Current Position (current + position)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Weathering the escarpment: chemical and physical rates and processes, south-eastern Australia

Benjamin C. Burke
Abstract Differences in chemical weathering extent and character are expected to exist across topographic escarpments due to spatial gradients of climatic and/or tectonic forcing. The passive margin escarpment of south-eastern Australia has a debated but generally accepted model of propagation in which it retreated (within 40 Ma) to near its current position following rifting between Australia and New Zealand 85,100 Ma before present. We focus on this escarpment to quantify chemical weathering rates and processes and how they may provide insight into scarp evolution and retreat. We compare chemical weathering extents and rates above and below the escarpment using a mass balance approach coupling major and trace element analyses with previous measurements of denudation rates using cosmogenic nuclides (10Be and 26Al). We find a slight gradient in saprolite chemical weathering rate as a percentage of total weathering rate across the escarpment. The lowlands area, encompassing the region extending from the base of the escarpment to the coast, experiences a greater extent of chemical weathering than the highland region above the escarpment. Percents of denudation attributable to saprolite weathering average 57 6% and 47 7% at low and high sites respectively. Furthermore, the chemical index of alteration (CIA), a ratio of immobile to mobile oxides in granitic material that increases with weathering extent, have corresponding average values of 737 39 and 655 34, indicating lower extents of weathering above the escarpment. Finally, we quantify variations in the rates and extent of chemical weathering at the hillslope scale across the escarpment to suggest new insight into how climate differences and hillslope topography help drive landscape evolution, potentially overprinting longer term tectonic forcing. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The Early History (1909,1961) of Epilepsia, the Journal of the International League Against Epilepsy, and Its Echoes Today

EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2007
Simon Shorvon
Summary:, This paper records the history of Epilepsia, the journal of the International League Against Epilepsy, from its inception in 1908/1909 until the beginning of its fourth series in 1961. During this time, publication was interrupted on three occasions and so the journal appeared in four series, with a complex numbering system. Over the years, the content and format of the journal has varied. Its role has changed over the years, at times primarily as a scientific organ and at other times as a source of ILAE news and reports. Concerns throughout its history have included its role as an historical record, its international representation, financial vicissitude, quality of papers, the balance between basic and clinical science, the value of clinical papers, and issues of overspecialization. Epilepsia is today the leading clinical epilepsy journal; but these are still significant concerns, and a knowledge of the history of Epilepsia is important for understanding the current position of the journal. [source]

The Crow Corvus corone hybrid zone in southern Denmark and northern Germany

IBIS, Issue 4 2005
In hybrid zones genetically differentiated populations meet and interbreed. As they result from ongoing divergence and potential speciation, such zones provide opportunities to study how different factors affect this process. One well-known avian hybrid zone is that between the Hooded Crow Corvus corone cornix and Carrion Crow C. c. corone, which extends throughout much of Europe. We compare the current position and width of the zone in southern Denmark and northern Germany with that described in detail by Meise in 1928. A GPS technique was used to determine the geographical position of more than 1000 Crows in established pairs in which all individuals were classified as either Carrion, Hooded or hybrid phenotype. The data show that the Carrion Crow has expanded northwards and that this is most pronounced at the eastern side of the study area. Here the hybrid zone has moved around 19 km. However, the width of the zone seems to have remained stable over time. Possible reasons for why the zone may have moved are discussed. [source]

Quantum monte carlo methods for electronic structure of nanosystems

Lubos Mitas
We provide a brief review of recent applications of quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods to the electronic structure of nanosystems. We report on calculations of carbon rings with second-order Jahn-Teller effect, energy ordering of silicon clusters, dissociation enthalpies of protonated hydrogen clusters, and other interesting challenges. We point out the QMC accuracy and outline a few ideas that characterize the current position of QMC among the electronic structure methods and its future development. [source]

Thermally stimulated depolarization study in polyvinylidenefluoride,polysulfone polyblend films

Pooja Saxena
Abstract Thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDCs) in short- and open-circuit modes in polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF),polysulfone (PSF) polyblend have been recorded. The TSDC thermograms of PVDF and PSF in short-circuit mode show two peaks, whereas the polyblend of the two polymers shows a single peak. With the increase in PSF weight percentage in the polyblend, the magnitude of TSDC peak current increased and the peak current position shifted toward the lower temperature side. The single peak in polyblend appears at 165C 10C, which is at higher temperature than the temperature of low-temperature peak for individual polymers. This suggests that this peak may be due to dipolar polarization. Subsequently, shifting of peak toward higher temperature side with increase in polarizing temperature indicates the space charge peak. This contradiction has been explained on the basis of induced dipole theory. The behavior of short circuit TSDC could be explained in terms of the heterocharge caused by dipole orientation and ionic homocharge drift, together with the injection of charge carriers from electrodes and their subsequent localization in surface and bulk traps. However, two oppositely directed TSDC peaks observed in open-circuit mode in all the polyblend samples could be considered as the result of superposition of two overlapped and oppositely directed peaks, one caused by relaxation of dipole polarization and the other by the space charge. Thus, we have compared TSDC measured in open- and short-circuit modes to distinguish between these two relaxation processes and separate them. There is only one broad peak observed in the short-circuit mode of the polyblend, which entirely corresponds to the relaxation of dipole polarization. Insertion of a dielectric gap in the open-circuit mode does not affect the dipole current, but the space charge component flowing in the opposite direction is added to the former. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

Registered nurse empowerment and intent to leave current position and/or profession

Aim, This study explored the relationship between Registered Nurses' (RN) empowerment and intent to leave their current position and/or profession. Background, While there is documentation of the relationship between job satisfaction and retention, little is known about the relationship between empowerment and intent to leave either the current position and/or profession. Methods, A web-based survey was conducted in which 1355 respondents completed measures of personal demographics, empowerment, intent to leave their current position and the profession. Results, Relationships were found between empowerment and intent to leave the current position (F = 80.08, P < 0.001) and intent to leave the profession (F = 75.99, P < 0.001). Implications for nursing management, The results of this study contribute to the limited body of knowledge in this area. It is suggested that nursing leaders utilize empowerment and intent to leave the position and/or profession as new concepts to measure future retention within the nursing workforce. Conclusion, Retention strategies need to focus on strategies for nurse empowerment. [source]

The contribution of MD,PhD training to academic orthopaedic faculties

John M. Clark
Little is known about the distribution of research-trained physicians across the various specialties. To document the extent to which MD,PhD programs are a source of research-trained faculty for orthopaedic departments, this study examined the specialty choices of graduates of the Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) from 1964 to 1994. The MSTP, a combined MD,PhD program supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, (NIGMS), produces roughly 25% of all MD,PhDs in the US. Methods. Copies of the appendices from training grant applications containing information on MSTP graduates were obtained from the NIGMS. Also, a questionnaire was mailed to 116 university-affiliated orthopaedic surgery departments asking how many faculty were MD's, PhDs or MD,PhDs. Results. Records were obtained for all MST programs. Information on postdoctoral training and/or a current position was reported for 1615 graduates who earned both MD and PhD. Of these graduates, 277 chose non-clinical paths. The other 1338 entered a residency or internship. Of these, 593 were still in residency training, 566 were academic faculty members and 130 were in private practice. In the records, 12 (0.9%) were listed as orthopaedic surgical residents (6) or faculty (6). At this time, all 12 have completed training, and 11 are in academic practice. Eighty-three departments replied to the questionnaire. In that sample of 1761 faculty positions, 1478 were MDs, 217 were PhDs and 36 (2.0%) were MD-PhDs. Conclusion. Despite robust support of MD,PhD programs, the number of dual degree recipients on orthopaedic faculties is small when compared to the relative size of the specialty. Other sources of research-trained staff should perhaps be developed. 2001 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

Protecting the vulnerable: legality, harm and theft

LEGAL STUDIES, Issue 3 2003
Alan L Bogg
The law of theft, as understood in Gomez and Hinks, has been the occasion of almost unanimous academic condemnation and of robust dissenting opinions in the House of Lords. While much of the critical discussion is sophisticated and challenging, it is important that the baby is not to be expelled with the bathwater. We suggest that one argument in favour of the current position is that it offers distinct protection to some of the more vulnerable members of society. This advantage ought nevertheless to be sacrificed if it can be purchased only at the cost of violating the rule of law and the harm principle. But our examination of these ideas reveals that the price need not be paid. The rule of law contains not one idea, but a plurality of ideas, many of which support the current position. As for the harm principle, it is notable that Hinks does not castigate harmless behaviour; rather it attacks the wrong of exploitation. This raises many difficult issues, but we argue that unless such exploitative behaviour is explicitly addressed in Legislation, reforming the current ,broad' understanding of the law in favour of a ,reductive' account assimilating theft to non-voluntary transfers would be a retrograde step. In principle the new concern for protecting the vulnerable from exploitation is welcome. [source]

Pareto Equilibria with coherent measures of risk

David Heath
In this paper, we provide a definition of Pareto equilibrium in terms of risk measures, and present necessary and sufficient conditions for equilibrium in a market with finitely many traders (whom we call "banks") who trade with each other in a financial market. Each bank has a preference relation on random payoffs which is monotonic, complete, transitive, convex, and continuous; we show that this, together with the current position of the bank, leads to a family of valuation measures for the bank. We show that a market is in Pareto equilibrium if and only if there exists a (possibly signed) measure that, for each bank, agrees with a positive convex combination of all valuation measures used by that bank on securities traded by that bank. [source]

Contemporary Feminist Perspectives on Social Contract Theory

RATIO JURIS, Issue 3 2007
First, which points must feminists continue to argue in their critique of the social contract tradition today? The second question is: Can feminists actually draw anything from the social contract tradition today? It argues that Pateman's critique of contractarianism continues to be useful when read in the context of her analysis of "self-ownership" and subordination rather than as a rewriting of the social contract. Hampton's deployment of a Kantian test for the failure of respect for personhood within domestic (and other) relationships does not undermine Pateman's position. Consideration of how such an ideal can be understood as potentially compatible with Pateman's perspective raises issues about the radical potential within claims for equal respect for personhood. In Hampton's work, widespread "test failure" can be used to indicate that political action rather than moral analysis is required. Hampton assumes that those employing the test are able to abstract themselves sufficiently from their current position to imagine what it would be to be treated as a person. It is argued that this "moral test" should be envisaged as being asked in concert with others, at which point it has the potential to become political action. [source]

Bureaucratic Job Mobility and The Diffusion of Innovations

Manuel P. Teodoro
In studies of innovation, policy entrepreneurs recognize latent demand for new policies and then expend resources to promote them. But studies of policy entrepreneurs have generally focused on the demand for innovation, while neglecting the supply side of policy entrepreneurship. This article argues that bureaucratic labor markets affect the emergence of policy entrepreneurs, and so affect the diffusion of policy innovations across local governments in the United States. Analysis of a survey of municipal police chiefs and water utility managers relates governments' hiring and promotion policies to their adoption of professionally fashionable innovations. Agency heads who advanced to their current positions diagonally (arriving from another organization) are more likely to initiate these innovations than are agency heads who were promoted from within. Bureaucratic policy entrepreneurs emerge where government demand for innovation meets a supply of mobile administrators, who carry the priorities of their professions into the agencies that they serve. [source]

Social differentiation revisited: A study of rural changes and peasant strategies in Vietnam

Tran Thi Thu Trang
Abstract This article analyses the processes of transformation and differentiation since the 1950s in a Vietnamese rural village, hereafter called Chieng Hoa.1 It examines how radical changes in political discourse and economic policies at the national level have affected the welfare and social relations of villagers and how the latter have in turn coped, resisted, as well as shaped such structural changes. Using concrete life stories of local people, the article identifies the winners and losers in this transformation process, the trajectories households or individuals have taken to arrive at their current positions, and the strategies that they are adopting for the future. It demonstrates that differentiation in Chieng Hoa implies changes in social relations, including but not limited to relations of production, and that even within this single locality, differentiation can take various forms and processes over time, whether specific to or cutting across changes in macro-policies. The article also reveals that in the often perceived equal collectivisation, inequalities still existed and became causes of differentiation in the subsequent decollectivisation period. However, while conditions for a permanent differentiation were present, such process has failed to materialise in the current integration period. Differentiation has become more unpredictable as past winners can lose out due to unstable market conditions. [source]