provide a brief survey of studies that address the current state of the field and suggest gaps in research that can soon be filled with new multidisciplinary approaches and technological advances. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MRDD Research Reviews 2007;13:221,227. [source]


Neurocognitive effects of treatment for childhood cancer

DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES RESEARCH REVIEW, Issue 3 2006
Robert W. Butler
Abstract We review research on the neuropsychological effects that central nervous system (CNS) cancer treatments have on the cognitive abilities of children and adolescents. The authors focus on the two most common malignancies of childhood: leukemias and brain tumors. The literature review is structured so as to separate out earlier studies, generally those published prior to 1995, as opposed to manuscripts that have been published within the past decade. This is an important distinction for both leukemia and brain tumors. Earlier studies were ground breaking in that they began to map out what could be expected in terms of intelligence and academic problems in survivors of pediatric malignancies. Survivorship in this population has and continues to markedly increase and this is largely due to changes in treatment protocols. Research on neurocognitive effects of disease and treatment in pediatric oncology has become increasingly sophisticated, and this literature review not only reflects this trend, but highlights the growing collaboration between neuropsychology, cognitive neuroscience, and neuro-imaging. Thus, our goal was to provide a historical foundation, lead the reader towards the progression of research methodology up to the current state of the art, and perhaps most importantly, discuss future directions. These directions are especially relevant to the concepts of remediation and treatment of cognitive problems, and this is emphasized at the conclusion of the review. MRDD Research Reviews 2006;12:184,191. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Occupational therapy using a sensory integrative approach for children with developmental disabilities

DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES RESEARCH REVIEW, Issue 2 2005
Roseann C. Schaaf
Abstract This article provides an introduction and overview of sensory integration theory as it is used in occupational therapy practice for children with developmental disabilities. This review of the theoretical tenets of the theory, its historical foundations, and early research provides the reader with a basis for exploring current uses and applications. The key principles of the sensory integrative approach, including concepts such as "the just right challenge" and "the adaptive response" as conceptualized by A. Jean Ayres, the theory's founder, are presented to familiarize the reader with the approach. The state of research in this area is presented, including studies underway to further delineate the subtypes of sensory integrative dysfunction, the neurobiological mechanisms of poor sensory processing, advances in theory development, and the development of a fidelity measure for use in intervention studies. Finally, this article reviews the current state of the evidence to support this approach and suggests that consensual knowledge and empirical research are needed to further elucidate the theory and its utility for a variety of children with developmental disabilities. This is especially critical given the public pressure by parents of children with autism and other developmental disabilities to obtain services and who have anecdotally noted the utility of sensory integration therapy for helping their children function more independently. Key limiting factors to research include lack of funding, paucity of doctorate trained clinicians and researchers in occupational therapy, and the inherent heterogeneity of the population of children affected by sensory integrative dysfunction. A call to action for occupational therapy researchers, funding agencies, and other professions is made to support ongoing efforts and to develop initiatives that will lead to better diagnoses and effective intervention for sensory integrative dysfunction, which will improve the lives of children and their families. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MRDD Research Reviews 2005;11:143,148. [source]


Comparative psychology is still alive but may be losing relevance

DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
Victor H. Denenberg
Abstract Greenberg et al., in their perspective on the current state and fate of comparative psychology, present convincing data that the field is viable and that comparative psychologists are making important contributions to the research literature. The central feature of the field is its emphasis upon evolution. This is also its weakness since advances in genetic techniques permit researchers to create laboratory animals that have no counterpart in the natural world, and thus have no evolutionary history. These "unnatural" animals are widely used in behavioral, biological, and medical studies, but the findings cannot be interpreted within a comparative psychology framework. As the use of these preparations expand, the relevance of comparative psychology diminishes. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 44: 21,25, 2004. [source]


The effect of thiazolidinediones on adiponectin serum level: a meta-analysis

DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, Issue 5 2008
N. Riera-Guardia
Background and aims:, Adiponectin is a hormone mainly produced by white adipose tissue. Decreased levels of adiponectin are linked with visceral obesity, insulin resistance states, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, several studies have pointed out an increase in adiponectin serum levels in subjects undergoing treatment with thiazolidinediones (TZD). The aim of this study is to systematically review the current state of evidence of the effect of TZD on adiponectin serum level with special attention to avoid publication bias. Materials and methods:, An extensive literature search was performed. Meta Analysis Version 2.0 computer program was used to calculate statistical differences in means and 95% confidence interval (CI). Publication bias was assessed using different statistical approaches. Results:, In the meta-analysis including 19 studies the overall standardized mean difference was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.81,1.06) which means that subjects treated with TZDs on average had means of adiponectin concentration that were about 1 standard deviation higher than the comparison groups even after controlling for possible biases. Conclusions:, The results obtained agree with a moderate increase of serum adiponectin. The results clearly reveal an increase of endogenous serum adiponectin levels by intake of TZDs and may point to a potential new option to manage obesity-related diseases. [source]


The role of Lay Review Committees in diabetes research

DIABETES/METABOLISM: RESEARCH AND REVIEWS, Issue 4 2003
David P. Stenger
Abstract Type 1 diabetes is unique among disease entities in having a large voluntary health nonprofit organization (the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation) that employs the process of review by laypersons (following a review by scientists) in selecting the recipients of its funding awards to individual investigators/trainees: grants, career-development awards, fellowships, and ,innovative grants.' Therefore, that organization can be a suitable model on which an examination of lay review can be based. This paper summarizes (1) the history of how lay review originated and (2) this foundation's experience with it, (3) assesses the impact of the procedure on the discipline of diabetes science, and (4) examines the role it might play in the future, given the current state of that discipline. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


A national survey of the current state of screening services for diabetic retinopathy: ABCD,Diabetes UK survey of specialist diabetes services 2006

DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 12 2009
D. K. Nagi
Abstract The main aims were to ascertain the progress made in the implementation of retinal screening services and to explore any barriers or difficulties faced by the programmes. The survey focused on all the essential elements for retinal screening, including assessment and treatment of screen-positive cases. Eighty-five per cent of screening programmes have a coordinated screening service and 73% of these felt that they have made significant progress. Eighty-five per cent of screening units use ,call and recall' for appointments and 73.5% of programmes follow the National Screening Committee (NSC) guidance. Although many units worked closely with ophthalmology, further assessment and management of screen-positive patients was a cause for concern. The fast-track referral system, to ensure timely and appropriate care, has been difficult to engineer by several programmes. This is demonstrated by 48% of programmes having waiting lists for patients identified as needing further assessment and treatment for retinopathy. Ophthalmology service for people with diabetic retinopathy was provided by a dedicated ophthalmologist in 89.4% of the programmes. Sixty-six per cent of the programmes reported inadequate resources to sustain a high-quality service, while 26% highlighted the lack of infrastructure and 49% lacked information technology (IT) support. In conclusion, progress has been made towards establishing a national screening programme for diabetic retinopathy by individual screening units, with a number of programmes providing a structured retinal screening service. However, programmes face difficulties with resource allocation and compliance with Quality Assurance (QA) standards, especially those which apply to ophthalmology and IT support. Screening programmes need to be resourced adequately to ensure comprehensive coverage and compliance with QA. [source]


Barrett's esophagus: current and future role of endosonography and optical coherence tomography

DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 2 2004
S. A. Faruqi
SUMMARY., This paper reviews the role of endosonography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging of Barrett's esophagus (BE). The routine use of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) to screen patients with BE is neither justified nor cost effective. EUS does appear to have a role in patients who have BE and high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal carcinoma, in whom a non-operative therapy is being contemplated. For patients with a diagnosis of esophageal cancer with or without BE, EUS is superior to computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging for assessing esophageal wall penetration and for detecting regional lymph node involvement. In its current state, OCT is not yet ready for application in clinical practice. However, given its superior resolution compared with other modalities such as EUS, OCT has great potential as a powerful adjunct to standard endoscopy in surveillance of BE and may enhance the ability of endoscopists to detect high-grade dysplasia at an early stage. With further technical refinement, this technique may become a mainstay in the surveillance of BE and other premalignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. [source]


Staging anorexia nervosa: conceptualizing illness severity

EARLY INTERVENTION IN PSYCHIATRY, Issue 1 2008
Sarah Maguire
Abstract In recent years, there has been increasing attention to the conceptualization of anorexia nervosa (AN) and its diagnostic criteria. While varying levels of severity within the illness category of AN have long been appreciated, neither a precise definition of severity nor an empirical examination of severity in AN has been undertaken. The aim of this article is to review the current state of knowledge on illness severity and to propose a theoretical model for the definition and conceptualization of severity in AN. AN is associated with significant medical morbidity which is related to the ,severity' of presentation on such markers as body mass index, eating and purging behaviours. The development of a functional staging system, based on symptom severity, is indicated for reasons similar to those cited by the cancer lobby. Improving case management and making appropriate treatment recommendations have been the primary purpose of staging in other fields, and might also apply to AN. Such a standardized staging system could potentially ease communication between treatment settings, and increase the specificity and comparability of research findings in the field of AN. [source]


Drug Policy and the Public Good: a summary of the book

ADDICTION, Issue 7 2010
Drugs, Public Policy Group
ABSTRACT Drug Policy and the Public Good was written by an international group of scientists from the fields of addiction, public health, criminology and policy studies to improve the linkages between drug research and drug policy. The book provides a conceptual basis for evidence-informed drug policy and describes epidemiological data on the global dimensions of drug misuse. The core of the book is a critical review of the cumulative scientific evidence in five general areas of drug policy: primary prevention programmes in schools and other settings; health and social services for drug users; attempts to control the supply of drugs, including the international treaty system; law enforcement and ventures into decriminalization; and control of the psychotropic substance market through prescription drug regimes. The final chapters discuss the current state of drug policies in different parts of the world and describe the need for future approaches to drug policy that are coordinated and informed by evidence. [source]


Smoking-based selection and influence in gender-segregated friendship networks: a social network analysis of adolescent smoking

ADDICTION, Issue 7 2010
Liesbeth Mercken
ABSTRACT Aims The main goal of this study was to examine differences between adolescent male and female friendship networks regarding smoking-based selection and influence processes using newly developed social network analysis methods that allow the current state of continuously changing friendship networks to act as a dynamic constraint for changes in smoking behaviour, while allowing current smoking behaviour to be simultaneously a dynamic constraint for changes in friendship networks. Design Longitudinal design with four measurements. Setting Nine junior high schools in Finland. Participants A total of 1163 adolescents (mean age = 13.6 years) who participated in the control group of the ESFA (European Smoking prevention Framework Approach) study, including 605 males and 558 females. Measurements Smoking behaviour of adolescents, parents, siblings and friendship ties. Findings Smoking-based selection of friends was found in male as well as female networks. However, support for influence among friends was found only in female networks. Furthermore, females and males were both influenced by parental smoking behaviour. Conclusions In Finnish adolescents, both male and female smokers tend to select other smokers as friends but it appears that only females are influenced to smoke by their peer group. This suggests that prevention campaigns targeting resisting peer pressure may be more effective in adolescent girls than boys. [source]


Moving Toward a Comprehensive Assessment System: A Framework for Considering Interim Assessments

EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT: ISSUES AND PRACTICE, Issue 3 2009
Marianne Perie
Local assessment systems are being marketed as formative, benchmark, predictive, and a host of other terms. Many so-called formative assessments are not at all similar to the types of assessments and strategies studied by,Black and Wiliam (1998),but instead are interim assessments. In this article, we clarify the definition and uses of interim assessments and argue that they can be an important piece of a comprehensive assessment system that includes formative, interim, and summative assessments. Interim assessments are given on a larger scale than formative assessments, have less flexibility, and are aggregated to the school or district level to help inform policy. Interim assessments are driven by their purpose, which fall into the categories of instructional, evaluative, or predictive. Our intent is to provide a specific definition for these "interim assessments" and to develop a framework that district and state leaders can use to evaluate these systems for purchase or development. The discussion lays out some concerns with the current state of these assessments as well as hopes for future directions and suggestions for further research. [source]


DOES ETHICAL THEORY HAVE A PLACE IN POST-KOHLBERGIAN MORAL PSYCHOLOGY?

EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 2 2010
Bruce Maxwell
Philosophers tend to assume that theoretical frameworks in psychology suffer from conceptual confusion and that any influence that philosophy might have on psychology should be positive. Going against this grain, Dan Lapsley and Darcia Narváez attribute the Kohlbergian paradigm's current state of marginalization within psychology to Lawrence Kohlberg's use of ethical theory in his model of cognitive moral development. Post-Kohlbergian conceptions of moral psychology, they advance, should be wary of theoretical constructs derived from folk morality, refuse philosophical starting points, and seek integration with literatures in psychology, not philosophy. In this essay, Bruce Maxwell considers and rejects Lapsley and Narváez's diagnosis. The Kohlbergian paradigm's restricted conception of the moral domain is the result of a selective reading of one tendency in ethical theorizing (Kantianism). The idea that moral psychology may find shelter from normative criticism by avoiding ethics-derived models overlooks the deeper continuity between "ethical theory" and "psychological theory." The confusion and barrenness of psychology is not to be explained by calling it a "young science"; its state is not comparable with that of physics, for instance, in its beginnings. (Rather with that of certain branches of mathematics. Set theory.) For in psychology there are experimental methods and conceptual confusion. (As in the other case conceptual confusion and methods of proof.) The existence of the experimental method makes us think we have the means of solving the problems which trouble us; though problem and method pass one another by.1 [source]


Alcohol and Russian mortality: a continuing crisis

ADDICTION, Issue 10 2009
David A. Leon
ABSTRACT Background Russia remains in the grip of a mortality crisis in which alcohol plays a central role. In 2007, male life expectancy at birth was 61 years, while for females it was 74 years. Alcohol is implicated particularly in deaths among working-age men. Aims To review the current state of knowledge about the contribution of alcohol to the continuing very high mortality seen among Russian adults Results Conservative estimates attribute 31,43% of deaths among working-age men to alcohol. This latter estimate would imply a minimum of 170 000 excess deaths due to hazardous alcohol consumption in Russia per year. Men drink appreciably more than women in Russia. Hazardous drinking is most prevalent among people with low levels of education and those who are economically disadvantaged, partly because some of the available sources of ethanol are very cheap and easy to obtain. The best estimates available suggest that per capita consumption among adults is 15,18 litres of pure ethanol per year. However, reliable estimation of the total volume of alcohol consumed per capita in Russia is very difficult because of the diversity of sources of ethanol that are available, for many of which data do not exist. These include both illegal spirits, as well as legal non-beverage alcohols (such as medicinal tinctures). In 2006 regulations were introduced aimed at reducing the production and sale of non-beverage alcohols that are commonly drunk. These appear to have been only partially successful. Conclusion There is convincing evidence that alcohol plays an important role in explaining high mortality in Russia, in particular among working age men. However, there remain important uncertainties about the precise scale of the problem and about the health effects of the distinctive pattern of alcohol consumption that is prevalent in Russia today. While there is a need for further research, enough is known to justify the development of a comprehensive inter-sectoral alcohol control strategy. The recent fall in life expectancy in Russia should give a renewed urgency to attempts to move the policy agenda forward. [source]


Doing harm reduction better: syringe exchange in the United States

ADDICTION, Issue 9 2009
Don C. Des Jarlais
ABSTRACT Objective To trace the growth of syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in the United States since 1994,95 and assess the current state of SEPs. Methods Annual surveys of US SEPs known to North American Syringe Exchange Network (NASEN). Surveys mailed to executive directors with follow-up interviews by telephone and/or e-mail. Response rates have varied between 70% and 88% since surveys were initiated in 1996. Results The numbers of programs known to NASEN have increased from 68 in 1994,95 to 186 in 2007. Among programs participating in the survey, numbers of syringes exchanged have increased from 8.0 million per year to 29.5 million per year, total annual budgets have increased from $6.3 to $19.6 million and public funding (from state and local governments) has increased from $3.9 to $14.4 million. In 2007, 89% of programs permitted secondary exchange and 76% encouraged it. Condoms, referrals to substance abuse treatment, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) counseling and testing and naloxone for overdose were among the most commonly provided services in addition to basic syringe exchange. Each of these services was provided by 40% or more of SEPs in 2007. Conclusions While syringe exchange has remained controversial in the United States, there has been very substantial growth in numbers of programs, syringes exchange and program budgets. Utilizing secondary exchange to reach large numbers of injecting drug users and utilizing SEPs as a new platform for providing health and social services beyond basic syringe exchange have been the two major organizational strategies in the growth of SEPs in the United States. [source]


Family member presence during resuscitation in the emergency department: An Australian perspective

EMERGENCY MEDICINE AUSTRALASIA, Issue 4 2004
Bernice Redley
Abstract Objective: The practice of family member presence during resuscitation in the ED has attracted widespread attention over the last few decades. Despite the recommendations of international organizations, clinical staff remain reluctant to engage in this practice in many EDs. This paper separates the evidence from opinion to determine the current state of knowledge about this practice. Methods: A search strategy was developed and used to locate research based publications, which were subsequently reviewed for the strength of evidence providing the basis for recommendations. Results: The literature was examined to reveal what patients and their family members want; the outcomes of family presence during resuscitation for patients and their family members; staff views and practices regarding family presence during resuscitation. Findings suggest that providing the opportunity to be with their critically ill family member is both important to and beneficial for families, however, disparity in staff views has been identified as a major obstacle to family presence during resuscitation. Examination of published guidelines and staff practices described in the literature revealed consistent elements. Conclusion: Although critics point to the lack of rigour in this body of literature, the current state of knowledge suggests merit in pursuing future research to examine and measure effects of family member presence during resuscitation on patients, family members and healthcare providers. [source]


Examining the Link Between "Familiness" and Performance: Can the F-PEC Untangle the Family Business Theory Jungle?

ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 6 2008
Matthew W. Rutherford
Family business research appears to be caught in a "jungle" of competing theories in regards to familiness and performance. This study provides a further empirical examination into that relationship. We employ a family influence scale (the familiness-power, experience, and culture scale [F-PEC]) presented by Klein, Astrachan, and Smyrnios in an attempt to assess the relationship between familiness and performance in 831 family businesses. The resulting regression analysis adds to the current state of the literature by demonstrating significant and interesting results. Specifically, familiness showed associations with revenue, capital structure, growth, and perceived performance; however, the relationships were both positive and negative, thus casting doubt upon the F-PEC as a vehicle for untangling the jungle. We conclude with discussion and implications. [source]


Climate proofing Scottish river basin planning, , a future challenge

ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND GOVERNANCE, Issue 6 2009
Kirsty Blackstock
Abstract Due to its cyclical planning process, River Basin Management Planning (RBMP) offers a route for adaptive management of a complex human,environment system. Considering how stakeholders speak about climate change provides a lens to examine social learning within RBMP. The paper explores how climate change emerged as a topic during our research and the trajectory of the social learning process. Participants were aware of the challenges that climate change might pose for achieving Good Ecological Status (GES), but as the deadline for the plans drew nearer the focus shifted from long-term issues to the current state of the environment and delivery of objectives. The degree of ,climate proofing' in RBMP depends on choices in future planning phases. We reflect on the potential for this to occur, putting our findings into the context of literature on social learning and adaptive management processes. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]


National sustainable development strategies: features, challenges and reflexivity

ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND GOVERNANCE, Issue 3 2007
James Meadowcroft
Abstract More than a decade has passed since the first countries issued national sustainable development strategies. This essay will consider recent developments in this area, and explore the extent to which such strategies can be considered an emergent mode of reflexive governance of the type required to promote sustainable development. The argument involves three steps: first, a review of the current state of play with respect to sustainable development strategies; second, an assessment of existing strategy processes, and third, a more theoretically focused discussion of their potential significance. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]


Identifying and assessing environmentally harmful subsidies in Germany: an overview of studies and their underlying methodologies in the energy and transport sector

ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND GOVERNANCE, Issue 1 2007
Tilmann Rave
Abstract The discussion on the reduction and reform of subsidies in Germany has gained momentum lately. It has repeatedly been suggested that environmental and wider efficiency consideration be taken into account in reform strategies. Yet, progress at reforming environmentally harmful subsidies seems to be slow overall. This paper provides an overview on monitoring and assessing environmentally harmful subsidies in selected German policy sectors and discusses the underlying study methodologies. For this purpose we first briefly deal with the concept of subsidy and the measurement of subsidies in general and illustrate the linkage between subsidies and their environmental effects. The main focus of the paper is then on the current state of subsidy impact assessment and/or related monitoring activities. We discuss studies relating to two different policy sectors, energy policy and transport policy. While no single best methodology exists, it is suggested that different approaches may fertilize each other. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]


Toward a New Sexual Selection Paradigm: Polyandry, Conflict and Incompatibility (Invited Article)

ETHOLOGY, Issue 12 2003
Jeanne A. Zeh
Darwin's recognition that male,male competition and female choice could favor the evolution of exaggerated male traits detrimental to survival set the stage for more than a century of theoretical and empirical work on sexual selection. While this Darwinian paradigm represents one of the most profound insights in biology, its preoccupation with sexual selection as a directional evolutionary force acting on males has diverted attention away from the selective processes acting on females. Our understanding of female reproduction has been further confounded by discreet female mating tactics that have perpetuated the illusion of the monogamous female and masked the potential for conflict between the sexes. With advances in molecular techniques leading to the discovery that polyandry is a pervasive mating strategy, recognition of these shortcomings has brought the study of sexual selection to its current state of flux. In this paper, we suggest that progress in two key areas is critical to formulation of a more inclusive, sexual selection paradigm that adequately incorporates selection from the female perspective. First, we need to develop a better understanding of male × female and maternal × paternal genome interactions and the role that polyandry plays in providing females with non-additive genetic benefits such as incompatibility avoidance. Consideration of these interaction effects influencing natural selection on females is important because they can complicate and even undermine directional sexual selection on males. Secondly, because antagonistic coevolution maintains a balance between opposing sides that obscures the conflict itself, many more experimental evolution studies and interventionist investigations (e.g. gene knockouts) are needed to tease apart male manipulative adaptations and female counter-adaptations. It seems evident that the divisiveness and controversy that has plagued sexual selection theory since Darwin first proposed the idea has often stalled progress in this important field of evolutionary biology. What is now needed is a more pluralistic and integrative approach that considers natural as well as sexual selection acting on females, incorporates multiple sexual selection mechanisms, and exploits advances in physiology and molecular biology to understand the mechanisms through which males and females achieve reproductive success. [source]