Current Policy (current + policy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Learning Disability and Social Inclusion: A review of Current Policy and Practice (Policy and Practice in Health and Social Care Series, No. 7)

Sue DumbletonArticle first published online: 23 FEB 200
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Consequences for biodiversity of reducing inputs to upland temperate pastures: effects on beetles (Coleoptera) of cessation of nitrogen fertilizer application and reductions in stocking rates of sheep

P. Dennis
Abstract Current policies for upland pasture management in the UK encourage the integration of environmental objectives with livestock production through extensification of grazing systems. This study tested the hypothesis that a greater sward height in the summer would increase the diversity and abundance of grassland beetles (Coleoptera) as has been demonstrated for insects of indigenous grasslands. The hypothesis was tested with an experiment on an upland sheep pasture in mid-Wales. Experimental treatments received different nitrogen fertilizer inputs (0 or 50 kg ha,1), sheep stocking densities (12 or 9 ewes ha,1) and average sward heights in summer were constrained to 3·5 or 5·5 cm by conserving surplus grass for silage in subplots. Five treatments, replicated in three randomized blocks, combined the two stocking densities and two sward heights without nitrogen fertilizer inputs, with the fifth combining the higher stocking density, shortest sward height and the nitrogen fertilizer input. Beetles were sampled with twelve pitfall traps in each of the fifteen plots from June to September in 1993 and 1995. In years 1 (1993) and 3 (1995) of the experiment, more Coleoptera species occurred in the tall sward (an average of nine species in addition to the forty-one species present in the sward with the conventional sward height). Continuously grazed as opposed to ensiled subplots supported more beetle species but fewer individuals. Species composition of ground (Carabidae) and rove (Staphylinidae) beetles varied between treatments more than the arithmetic differences in species number. The experimental results supported the hypothesis but the benefits of taller swards to species diversity were small in the sown pastures of the study compared with indigenous upland grasslands (c. 33% fewer species). Inheritance effects of drainage, fertilizer and lime inputs, and the different species and management of cultivated pastures, may constrain the conservation benefits of altered pasture management compared with indigenous grasslands. [source]

United Network for Organ Sharing rules and organ availability for children: Current policies and future directions

S. V. McDiarmid MD
First page of article [source]

How reliable is the current evidence looking at the efficacy of harm reduction and motivational interviewing interventions in the treatment of patients with a dual diagnosis?

C. J. LAKER ba bsc rmn
Current policy from the Department of Health advocates for an integrated approach to treating patients with a dual diagnosis. However, pragmatic and clinically effective brief interventions that can be delivered by nurses across mental health settings remain underdeveloped. Motivational interviewing has had some successful exposure in the field of dual diagnosis; however, harm reduction remains unexplored both conceptually and in terms of clinical intervention. This literature review examines the notion of harm reduction as a method of identifying and reducing the harm associated with the misuse of drugs and alcohol in relation to mental health problems. Currently there is a paucity of good quality evidence for integrated interventions in the treatment of dually diagnosed patients. Therefore, the papers are analysed in respect of their methodological quality and contribution to the evidence base to inform both future research and mental health nursing practice. [source]

From Great Depression to Great Credit Crisis: similarities, differences and lessons

ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 62 2010
Miguel Almunia
Summary The Great Depression of the 1930s and the Great Credit Crisis of the 2000s had similar causes but elicited strikingly different policy responses. While it remains too early to assess the effectiveness of current policy, it is possible to analyse monetary and fiscal responses in the 1930s as a natural experiment or counterfactual capable of shedding light on the impact of current policies. We employ vector autoregressions, instrumental variables, and qualitative evidence for 27 countries in the period 1925,39. The results suggest that monetary and fiscal stimulus was effective -- that where it did not make a difference it was not tried. They shed light on the debate over fiscal multipliers in episodes of financial crisis. They are consistent with multipliers at the higher end of those estimated in the recent literature, and with the argument that the impact of fiscal stimulus will be greater when banking systems are dysfunctional and monetary policy is constrained by the zero bound. --- Miguel Almunia, Agustín Bénétrix, Barry Eichengreen, Kevin H. O'Rourke and Gisela Rua [source]

New trends in urban development and public policy in eastern Germany: dealing with the vacant housing problem at the local level

Birgit Glock
Supported by federal funds, many eastern German cities have started to address their acute vacant housing problem, and the new strategies attempt to pursue revitalization in especially consistent and comprehensive forms. This article offers evidence that current policies are not meeting their main objectives. Very little is being done in the older, inner-city neighbourhoods, although these have been given a top political priority in the planning process since they are perceived as one of the greatest economic and cultural assets of eastern Germany. Rather, the policies have been effective only in the large-scale housing estates, where local administrations and city governments meet ,big partners' with resources for action. Further, it is argued that present policy strategies focus too tightly on housing market issues alone. Many housing problems cannot be solved using housing market policy tools alone as vacancy is caused by the general trends of depopulation and deindustrialization in the region. Avec l'aide de financements fédéraux, de nombreuses grandes villes est-allemandes se sont attaquées à leur grave problème de logements inoccupés, et les nouvelles stratégies tentent une relance par des formules particulièrement vastes et cohérentes. Cet article démontre que les politiques actuelles n'atteignent pas leurs objectifs principaux. Très peu est fait dans les quartiers anciens déshérités, même si on leur a donné une priorité politique élevée dans le processus d'aménagement puisqu'ils sont en bonne place, dit-on, dans le patrimoine économique et culturel de l'Allemagne de l'Est. En revanche, les politiques publiques n'ont été efficaces que dans les projets de logements à grande échelle lorsque les administrations locales et autorités de la ville rencontrent des ,partenaires de poids' ayant des ressources pour agir. De plus, les stratégies politiques présentes s'attachent trop aux seuls aspects liés au marché du logement. Bien des problèmes d'habitat ne peuvent être résolus à l'aide d'outils de politique de marché puisque la vacance tient aux tendances générales à la dépopulation et à la désindustrialisation de la région. [source]

Multilateral Trade and Agricultural Policy Reforms in Sugar Markets

Amani Elobeid
Q18; F10 Abstract We analyse the impact of trade liberalisation, removal of production subsidies and elimination of consumption distortions in world sugar markets using a partial-equilibrium international sugar model calibrated on 2002 market data and current policies. The removal of trade distortions alone induces a 27% price increase while the removal of all trade and production distortions induces a 48% increase in 2011/2012 relative to the baseline. Aggregate trade expands moderately, but location of production and trade patterns change substantially. Protectionist Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries (the EU, Japan, the US) experience an import expansion or export reduction and a significant contraction of production in unfettered markets. Competitive producers in both OECD countries (Australia) and non-OECD countries (Brazil, Cuba), and even some protected producers (Indonesia, Turkey), expand production when all distortions are removed. Consumption distortions have marginal impacts on world markets and the location of production. We discuss the significance of these results in the context of mounting pressures to increase market access in highly protected OECD countries and the impact on non-OECD countries. [source]

Cell phone roulette and "consumer interactive" quality

Peter Navarro
Under current policies, cell phone consumers face a lower probability of finding the best carrier for their usage patterns than winning at roulette. Corroborating survey data consistently show significant dissatisfaction among cell phone users, network performance is a major issue, and customer "churn" is high. This problem may be traced to a new form of "consumer interactive" quality characteristic of emergent high technology products such as cell phone and broadband services. This problem is unlikely to be resolved by effective search and sampling, efficient secondary markets, or voluntary carrier disclosure. Traditional one-dimensional disclosure responses to this new variation on an old asymmetric information problem should give way to a more multi-faceted and fine-grained policy approach. © 2005 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management [source]

An update on the current policies

Christopher Chapple Editor-in-Chief

Socially Sanctioned Coercion Mechanisms for Addiction Treatment

Edgar P. Nace MD
Coercion as a strategy for treatment of addiction is an effective but often negatively perceived approach. The authors review current policies for involuntary commitments and explore coercive dimensions of treating alcohol and drug dependence in the workplace, sports, and through professional licensure. Gender-specific issues in coercion are considered, including evidence for improved treatment retention among pregnant and parenting women coerced via the criminal justice system. Social security disability benefits represent an area where an opportunity for constructive coercion was missed in the treatment of primary or comorbid substance use disorders. The availability of third-party funding for the voluntary treatment of individuals with substance use disorders has decreased. This unmet need, coupled with the evidence for positive clinical outcomes, highlights the call for implementing socially sanctioned mechanisms of coercion. [source]

Regional differences among employed nurses: A Queensland study

Tim Henwood
Abstract Objective:,To ascertain differences in the working lives of geographically dispersed nurses. Design:,Cross-sectional. Setting:,Registered, enrolled and assistants-in-nursing members of the Queensland Nurses' Union employed in nursing in Queensland, Australia. Participants:,A total of 3000 members of the Union, equally stratified by sector (public, private, aged care). Among them, 1192 responded and 1039 supplied postcodes matching the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. Main outcome measures:,Statistically significant differences in working lives of nurses employed in different geographical locations. Results:,Nurses in outer regional/remote/very remote localities are more likely to be employed as permanent full-time staff and self-report higher levels of work stress. These levels could be explained by: lack of replacement staff for leave, longer working and on call hours and lack of support for new staff. Distance remains a major barrier to accessing continuing professional education. However, outer regional/remote/very remote nurses were more likely to be provided employer support for professional education. Inner regional nurses were more likely to work part time, would work more hours if offered and were more likely to have taken a break from nursing as a result of family commitments. Conclusion:,The data confirm that current policies are not addressing the differences in the working lives of geographically dispersed nurses. Policies addressing orientation, mentoring and workloads should be implemented to address these issues. [source]

Elders in the justice system: how the system treats elders in trials, during imprisonment, and on death row

L. Beth Gaydon B.A.
As the average lifespan increases, it becomes increasingly likely that elders will be involved in the justice system. Elders may be witnesses, victims, plaintiffs, or defendants in a trial. They are also prisoners and, in some cases, death row inmates. Because there are special needs and costs associated with elders, it is important to consider how they are treated in each of these areas of the justice system. For instance, jurors may have age biases; some prisons are unable to address elders' health problems; and critics have questioned the constitutionality of executing frail elders. In order to determine whether the court system is treating elders fairly, this analysis reviews current policies, research, and anecdotal evidence from recent high-profile cases. Recommendations for future research and policy changes are offered to ensure that elders are treated fairly in the justice system. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


In the context of dramatically increasing U.S. health-care costs, this paper contributes to an ongoing debate discussing proposals to replace the government's current policy of matching state Medicaid spending with a block grant system. State-level panel data analysis provides evidence that, ceteris paribus, increasing the federal matching formula has a negative impact on prenatal care. This aggregate result masks significant differences between high- and low-spending states and appears to be driven by the high-spending states thus implying that a 2-track approach to Medicaid funding may be more appropriate than the current system. (JEL I1, H7) [source]

From Great Depression to Great Credit Crisis: similarities, differences and lessons

ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 62 2010
Miguel Almunia
Summary The Great Depression of the 1930s and the Great Credit Crisis of the 2000s had similar causes but elicited strikingly different policy responses. While it remains too early to assess the effectiveness of current policy, it is possible to analyse monetary and fiscal responses in the 1930s as a natural experiment or counterfactual capable of shedding light on the impact of current policies. We employ vector autoregressions, instrumental variables, and qualitative evidence for 27 countries in the period 1925,39. The results suggest that monetary and fiscal stimulus was effective -- that where it did not make a difference it was not tried. They shed light on the debate over fiscal multipliers in episodes of financial crisis. They are consistent with multipliers at the higher end of those estimated in the recent literature, and with the argument that the impact of fiscal stimulus will be greater when banking systems are dysfunctional and monetary policy is constrained by the zero bound. --- Miguel Almunia, Agustín Bénétrix, Barry Eichengreen, Kevin H. O'Rourke and Gisela Rua [source]

Primary care in the UK: understanding the dynamics of devolution

Mark Exworthy
Abstract The United Kingdom is ostensibly one country and yet public policy often varies between its constituent territories , England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Health policy illustrates the dilemmas inherent in an apparently unitary system that permits scope for territorial variation. Administrative devolution has now been accompanied by political devolution but their interaction has yet to produce policy outcomes. This paper describes recent health policy reform with regard to primary care in terms of the tension inherent in current policy between notions of a ,one nation NHS' and the territorial diversity wrought by devolution. The paper provides a framework for understanding the emergent outcomes by exploring various concepts. In particular, the existing character of territorial policy networks, the properties of policies in devolved territories and intergovernmental relations are considered from various disciplines to examine whether greater diversity or uniformity will result from the dual reform process. Whilst this evaluation can, at this stage, only be preliminary, the paper provides a framework to appraise the emerging impact of devolution upon primary care in the UK. [source]

A Rogue is a Rogue is a Rogue: US Foreign Policy and the Korean Nuclear Crisis

Roland Bleiker
Two nuclear crises recently haunted the Korean peninsula, one in 1993/4, the other in 2002/3. In each case the events were strikingly similar: North Korea made public its ambition to acquire nuclear weapons and withdrew from the Nonproliferation Treaty. Then the situation rapidly deteriorated until the peninsular was literally on the verge of war. The dangers of North Korea's actions, often interpreted as nuclear brinkmanship, are evident and much discussed, but not so the underlying patterns that have shaped the conflict in the first place. This article sheds light on some of them. It examines the role of the United States in the crisis, arguing that Washington's inability to see North Korea as anything but a threatening ,rogue state' seriously hinders both an adequate understanding and possible resolution of the conflict. Particularly significant is the current policy of pre-emptive strikes against rogue states, for it reinforces half a century of American nuclear threats towards North Korea. The problematic role of these threats has been largely obscured, not least because the highly technical discourse of security analysis has managed to present the strategic situation on the peninsula in a manner that attributes responsibility for the crisis solely to North Korea's actions, even if the situation is in reality far more complex and interactive. [source]

Low-income mothers, nutrition and health: a systematic review of qualitative evidence

Pamela Attree phd
Abstract Diet is a key issue for UK health policies, particularly in relation to poorer socio-economic groups. From a public health perspective, the government's role is to help low-income families to make healthy food choices, and to create the conditions to enable them to make healthy decisions. Arguably, however, current policy on nutrition and health is influenced by individualist and behavioural perspectives, which fail to take into account the full impact of structural factors on food choices. This paper draws on a systematic review of qualitative studies that prioritize low-income mothers' accounts of ,managing' in poverty, synthesizing a subset of studies that focus on diet, nutrition and health in poor families. Synthesis findings are explored in the context of dominant discourses concerning individual responsibility for health and gendered societal values concerning ,good' mothering. The paper concludes that a shift in emphasis in health policies, affording a higher priority to enabling measures that tackle the underlying determinants of health, would be advantageous in reducing nutritional inequities for low-income mothers and their children. [source]

Widening Participation, Equalising Opportunity?

POLITICS, Issue 2 2006
Higher Education's Mission Impossible
Current government policy of increasing participation in higher education is justified on the grounds of individual benefit, the national economic interest and, most significantly, as part of a moral agenda of promoting equality of opportunity. This article examines a range of empirical findings in the light of ideas about equality and, in particular, the concept of ,equality of opportunity', and what these entail. It concludes that widening participation in higher education, at least as envisaged in current policy, cannot compensate for social and educational disadvantage, and is not only ineffectual in promoting equality of opportunity, but carries serious disbenefits. [source]

Good, bad or ,necessary evil'?

Reinterpreting the colonial burning experiments in the savanna landscapes of West Africa
A simple ecological model underlies contemporary fire policy in many West African countries. The model holds that the timing (or seasonality) of annual savanna fires is a principal determinant of vegetation cover. The model's origin can be traced to the ideas held by influential colonial scientists who viewed anthropogenic fire as a prime force of regional environmental degradation. The main evidence in support of the model derives from the results of a series of long-term burning experiments carried out during last century. The experimental results have been repeatedly mapped onto fire policy often taking the form of a three-tiered model in which fire exclusion is considered the ultimate management objective, late dry-season fire is discouraged and early dry-season fire is allowed but only under specific, often state-controlled circumstances. This paper provides a critique of contemporary fire policy in the region and the fire ecology model on which it is based. Through an analysis of burn scars for the 2002,3 fire season generated from ETM+ imagery, the study documents the spatiotemporal pattern of burning for an area in southern Mali. It argues that current policy, which is informed by an a-spatial model, cannot adequately account for the critical pattern of burning that is characteristic of the region. A reinterpretation of the burning experiments is presented in light of four factors: empirical data; recent developments in patch-mosaic theory; historical evidence on the effects of fire suppression; and data on indigenous burning strategies, all of which suggest a need to reconsider current fire policy. [source]

Polyomavirus Allograft Nephropathy: Sequential Assessment of Histologic Viral Load, Tubulitis, and Graft Function Following Changes in Immunosuppression

Betul Celik
Our initial cases of polyoma virus allograft nephropathy (PVAN) received pulse steroids due to anxiety about concomitant acute rejection triggered by the presence of tubulitis. However, our current policy is to reduce immunosuppression in all cases. The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical follow-up in these patient categories shows any differences in: (a) histologic viral load, (b) grade of tubulitis, and (c) graft function. Reduced viral load assessed within 8 weeks was seen in 4/20 (20.0%) biopsies treated initially by increased immunosuppression, compared to 15/19 (83.3%) biopsies treated with reduced immunosuppression (p = 0.001, Fisher's exact test). Yet, >70% reversal of the rise in serum creatinine occurred in only 3/19 (15.8%) and 1/19 (5.3%) patients, respectively, in these two groups. Improved tubulitis was seen in 11/20 (55%) of biopsies treated with steroids, despite the lack of beneficial effect on serum creatinine in 12/19 (63.1%) instances. In biopsies not treated with any change in immunosuppression, the serum creatinine remained stable in 1/5 (20%) and worsened in 4/5 (80%) biopsies. These data demonstrate that in biopsies with PVAN and tubulitis, reduced immunosuppression is more effective in lowering viral load than steroid therapy. Lack of parallelism between viral load, tubulitis grade, and serum creatinine illustrates a complex interplay of viral and alloimmune factors leading to graft injury. [source]

Comparison of three management strategies for patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, after six months delay: A three-year experience in an Iranian university hospital

Background: A Pap test result of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) presents a clinical challenge. Only 5,10% of women with ASCUS harbour serious cervical disease. Methods: We screened 3619 women, who attended to Mirza Koochak Khan Hospital at Tehran University of Medical Sciences with Pap smears, of whom 100 returned with ASCUS. After six months, each subject underwent a standard cytology (conventional Pap smear), human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing (identifying high-risk HPV types with polymerase chain reaction) and colposcopy with multiple cervical biopsies. Results: Mean age was 44.09 ± 8.6 years. The estimated prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II or higher was 4%. When histologically verified high-grade lesions (, CIN II) were observed, the relative sensitivity of HPV DNA testing was 100% compared with conventional Pap smear, which performed 75% versus 100% relative sensitivity, respectively, using cytological diagnosis high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) as the cut-off. Negative and positive predictive values (NPV and PPV) of Pap test were 98.9% and 100%. The NPV and PPV of HPV DNA testing were 100%. Conclusions: Although less complicated than colposcopy, the repeat Pap smear triage algorithm for ASCUS may underdiagnose some women with high-grade CIN, when compared with colposcopy. Considering the high sensitivity of HPV testing, it may be useful as an alternative to the current policy of six-month repeat cytology for women with ASCUS results. [source]

As the last resort: reducing the use of restrictive physical interventions using organisational approaches

Roy Deveau
Accessible summary ,,People living in a home should not be restrained unless they are really hurting themselves or somebody else. ,,People living in a home should be helped to manage their own behaviour without being restrained. Summary The development of restrictive physical interventions (RPI) to manage challenging behaviours based upon control and restraint during the 1980s and 1990s led to widespread professional disquiet and campaigning to improve the policies, training and application of physical techniques. This included the promotion of a value base within which physical techniques should be used. This value base may be summarised as any use of physical interventions must be in the person's best interests, ,least restrictive' and used as the last resort following preventive strategies. The last resort principle implies that services should be able to demonstrate support plans to prevent or reduce the frequency and/or restrictiveness of PI used in individual cases. This paper proposes that adopting explicit policies and practice to reduce restrictive PI is likely to be more effective in improving quality of support as opposed to solely managing PI use. Discussion of current policy and practice is followed by discussion of organisations' roles in relation to RPI reduction, with international comparisons. [source]