Current Opinion (current + opinion)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


Deen P Sharma
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Current Opinions on the Functions of Tocopherol Based on the Genetic Manipulation of Tocopherol Biosynthesis in Plants

Yin Li
Abstract As a member of an important group of lipid soluble antioxidants, tocopherols play a paramount role in the daily diet of humans and animals. Recently, genes required for tocochromanol biosynthesis pathway have been identified and cloned with the help of genomics-based approaches and molecular manipulation in the model organisms: Arabidopsis thaliana and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. At the basis of these foundations, genetic manipulation of tocochromanol biosynthesis pathway can give rise to strategies that enhance the level of tocochromanol content or convert the constitution of tocochromanol. In addition, genetic manipulations of the tocochromanol biosynthesis pathway provide help for the study of the function of tocopherol in plant systems. The present article summarizes recent advances and pays special attention to the functions of tocopherol in plants. The roles of tocopherol in the network of reactive oxygen species, antioxidants and phytohormones to maintain redox homeostasis and the functions of tocopherol as a signal molecule in chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling to regulate carbohydrate metabolism are also discussed. [source]

e-Integration in the Supply Chain: Barriers and Performance,

Markham T. Frohlich
ABSTRACT Current opinion holds that Internet-based supply chain integration with upstream suppliers and downstream customers (called "e-integration" in this paper) is superior to traditional ways of doing business. This proposition remains untested, however, and similarly we know little about what are the upstream, internal, and downstream barriers to implementing e-integration. This paper empirically addressed these questions using data from a large single nation study, and found (1) a positive link between e-integration and performance, and (2) that internal barriers impeded e-integration more than either upstream supplier barriers or downstream customer barriers. Findings from this study contribute to our theoretical understanding of implementing change in contemporary supply chains, and have important implications for manufacturers interested in improving their supply chain's performance using the Internet. [source]

Molecular mechanisms of pancreatitis: Current opinion

Alain Vonlaufen
Abstract Pancreatitis (necroinflammation of the pancreas) has both acute and chronic manifestations. Gallstones are the major cause of acute pancreatitis, whereas alcohol is associated with acute as well as chronic forms of the disease. Cases of true idiopathic pancreatitis are steadily diminishing as more genetic causes of the disease are discovered. The pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis has been extensively investigated over the past four decades; the general current consensus is that the injury is initiated within pancreatic acinar cells subsequent to premature intracellular activation of digestive enzymes. Repeated attacks of acute pancreatitis have the potential to evolve into chronic disease characterized by fibrosis and loss of pancreatic function. Our knowledge of the process of scarring has advanced considerably with the isolation and study of pancreatic stellate cells, now established as the key cells in pancreatic fibrogenesis. The present review summarizes recent developments in the field particularly with respect to the progress made in unraveling the molecular mechanisms of acute and chronic pancreatic injury secondary to gallstones, alcohol and genetic factors. It is anticipated that continued research in the area will lead to the identification and characterization of molecular pathways that may be therapeutically targeted to prevent/inhibit the initiation and progression of the disease. [source]

,-synuclein has a dynamic intracellular localization

CYTOSKELETON, Issue 8 2006
Irina Surgucheva
Abstract ,-Synuclein is a member of the synuclein family consisting of three proteins. Within the last several years increasing attention has focused on these proteins because of their role in human diseases. ,-Synuclein relevance to Parkinson's disease is based on mutations found in familial cases of the disease and its presence in filaments and inclusion bodies in sporadic cases. ,-Synuclein is implicated in some forms of cancer and ocular diseases, while ,-synuclein may antagonize their pathological functions. In this paper we present data on the localization and properties of ,-synuclein in several neuronal and nonneuronal cell cultures. We show that contrary to the current opinion, ,-synuclein is not an exclusively cytoplasmic protein, but has a dynamic localization and can associate with subcellular structures. It is present in the perinuclear area and may be associated to centrosomes. On late steps of mitosis ,-synuclein is not found in the centrosomes, and redistributes to the midbody in telophase. Under stress conditions a translocation of ,-synuclein from the perinuclear area to the nucleus occurs exhibiting nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. ,-Synuclein overexpression reduces neurite outgrowth in a greater extent then ,-synuclein overexpression. These data support the view that ,-synuclein may change its intracellular localization and associate with subcellular structures in response to intracellular signaling or stress. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Laboratory evaluation of aspirin responsiveness,

Kristi J. Smock
Aspirin is the most commonly used antiplatelet medication. Laboratory monitoring of aspirin response has recently become a topic of interest due to potential impacts on patient management and clinical outcomes. This article summarizes available laboratory testing of aspirin response with focus on technical issues, limitations, and current opinion on the utility of routine patient testing. Am. J. Hematol., 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Current practice of emergency vagotomy and Helicobacter pylori eradication for complicated peptic ulcer in the United Kingdom

A. D. Gilliam
Background The aim was to assess the current opinion of surgeons, by subspecialty, towards vagotomy and the practice of Helicobacter pylori testing, treatment and follow-up, in patients with bleeding or perforated duodenal ulcer. Methods A postal questionnaire was sent to 1073 Fellows of the Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland in 2001. Results Some 697 valid questionnaires were analysed (65·0 per cent). Most surgeons did not perform vagotomy for perforated or bleeding duodenal ulcer. There was no statistical difference between the responses of upper gastrointestinal surgeons and those of other specialists for perforated (P = 0·35) and bleeding (P = 0·45) ulcers. Respondents were more likely to perform a vagotomy for bleeding than for a perforated ulcer (P < 0·001). Although more than 80 per cent of surgeons prescribed H. pylori eradication treatment after operation, fewer than 60 per cent routinely tested patients for H. pylori eradication. Upper gastrointestinal surgeons were more likely to prescribe H. pylori treatment and test for eradication than other specialists (P < 0·01). Conclusion Most surgeons in the UK no longer perform vagotomy for duodenal ulcer complications. Copyright © 2002 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd [source]

Therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy: a UK survey of opinion, practice and neuro-investigation at the end of 2007

Andrew Kapetanakis
Abstract Background: The 2007 Cochrane review of therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy (NE) indicates a significant reduction in adverse outcome. UK National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines are awaited. Objective: To benchmark current opinion and practice to inform future strategies for optimal knowledge transfer for therapeutic hypothermia. Methods: A web based questionnaire (30 sections related to opinion and practice of management of NE) sent to the clinical leads of Level I, II and III neonatal units throughout the UK in November/December 2007. Results: One hundred and twenty-five (out of 195) UK neonatal units responded (response rate 66%). Ten percent, 37.5% and 51.5% responses were from level I, II and III units respectively. Twenty eight percent of all units provided therapeutic hypothermia locally (52% of level III units), however 80% of responders would offer therapeutic hypothermia if there was the facility. Overall, 57% of responders considered therapeutic hypothermia effective or very effective , similar for all unit levels; 43% considered more data are required. Regional availability of therapeutic hypothermia exists in 55% of units and 41% of units offer transfer to a regional centre for therapeutic hypothermia. Conclusion: In the UK in 2007, access to therapeutic hypothermia was widespread although not universal. More than half of responders considered therapeutic hypothermia effective. Fifty-five percent of perinatal networks have the facility to offer therapeutic hypothermia. The involvement of national bodies may be necessary to ensure the adoption of therapeutic hypothermia according to defined protocols and standards; registration is important and will help ensure universal neurodevelopmental follow up. [source]

Assessment of competence and progressive independence in postgraduate clinical training

Marja G K Dijksterhuis
Context, At present, competency-based, outcome-focused training is gradually replacing more traditional master,apprentice teaching in postgraduate training. This change requires a different approach to the assessment of clinical competence, especially given the decisions that must be made about the level of independence allowed to trainees. Methods, This study was set within postgraduate obstetrics and gynaecology training in the Netherlands. We carried out seven focus group discussions, four with postgraduate trainees from four training programmes and three with supervisors from three training programmes. During these discussions, we explored current opinions of supervisors and trainees about how to determine when a trainee is competent to perform a clinical procedure and the role of formal assessment in this process. Results, When the focus group recordings were transcribed, coded and discussed, two higher-order themes emerged: factors that determine the level of competence of a trainee in a clinical procedure, and factors that determine the level of independence granted to a trainee or acceptable to a trainee. Conclusions, From our study, it is evident that both determining the level of competence of a trainee for a certain professional activity and making decisions about the degree of independence entrusted to a trainee are complex, multi-factorial processes, which are not always transparent. Furthermore, competence achieved in a certain clinical procedure does not automatically translate into more independent practice. We discuss the implications of our findings for the assessment of clinical competence and provide suggestions for a transparent assessment structure with explicit attention to progressive independence. [source]

Updates on bisphosphonates and potential pathobiology of bisphosphonate-induced jaw osteonecrosis

ORAL DISEASES, Issue 3 2008
J Sarin
Osteonecrosis of the jaws is a major complication associated with long-term use of bisphosphonates. While osteonecrosis can arise from other precipitating conditions, bisphosphonate-induced jaw osteonecrosis (BJON) is highly associated with long-term administration of pamidronate (Arediaź) and zoledronic acid (Zometaź), which are two intravenous bisphosphonate formulations. The underlying pathogenesis of BJON and its site-specific presentation still remain to be fully elucidated. This review will discuss clinically available bisphosphonates, current opinions, pathogenesis, and management guidelines for bisphosphonate-induced jaw osteonecrosis. [source]