Current Role (current + role)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


360 Degree Feedback and Developmental Outcomes: The Role of Feedback Characteristics, Self-Efficacy and Importance of Feedback Dimensions to Focal Managers' Current Role

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SELECTION AND ASSESSMENT, Issue 1 2006
Caroline Bailey
This longitudinal study investigates whether developmental changes following 360 degree feedback are predicted by the favourability of ratings received, and moderated by focal individuals' self-efficacy and perceived importance of feedback. Five developmental criteria are investigated longitudinally: (i) self-assessments, (ii) line managers' ratings, (iii) amount of developmental activity, (iv) global self-efficacy and (iv) self-efficacy for development. Feedback ratings from certain rater groups predicted changes in ratings, but not changes in self-efficacy or amount of developmental activity. Self-efficacy significantly moderated the feedback,performance association for certain rater groups, but feedback importance did not. Contrary to expectations, the focal individual's initial self-assessment predicted changes in self-efficacy, over the favourability of ratings received. The implications of these findings for organizations using 360 degree feedback for developmental purposes are discussed. [source]


Antiplatelet Strategies: Evaluating Their Current Role in the Setting of Acute Coronary Syndromes

CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue S1 2008
Eugene Braunwald
Abstract Numerous clinical trials have established the value of antiplatelet therapies for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Aspirin (ASA), thienopyridines (i.e., clopidogrel and ticlopidine) and GP IIb/IIIa antagonists comprise the major classes of antiplatelet therapies demonstrated to be of benefit in the treatment of ACS and for the prevention of thrombotic complications of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Clopidogrel is beneficial when administered before and after PCI, and is more effective when combined with either ASA or GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors in preventing post-PCI complications, coronary subacute stent thrombosis, and thrombotic events in general. It is currently unclear whether a higher loading dose of clopidogrel (600 mg) is better than the standard loading dose (300 mg), how long therapy should continue, and which maintenance dose is optimal. The role of the GP IIb/IIIa antagonists in ACS is less clear due to conflicting data from several studies with different patient populations. Currently, it appears that the use of GP IIb/IIIa antagonists might be most beneficial in high-risk ACS patients scheduled to undergo PCI, who demonstrate non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and elevated troponin levels. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Assessing the Current Role of Platelet Function Testing

CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue S1 2008
Eugene Braunwald
Abstract In vitro platelet function tests are commonly applied in research and offer justification for using antiplatelet therapy. However, studies assessing the ability of standardized platelet function tests to predict patients' clinical response to aspirin or clopidogrel have generated contradictory results. At this time, there is no standardized definition for resistance to antiplatelet therapy, and the appropriate treatment of patients who are hyporesponsive to these agents is not known. Although such tests have a role in research, their place in guiding therapy remains to be established, and prospective trials are urgently needed. The ideal platelet function test for clinical practice would be rapid, easy-to-use, inexpensive, and reliable. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Current role of liver transplantation for the treatment of urea cycle disorders: A review of the worldwide English literature and 13 cases at Kyoto University

LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 11 2005
Daisuke Morioka
To address the current role of liver transplantation (LT) for urea cycle disorders (UCDs), we reviewed the worldwide English literature on the outcomes of LT for UCD as well as 13 of our own cases of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for UCD. The total number of cases was 51, including our 13 cases. The overall cumulative patient survival rate is presumed to be more than 90% at 5 years. Most of the surviving patients under consideration are currently doing well with satisfactory quality of life. One advantage of LDLT over deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) is the opportunity to schedule surgery, which beneficially affects neurological consequences. Auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation (APOLT) is no longer considered significant for the establishment of gene therapies or hepatocyte transplantation but plays a significant role in improving living liver donor safety; this is achieved by reducing the extent of the hepatectomy, which avoids right liver donation. Employing heterozygous carriers of the UCDs as donors in LDLT was generally acceptable. However, male hemizygotes with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) must be excluded from donor candidacy because of the potential risk of sudden-onset fatal hyperammonemia. Given this possibility as well as the necessity of identifying heterozygotes for other disorders, enzymatic and/or genetic assays of the liver tissues in cases of UCDs are essential to elucidate the impact of using heterozygous carrier donors on the risk or safety of LDLT donor-recipient pairs. In conclusion, LT should be considered to be the definitive treatment for UCDs at this stage, although some issues remain unresolved. (Liver Transpl 2005;11:1332,1342.) [source]


Clinical issues in using buprenorphine in the treatment of opiate dependence

DRUG AND ALCOHOL REVIEW, Issue 3 2000
Dr A. Chadderton MB
Abstract This paper looks at the current role of buprenorphine in the treatment of opiate dependence. It suggests that buprenorphine is a useful alternative to methadone and that in at least some cases it may be the preferred option. Buprenorphineis a partial agonist and a partial antagonist with a ceiling of opiate activity probably approximately equal to 30mg methadone. It achieves this at a dose of 10-12mg, although there is considerable individual variation. Because of its ceiling effect it has a good safety profile compared to full agonists such as methadone although some overdose deaths, particularly in conjunction with benzodiazepine abuse, have been reported in France. Induction of buprenorphine may take slightly longer than for methadone and there is a higher dropout rate compared to methadone in the first 2 weeks. This is probably due to the antagonist action of buprenorphine causing more withdrawal symptoms in comparison to methadone. Also, the ceiling effect for buprenorphine means that some clients do not experience sufficient opiate activity to satisfy them. Buprenorphine has a long half-life and dissociates slowly from opiate receptors. Most clients can be dosed second-daily but some find this unacceptable due to mood swings and/or withdrawal symptomson the second day. For these clients daily dosing is required. Transferring from buprenorphine to methadone is straightforward and well tolerated by clients. Transferring from methadone to buprenorphine, however, is more difficult because of the partial antagonist action of buprenorphine. Clients experience withdrawal symptoms that can take up to 2 weeks to settle. Most clients find these symptoms unacceptable when transferring from doses of over 30mg of methadone. The optimum method for transferring from methadone to buprenorphine is still to be determined. Withdrawal from buprenorphine appears to be relatively easier than from methadone. This is presumably due to buprenorphine's partial agonist effect at mureceptors. It is expected that during 2000 buprenorphine will be approved for use in Australia for the treatment of opiate dependence. It may well becomea first-line choice for opiate replacement in heroin dependence. It is also likely to be useful in assisting detoxification fromboth methadone and heroin. [source]


The Nurse Educator's clinical role

JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, Issue 1 2005
Odette Griscti MHSc RN
Aim., This paper reports a two-phase descriptive study exploring the clinical role of the nurse educator in Malta. Background., Previous studies indicate a number of similarities and differences in the clinical role of nurse educators by country of practice. These include importance assigned to the role, factors inhibiting/facilitating the role, means to eliminate barriers to the role, and perceptions of the ideal role. Design and methods., Data were collected using both quantitative and qualitative strategies. The quantitative phase involved asking all educators to fill in a time log of their academic and clinical activities for a 2-week period. In the qualitative phase, the first author interviewed five educators, five nurses and five students about their perceptions of factors which impact the nurse educator's clinical role, as well as what the ideal clinical role of the nurse educator should be. Findings., Maltese nurse educators allot minimal time to their clinical role. Main reasons cited included workload, perceived lack of control over the clinical area, and diminished clinical competence. Nurse educators who frequented the clinical settings (who were either university or joint university and health service employees) where the study took place perceived that employment inequities among the various categories of nurse educators played an important role in the amount of time dedicated by each group to their clinical roles, and the importance individuals in these groups assigned to that role. The majority of interviewees saw the current role of nurse educators in Malta as preparing students for successful completion of the didactic sections of their programme, rather than preparing them with all the knowledge and clinical skills necessary to be competent practitioners. Participants considered that, when in clinical areas, nurse educators did focus on their students, as they should. However, they also thought that they often did not take the opportunity to forge links with professional staff. Conclusion., The clinical role of the Maltese nurse educator needs to be more multifaceted in approach. [source]


Review: physical chemistry of solid dispersions

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY: AN INTERNATI ONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE, Issue 12 2009
Sandrien Janssens
Abstract Objectives With poorly soluble drug candidates emerging in the drug discovery pipeline, the importance of the solid dispersion formulation approach is increasing. This strategy includes complete removal of drug crystallinity, and molecular dispersion of the poorly soluble compound in a hydrophilic polymeric carrier. The potential of this technique to increase oral absorption and hence bioavailability is enormous. Nevertheless, some issues have to be considered regarding thermodynamic instability, as well in supersaturated solutions that are formed upon dissolution as in the solid state. Key findings After a brief discussion on the historical background of solid dispersions and their current role in formulation, an overview will be given on the physical chemistry and stability of glass solutions as they form supersaturated solutions, and during their shelf life. Conclusions Thorough understanding of these aspects will elicit conscious evaluation of carrier properties and eventually facilitate rational excipient selection. Thus, full exploitation of the solid dispersion strategy may provide an appropriate answer to drug attrition due to low aqueous solubility in later stages of development. [source]


Software visualization in software maintenance, reverse engineering, and re-engineering: a research survey

JOURNAL OF SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE AND EVOLUTION: RESEARCH AND PRACTICE, Issue 2 2003
Rainer Koschke
Abstract Software visualization is concerned with the static visualization as well as the animation of software artifacts, such as source code, executable programs, and the data they manipulate, and their attributes, such as size, complexity, or dependencies. Software visualization techniques are widely used in the areas of software maintenance, reverse engineering, and re-engineering, where typically large amounts of complex data need to be understood and a high degree of interaction between software engineers and automatic analyses is required. This paper reports the results of a survey on the perspectives of 82 researchers in software maintenance, reverse engineering, and re-engineering on software visualization. It describes to which degree the researchers are involved in software visualization themselves, what is visualized and how, whether animation is frequently used, whether the researchers believe animation is useful at all, which automatic graph layouts are used if at all, whether the layout algorithms have deficiencies, and,last but not least,where the medium-term and long-term research in software visualization should be directed. The results of this survey help to ascertain the current role of software visualization in software engineering from the perspective of researchers in these domains and give hints on future research avenues. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Current role of liver transplantation for the treatment of urea cycle disorders: A review of the worldwide English literature and 13 cases at Kyoto University

LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 11 2005
Daisuke Morioka
To address the current role of liver transplantation (LT) for urea cycle disorders (UCDs), we reviewed the worldwide English literature on the outcomes of LT for UCD as well as 13 of our own cases of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for UCD. The total number of cases was 51, including our 13 cases. The overall cumulative patient survival rate is presumed to be more than 90% at 5 years. Most of the surviving patients under consideration are currently doing well with satisfactory quality of life. One advantage of LDLT over deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) is the opportunity to schedule surgery, which beneficially affects neurological consequences. Auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation (APOLT) is no longer considered significant for the establishment of gene therapies or hepatocyte transplantation but plays a significant role in improving living liver donor safety; this is achieved by reducing the extent of the hepatectomy, which avoids right liver donation. Employing heterozygous carriers of the UCDs as donors in LDLT was generally acceptable. However, male hemizygotes with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) must be excluded from donor candidacy because of the potential risk of sudden-onset fatal hyperammonemia. Given this possibility as well as the necessity of identifying heterozygotes for other disorders, enzymatic and/or genetic assays of the liver tissues in cases of UCDs are essential to elucidate the impact of using heterozygous carrier donors on the risk or safety of LDLT donor-recipient pairs. In conclusion, LT should be considered to be the definitive treatment for UCDs at this stage, although some issues remain unresolved. (Liver Transpl 2005;11:1332,1342.) [source]


ACE inhibitors: their propertiesand current role in hypertension

PRESCRIBER, Issue 14 2009
Sze-Yuan Ooi MB BS
ACE inhibitors remain the first-line choice of treatment of hypertension in patients under 55 years, and second line in other patient groups. Our Drug Review considers their properties and the latest evidence for their use in hypertension, followed by further sources of information and an analysis of prescription data. Copyright 2009 Wiley Interface Ltd. [source]


A Striking Profile: Soil Ecological Knowledge in Restoration Management and Science

RESTORATION ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
Mac A. Callaham Jr.
Abstract Available evidence suggests that research in terrestrial restoration ecology has been dominated by the engineering and botanical sciences. Because restoration science is a relatively young discipline in ecology, the theoretical framework for this discipline is under development and new theoretical offerings appear regularly in the literature. In reviewing this literature, we observed an absence of in-depth discussion of how soils, and in particular the ecology of soils, can be integrated into the developing theory of restoration science. These observations prompted us to assess the current role of soil ecological knowledge in restoration research and restoration practice. Although soils are universally regarded as critical to restoration success, and much research has included manipulations of soil variables, we found that better integration of soil ecological principles could still contribute much to the practice of ecosystem restoration. Here we offer four potential points of departure for increased dialog between restoration ecologists and soil ecologists. We hope to encourage the view that soil is a complex, heterogeneous, and vital entity and that adoption of this point of view can positively affect restoration efforts worldwide. [source]


New horizons in simulation training for endoscopic surgery

ASIAN JOURNAL OF ENDOSCOPIC SURGERY, Issue 1 2010
D. King
Abstract In recent years there has been both a paradigm shift in the way surgery is carried out and also in the way in which we train health professionals undertaking interventional procedures. Endoscopic procedures have replaced many traditional operations and the benefits of such an approach to patient care are well documented. However, evidence exists of higher patient complications during a surgeon's learning curve in endoscopic surgery, and it is now considered essential that endoscopic skills are learned in training laboratories rather than on patients. A new model of structured education, where surgical skills are practiced on models and virtual reality simulators, is set to replace the traditional apprenticeship model of training. Simulation is a rapidly evolving field that can provide a safe and increasingly realistic learning environment for trainees to practice in. This paper explores the current role of simulation in endoscopic training and provides a review of the developments in the field, including advances in simulation technology, progress in curriculum design and the use of simulation in nontechnical skills training. [source]


National Growth in Simulation Training within Emergency Medicine Residency Programs, 2003,2008

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 11 2008
Yasuharu Okuda MD
Abstract Objectives:, The use of medical simulation has grown dramatically over the past decade, yet national data on the prevalence and growth of use among individual specialty training programs are lacking. The objectives of this study were to describe the current role of simulation training in emergency medicine (EM) residency programs and to quantify growth in use of the technology over the past 5 years. Methods:, In follow-up of a 2006 study (2003 data), the authors distributed an updated survey to program directors (PDs) of all 179 EM residency programs operating in early 2008 (140 Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education [ACGME]-approved allopathic programs and 39 American Osteopathic Association [AOA]-accredited osteopathic programs). The brief survey borrowed from the prior instrument, was edited and revised, and then distributed at a national PDs meeting. Subsequent follow-up was conducted by e-mail and telephone. The survey concentrated on technology-enhanced simulation modalities beyond routine static trainers or standardized patient-actors (high-fidelity mannequin simulation, part-task/procedural simulation, and dynamic screen-based simulation). Results:, A total of 134 EM residency programs completed the updated survey, yielding an overall response rate of 75%. A total of 122 (91%) use some form of simulation in their residency training. One-hundred fourteen (85%) specifically use mannequin-simulators, compared to 33 (29%) in 2003 (p < 0.001). Mannequin-simulators are now owned by 58 (43%) of the programs, whereas only 9 (8%) had primary responsibility for such equipment in 2003 (p < 0.001). Fifty-eight (43%) of the programs reported that annual resident simulation use now averages more than 10 hours per year. Conclusions:, Use of medical simulation has grown significantly in EM residency programs in the past 5 years and is now widespread among training programs across the country. [source]


The role of the adult urologist in the care of children: findings of a UK survey

BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1 2001
D.F.M. Thomas
Objective To document the current role of adult urologists in the care of children in the UK and to consider the future provision of urological services for children within the context of published national guidelines. Methods A detailed postal questionnaire was sent to all 416 consultant urologists listed as full members of the British Association of Urological Surgeons and resident in the UK. The range of information sought from each urologist included details of personal paediatric training, scope of personal practice, and information about facilities and provision of urological services for children in their base National Health Service hospital. Results The response rate was 69%; most consultant urologists (87%) in District General Hospitals (DGHs) undertake paediatric urology, mainly routine procedures of minor or intermediate complexity. Of urologists in teaching hospitals, 32% treat children but their involvement is largely collaborative. Consultants appointed within the last 10 years are less willing to undertake procedures such as ureteric reimplantation or pyeloplasty than those in post for ,10 years. Currently, 18% of DGH urologists hold dedicated children's outpatient clinics and 34% have dedicated paediatric day-case operating lists. Almost all urologists practise in National Health Service hospitals which meet existing national guidelines on the provision of inpatient surgical care for children. Conclusion Urologists practising in DGHs will retain an important role as providers of routine urological services for children. However, the tendency for recently appointed consultants to limit their practice to the more routine aspects of children's urology is likely to increase. Training and intercollegiate assessment should focus on the practical management of the conditions most commonly encountered in DGH practice. The implementation of national guidelines may require greater paediatric subspecialization at DGH level to ensure that urologists treating children have a paediatric workload of sufficient volume to maintain a high degree of surgical competence. [source]


Questioning, promoting and evaluating the use of streaming video to support student learning

BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
Kerry Shephard
This paper uses case studies to describe how streaming video is currently used to support student learning in post compulsory education in the UK. It describes the current role of streaming video and identifies processes that could extend the application of streaming in education. It attempts to establish a case for more formal evaluation and communication of educa-tional processes involving streaming and identifies elements of a research agenda that could further develop the application of streaming technology in education. [source]


Should We Measure C-reactive Protein on Earth or Just on JUPITER?

CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
Ambareesh Bajpai MD
Evidence for the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is compelling and has generated interest in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as a marker of cardiovascular risk. Data regarding hs-CRP and cardiovascular risk, though largely consistent, is of unclear clinical relevance. Most recently, the Justification for the Use of Statins in Primary Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) trial has led to further debate regarding the utility of hs-CRP. This article provides a comprehensive review of the data regarding cardiovascular risk and hs-CRP with an emphasis on the JUPITER trial and concludes with an evidence-based analysis of the current role of hs-CRP in cardiovascular risk assessment. Copyright 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]