Current Stage (current + stage)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Cytokine therapy in dermatology

K. Asadullah
Abstract: Cytokines have been in the focus of scientific interest for some years now. Analysing their expression permitted a better understanding of the pathogenesis of various diseases, including in dermatology. Moreover, they are now far beyond the stage when they were of interest only to the pathophysiological research sector: some cytokine therapies are already being employed as part of the clinical practice. In fact, several cytokines are used for the treatment of malignant, inflammatory and infectious skin diseases. Their stage of development ranges from advanced, already approved and well established therapies (e.g. IFN-, and IL-2 for melanoma) to early explorative trials (e.g. IL-4 and IL-10 for psoriasis). Some of the new approaches currently under investigation will actually lead to registration of new drugs for dermatological treatment and to supplement existing therapeutic options. Beside this, the results of clinical trials with cytokines are significantly contributing to our understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases. They will give a better insight into which mechanisms play a greater or lesser part in their development and may generate momentum for still better targeted pharmacological approaches. Here we would like to give an overview about the current stage of cytokine therapy and the prospects for dermatological indications. The terminology and immunobiology of cytokines are also briefly discussed, since for a sensible interpretation of the relevant findings a basic knowledge of these biologically highly active messenger substances is essential. [source]

Self-Assembled Quantum Dot Molecules

ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 25-26 2009
Lijuan Wang
Abstract Semiconductor quantum dot molecules (QDMs) are systems composed of two or more closely spaced and interacting QDs. QDMs are receiving much attention both as playground for studying coupling and energy transfer processes between "artificial atoms" and as new systems, which substantially extend the range of possible applications of QDs. QDMs can be conveniently fabricated by self-assembly either through chemical synthesis or epitaxial growth. Although QDMs relying on the random occurrence of nearby QDs can be used for fundamental studies, special fabrication protocols must be used to create QDMs with well-defined properties. In this article, we focus on self-assembled QDMs obtained by epitaxial growth and embedded in a semiconductor matrix, which are appealing for the possible realization of quantum gates based on two-level systems defined in QDs. We provide a comprehensive overview of the development and current stage of the research on QDMs composed of vertically (in the growth direction) or laterally (in the growth plane) aligned QDs. The review highlights some recent milestone works and points out the challenges and future directions in the field. [source]

Radioimmunodiagnosis of lymph node metastases in head and neck cancer

ORAL DISEASES, Issue 5 2003
R de Bree
Introduction:, Reliable staging of the neck remains a diagnostic challenge in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against tumour-associated antigens can be used for selective tumour targeting. When labelled with a , -emitting radionuclide like 99mTechnetium, such MAbs can be used for tumour detection by radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS). Objective:, The aim of this study was to assess the potential of RIS for the detection of lymph node metastases in HNSCC patients. Patients and methods:, In 49 patients with HNSCC, who were scheduled to undergo surgery including neck dissection, RIS using 99mTc-labelled squamous cell specific MAb E48 or U36 administered intravenously was compared with clinical palpation, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathological outcome. Results:, RIS detected lymph node metastases in 35 of 51 positive sides (sensitivity 69%). Interpretation of RIS was correct in 47 of 65 sides (accuracy 72%). Accuracy of palpation, CT and MRI were comparable. Immunohistochemical staining of lymph node metastases missed by RIS showed that the injected MAb had targeted these small tumour deposits but these were not visualized. Conclusions:, RIS at its current stage of development is not superior to CT or MRI for the detection of lymph node metastases. As small tumour deposits were probably not visualized because of the limited sensitivity and/or spatial resolution of the gamma camera, positron emission tomography (PET) using MAbs labelled with positron emitters may improve the detection. As MAb-PET studies in an animal model showed promising results we will soon start a clinical MAb-PET study. [source]

The State-Business Relations in the Era of Globalization: The Case of Russia,

PACIFIC FOCUS, Issue 2 2003
Insung Lee
This article examines the potential prospects of change in the state-business relationship in Russia with an emphasis on the effects of globalization. The establishment of an efficient relationship between the state and private business has been one of the key challenges in post-communist era development. Globalization compels the rapid adjustment in state-business relations in new democracies in former communist countries. This paper analyzes the main features of Russia's "oligarchic capitalism" and plausible sources of change in its state-business relationship. However, it concludes that in view of the current stage of development in both economic globalization and social activism, it will take time to see any profound changes in the state-business relationship in Russia. [source]

A Canadian Copyright Narrative

Daniel J. Gervais
Copyright policy, like other major areas of public policy, requires a solid anchoring in fundamental principles. The perceived need to anchor copyright debates in a solid policy context and, hence, to develop a coherent (and hopefully convincing) narrative has been the subject of excellent contemporary research. We are indebted to a number of scholars for their work in this area. The attempt to find normative applications from a historically derived model for copyright is not either. However, the research thus far tends to provide a blurred picture, by espousing justiflcatory theories based on one or many of the following: commercial and personal Interests of authors, understood as property and/or liability rules; commercial interests of publishers and other "rights holders"; and/or the social costs of overprotection and the related economic-driven search for an optimal point of protection. This article looks at pieces in the Canadian narrative puzzle and tries to present a faithful picture of its current stage of evolution. To do so, however, a detour via England is required, because that is whence the soil from Which the Canadian narrative comes. This historical detour will be the focus of Part 1. Part III will suggest a path for the next stages of the Canadian narrative that is both consistent with international norms and hopefully useful in moving the debate forward. The part ends with a brief look at the impact that the linkage with trade rules may have on copyright. [source]

Cuba's Medical Internationalism: Development and Rationale

Since 1960, Cuba has been involved in providing medical support to the developing world, and at present has some 40,000 personnel in 74 countries , more than all of the G-8 countries combined. This article traces the evolution from its first (1960) mission to the current stage. The article also analyses various explanations for this extraordinary mixture of diplomacy and humanitarianism. [source]