Current Guidelines (current + guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Establishing pragmatic estimated GFR thresholds to guide metformin prescribing

J. S. Shaw
Abstract Aims, Renal impairment is a contraindication to metformin treatment because of the perceived increased risk of lactic acidosis. Current guidelines define renal impairment according to the serum creatinine of the individual, but this measure is being supplanted by the use of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as it gives a closer estimate to true GFR. This study aimed to establish pragmatic eGFR limits for use in patients being considered for metformin treatment. Methods, Estimated GFR measurements corresponding to currently used metformin creatinine limits of 130 and 150 µmol/l were derived and then applied to 12 482 patients with diabetes in Hull and East Yorkshire. Results, Few patients with a serum creatinine of 130 or 150 µmol/l have an eGFR of < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2[chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4 or greater], while most are between 30 and 59 ml/min/1.73 m2 (CKD stage 3). When applied to the 12 482 patients (median age 67 years, interquartile range 56,75), males predominated when using creatinine cut-offs (13.6% of males and 8.3% of females had creatinine > 130 µmol/l; 8.2% males and 5.2% females > 150 µmol/l), but not using eGFR CKD thresholds (3.3% males and 4.7% females < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2; 20.8% males and 28.1% females eGFR 30,59 ml/min/1.73 m2). Similar proportions of patients as currently would have metformin withheld if using eGFR cut-offs between 30 and 49 ml/min/1.73 m2. Conclusions, We have proposed pragmatic eGFR limits to guide metformin prescribing in patients with renal impairment. CKD stage 4 or greater should be an absolute contraindication to metformin, while CKD stage 3 should alert clinicians to consider other risk factors before initiating or continuing treatment. [source]

Cardiovascular Risk Assessment and Triptans

HEADACHE, Issue 2004
Vasilios Papademetriou MD
Identifying the patient for whom triptans are contraindicated because of recognized, diagnosed cardiovascular disease is relatively straightforward. Determining whether a patient with potential unrecognized cardiovascular disease is an appropriate candidate for triptan therapy, however, constitutes a difficult challenge, especially in the absence of a framework for workup of patients. This article discusses the pathophysiology of coronary heart disease and issues involved in assessing cardiovascular risk, and it attempts to provide a framework for cardiovascular risk assessment that can be applied to decisions for prescribing triptans. Current guidelines for cardiovascular risk assessment allow stratification of patients to low, intermediate, or high risk of coronary heart disease events. This framework for risk assessment can be applied to decisions for prescribing triptans. Cardiovascular risk-assessment algorithms discussed elsewhere in this supplement suggest that patients at low risk (1 or no risk factors) of coronary heart disease can be prescribed triptans without the need for a more intensive cardiovascular evaluation. Conversely, patients with established coronary heart disease or coronary heart disease risk equivalents should not be prescribed triptans according to the current prescribing recommendations. Patients at intermediate risk (2 or more risk factors) of coronary heart disease require cardiovascular evaluation before triptans can be prescribed. Current understanding suggests that the risk of future acute coronary events is a function of the absolute number of vulnerable plaques present, a variable that cannot be accurately determined using available technology or risk-prediction models. Cardiovascular risk-assessment guidelines should be evaluated in the context of this limitation. [source]

Treatment recommendations for chronic hepatitis B: An evaluation of current guidelines based on a natural history study in the United States,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
Myron John Tong
Current guidelines for treatment of chronic hepatitis B include hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status, levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values in the setting of either chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis. Based on findings from a prospective study of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive patients, we determined whether these guidelines included patients who developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and who died of non-HCC liver-related complications. The criteria for treatment from four published guidelines were matched to a cohort of 369 HBsAg-positive patients enrolled in the study. During a mean follow-up of 84 months, 30 patients developed HCC and 37 died of non-HCC liver-related deaths. Using criteria for antiviral therapy as stated by the four guidelines, only 20%-60% of the patients who developed HCC, and 27%-70% of patients who died of non-HCC liver-related deaths would have been identified for antiviral therapy according to current treatment recommendations. If baseline serum albumin levels of 3.5 mg/dL or less or platelet counts of 130,000 mm3 or less were added to criteria from the four treatment guidelines, then 89%-100% of patients who died of non-HCC liver-related complications, and 96%-100% of patients who developed HCC would have been identified for antiviral therapy. In addition, if basal core promoter T1762/A1764 mutants and precore A1896 mutants also were included, then 100% of patients who developed HCC would have been identified for treatment. Conclusion: This retrospective analysis showed that the current treatment guidelines for chronic hepatitis B excluded patients who developed serious liver-related complications. (HEPATOLOGY 2008.) [source]

Platelet count is not a predictor of the presence or development of gastroesophageal varices in cirrhosis,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
Amir A. Qamar
Current guidelines recommend esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in patients with cirrhosis to screen for gastroesophageal varices (GEV). Thrombocytopenia has been proposed as a noninvasive test to predict the presence of GEV. There is no agreement regarding a specific platelet count (PLT) that can reliably predict GEV. The present longitudinal study aims to (1) further investigate the relationship between varices and PLT at the time of endoscopy, (2) investigate whether changes in PLT from the baseline over time can predict the development of GEV, and (3) investigate whether changes in PLT correlate with the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG). A secondary analysis was conducted for 213 subjects with compensated cirrhosis with portal hypertension but without GEV enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of a nonselective beta-blocker used to prevent GEV. PLTs were obtained every 3 months, and HVPG measurements and EGD were done annually. The PLTs were compared between subjects who did and did not develop GEV. In a median follow-up of 54.9 months, 84 patients developed GEV. PLT was greater than 150,000 in 15% of patients at the development of GEV. A receiver operating curve did not show any PLT with high sensitivity or specificity for the presence of GEV. Subjects with clinically insignificant portal hypertension (HVPG < 10 mm Hg) whose PLT remained greater than 100,000 had a 2-fold reduction in the occurrence of GEV (P = 0.0374). A significant correlation was found between HVPG and PLT at the baseline, year 1, and year 5 (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Cross-sectional or longitudinal evaluations of PLTs are inadequate noninvasive markers for GEV. Patients with mild portal hypertension whose PLT remains greater than 100,000 have significantly less risk of GEV. Although HVPG correlates somewhat with PLT, changes in PLT cannot be used as a surrogate for HVPG changes. (HEPATOLOGY 2008;47:153,159.) [source]

Should we give thromboprophylaxis to patients with liver cirrhosis and coagulopathy?

HPB, Issue 6 2009
Marco Senzolo
Abstract Patients with liver cirrhosis are characterized by decreased synthesis of both pro- and anticoagulant factors, and recently there has been evidence of normal generation of thrombin resulting in a near normal haemostatic balance. Although it is generally recognized that bleeding is the most common clinical manifestation as a result of decreased platelet function and number, diminished clotting factors and excessive fibrinolysis, hypercoagulability may play an under recognized but important role in many aspects of chronic liver disease. In fact, they can encounter thrombotic complications such as portal vein thrombosis, occlusion of small intrahepatic vein branches and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). In particular, patients with cirrhosis appear to have a higher incidence of unprovoked DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE) compared with the general population. In dedicated studies, the incidence of DVT/PE ranges from 0.5% to 1.9%, similar to patients without comorbidities, but lower than patients with other chronic diseases (i.e, renal or heart disease). Surprisingly, standard coagulation laboratory parameters are not associated with a risk of developing DVT/PE; however, with multivariate analysis, serum albumin level was independently associated with the occurrence of thrombosis. Moreover, patients with chronic liver disease share the same risk factors as the general population for DVT/PE, and specifically, liver resection can unbalance the haemostatic equilibrium towards a hypercoagulable state. Current guidelines on antithrombotic prophylaxis do not specifically comment on the cirrhotic population as a result of the perceived risk of bleeding complications but the cirrhotic patient should not be considered as an auto-anticoagulated patient. Therefore, thromboprophylaxis should be recommended in patients with liver cirrhosis at least when exposed to high-risk conditions for thrombotic complications. Low molecular weight heparins (LWMHs) seem to be relatively safe in this group of patients; however, when important risk factors for bleeding are present, graduated compression stockings or intermittent pneumatic compression should be considered. [source]

Review of studies and guidelines on fasting and procedural sedation at the emergency department

Joseph Antonio D Molina MD MSc(Public Health)
Abstract Aim, Procedural sedation and analgesia allows urgent procedures to be performed safely by preserving patients' airway reflexes. Fasting, which is required before deeper levels of sedation, and where the airway reflexes are not preserved, is difficult to impose in emergencies. This paper aims to synthesise evidence on the need for pre-procedure fasting to minimise aspiration among adults undergoing procedural sedation and analgesia for emergency procedures. Methods, Overviews, guidelines with graded recommendations and primary studies on aspiration and pre-procedure fasting in procedural sedation and analgesia were retrieved from Medline, Cochrane, and Center for Reviews and Dissemination Databases. Terms searched were procedural sedation, fasting, emergency and sedation. Results, One primary study and one guideline were included. The American College of Emergency Physicians Clinical Policies Subcommittee on Procedural Sedation and Analgesia issued a recommendation based on ,preliminary, inconclusive or conflicting evidence, or on panel consensus'. The recommendation states: ,recent food intake is not a contraindication for administering procedural sedation and analgesia . . .'. The primary study conducted by Bell in an emergency department in Australia compared patients who last ate or drank more than 6 and 2 h from induction, respectively, with those who last ate or drank within 6 and 2 h. There were no cases of aspiration in both groups. Out of 118 patients who fasted, 1 (0.8%) vomited, as did one of 282 patients (0.4%) who did not fast. Conclusions, Aspiration risk is expected to be lower in procedural sedation and analgesia than in general anaesthesia. Current guidelines rely on expert consensus due to the lack of primary studies. Contextualisation of existing guidelines are quick and efficient strategies for developing locally relevant tools. [source]

A review of hand-washing techniques in primary care and community settings

Sheree MS Smith
Aim., This review seeks to identify the most effective hand-washing and hand-cleansing practice that could be used in primary care. Background., Healthcare associated infection is a major problem in the UK causing 5000 deaths every year. Current guidelines indicate expert opinion is the level of evidence for hand washing as an activity to reduce infection. Design., Systematic review. Method., Publications on hand-washing, hand-cleansing studies, policy and practice-based documents were sought by searching several databases. Terms used included hand washing, hand cleansing, hand hygiene, hand decontamination, infection control and primary care. Results., Few articles described the hand-washing technique in detail and some publications simply referred to either the European and British Standards or the Centre for Disease Control statement on hand washing. Major discrepancies in hand position and water flow direction were found. Several methodological problems were also identified and few studies were undertaken in primary care. Conclusion., This review has found a lack of evidence for hand-washing techniques being undertaken in practice today. Findings from hand-washing technique studies were inconclusive and methodological issues exist resulting in sparse reliable evidence. There is an urgent need to undertake methodologically sound studies of hand-washing techniques for use in the ever expanding scope of primary care practice. Relevance to clinical practice., Evidence for hand-washing and hand-cleansing techniques will inform healthcare professional practice, and contribute to the overall management of infection control in primary care. [source]

One-hour fast for water and six-hour fast for solids prior to endoscopy provides good endoscopic vision and results in minimum patient discomfort

Arjuna P De Silva
Abstract Background and Aim:, Current guidelines for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE) advise at least 6,8 h fasting for solids and 4-h fasting for liquids. We aimed to determine whether a 6-h fast for solids and one-hour fast for water prior to UGIE gives good endoscopic vision and less patient discomfort. Methods:, 128 patients referred for UGIE were given a standard meal 6 h before endoscopy, and then randomized to either nil by mouth for 6 h (group A, n = 65) or allowed to drink water for up to one hour prior to endoscopy (group B, n = 63). Before endoscopy patients were requested to indicate discomfort due to fasting on a visual analog scale. Fluid in the gastric fundus was aspirated, when present, for volume and pH measurements, and endoscopic vision was graded. Results:, 53 patients in group A and 43 patients in group B completed the study. Discomfort was significantly lower in group B than group A (P < 0.0001). Endoscopic vision was good in all 53 patients in group A and 40 in group B, and average in 3 patients in group B. Fluid in the gastric fundus was noted in 11 patients in group A and 16 in group B, but there were no significant differences in volume or pH between groups. There were no complications attributable to endoscopy in either group. Conclusions:, A 6-h fast for solids and a 1-h fast for water prior to UGIE gives good endoscopic vision, and causes minimum patient discomfort. [source]

Improving glycemic control in medical inpatients: A pilot study

BCPS, Jennifer M. Trujillo PharmD
Abstract BACKGROUND Inpatient hyperglycemia is associated with poor patient outcomes. Current guidelines recommend that in an inpatient non-ICU setting there be treatment to achieve a glucose level below 180 mg/dL. METHODS Objectives of this prospective quality-improvement pilot study were to implement a subcutaneous insulin protocol on a general medicine service, to identify barriers to implementation, and to determine the effect of this protocol on glycemic control. Eighty-nine patients with a preexisting diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or inpatient hyperglycemia were eligible. Study outcomes included resident acceptance of the protocol, insulin-ordering practices, and mean rate of hyperglycemia (glucose > 180 mg/dL) per person. Results were compared with those of a previously conducted observational study. RESULTS Residents agreed to use the protocol in 56% of cases. Reasons for declining the protocol included severity of a patient's other disease states, desire to titrate oral medications, and fear of hypoglycemia. Basal and nutritional insulin were prescribed more often in the pilot group compared with at baseline (64% vs. 49% for basal, P = .05; 13% vs. 0% for nutritional, P < .001). Basal insulin was started after the first full hospital day in 42% of patients, and only one-third of patients with any hypo- or hyperglycemia had any subsequent changes in their insulin orders. The mean rate of hyperglycemia was not significantly different between groups (31.6% of measurements per patient vs. 33.3%, P = .85). CONCLUSIONS Adherence to a new inpatient subcutaneous insulin protocol was fair. Barriers included fear of hypoglycemia, delays in starting basal insulin, and clinical inertia. Quality improvement efforts likely need to target these barriers to successfully improve inpatient glycemic control. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2008;3:55,63. © 2008 Society of Hospital Medicine. [source]

Prevention of venous thromboembolism after acute ischemic stroke

Summary., Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication after acute ischemic stroke. When screened by 125I fibrinogen scanning or venography, the incidence of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) in stroke patients is comparable with that seen in patients undergoing hip or knee replacement. Most stroke patients have multiple risk factors for VTE, like advanced age, low Barthel Index severity score or hemiplegia. As pulmonary embolism is a major cause of death after acute stroke, the prevention of this complication is of crucial importance. Prospective trials have shown that both unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) are effective in reducing DVT and pulmonary embolism in stroke patients. Current guidelines recommend the use of these agents in stroke patients with risk factors for VTE. Some clinicians are concerned that the rate of intracranial bleeding associated with thromboprophylaxis may outweigh the benefit of prevention of VTE. Low-dose LMWH and UFH seem, however, safe in stroke patients. Higher doses clearly increase the risk of cerebral bleeding and should be avoided for prophylactic use. Both aspirin and mechanical prophylaxis are suboptimal to prevent VTE. Graduated compression stockings should be reserved to patients with a clear contraindication to antithrombotic agents. [source]

Meta-analysis: antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy

Summary Background, Current guidelines do not support routine antibiotic prophylaxis during elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, routine antibiotic prophylaxis for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy is still popular in many clinical settings. Aim, To evaluate the role of antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods, Electronic databases and manual bibliographical searches (updated to April 2008) were conducted. A meta-analysis of all trials evaluating antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Results, Fifteen trials were included, involving 2961 patients. After pooling all the trials, 48 wound infections occurred (48/2961, 1.62%), 22 in antibiotic prophylaxis group (22/1494, 1.47%) and 26 in control group (26/1467, 1.77%). The pooled odds ratio (OR) was 0.79 (95%CI: 0.44, 1.41). Four major infections occurred (4/2961, 0.14%), 3 in antibiotic prophylaxis group (3/1494, 0.20%), and one in control group (1/1467, 0.07%). The pooled OR was 2.51 (95%CI: 0.35, 17.84). Fifteen distant infections occurred (15/2961, 0.51%), six in antibiotic prophylaxis group (6/1494, 0.40%) and nine in control group (9/1467, 0.61%). The pooled OR was 0.53 (95%CI: 0.19, 1.50). Sensitivity analyses also failed to support antibiotic prophylaxis's preventive effect. Conclusions, Considering the absent role of antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing the infectious complications, we suggest that antibiotic prophylaxis is unnecessary and should not be routinely used in low-risk elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. [source]

An Updated Interdisciplinary Clinical Pathway for CRPS: Report of an Expert Panel

PAIN PRACTICE, Issue 1 2002
Dr. med, Michael D. Stanton-Hicks MB
Abstract: The goal of treatment in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is to improve function, relieve pain, and achieve remission. Current guidelines recommend interdisciplinary management, emphasizing 3 core treatment elements: pain management, rehabilitation, and psychological therapy. Although the best therapeutic regimen or the ideal progression through these modalities has not yet been established, increasing evidence suggests that some cases are refractory to conservative measures and require flexible application of the various treatments as well as earlier consideration of interventions such as spinal cord stimulation (SCS). While existing treatment guidelines have attempted to address the comprehensive management of CRPS, all fail to provide guidance for contingent management in response to a sudden change in the patient's medical status. This paper reviews the current pathophysiology as it is known, reviews the purported treatments, and provides a modified clinical pathway (guideline) that attempts to expand the scope of previous guidelines. [source]

The Role of Advanced Lipid Testing in Clinical Practice

Dean G. Karalis MD
The National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) guidelines recommend assessing an individual's cardiovascular (CV) risk from the Framingham risk score; however, the Framingham risk score may underestimate coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Current guidelines have identified some emerging lipid risk factors that can be measured by several commercially available advanced cholesterol tests. These emerging lipid risk factors are meant to supplement the Framingham risk score to help the clinician to better assess CV risk. Although advanced lipid testing cannot be recommended for routine screening, it may be of value in individuals with a family history of premature CHD, postmenopausal women, and individuals at intermediate risk for CHD, especially if they are near the boundary of being at high risk. This review examines the role of advanced lipid testing in clinical practice. [source]

Ethics Review for Sale?

Commercial Research Review Boards, Conflict of Interest
Research review boards, established to protect the rights and welfare of human research subjects, have to ensure that conflicts of interest do not interfere with the ethical conduct of medical research. Private, commercial review boards, which increasingly review research protocols, are themselves affected by a structural conflict of interest. Within the regulatory setting, procedural conflict-of-interest rules are essential because of the absence of clear substantive rules in research review and the reliance on the fairness and good judgment of institutional review board members. Current guidelines and regulations lack adequate conflict-of-interest rules and provide insufficient details on the substantive rules. Because commercial review boards are similar to administrative courts and tribunals, rules of administrative law on bias are applied to determine when a conflict of interest jeopardizes the purposes of research review; administrative law has always judged financial conflicts of interest severely. The structure of private review tends to breach a core principle of administrative law and procedural justice. Reform of the research review system will reinforce public trust in the process. [source]

Prehospital airway management on rescue helicopters in the United Kingdom

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 6 2009
M. Schmid
Summary Adequate equipment is one prerequisite for advanced, out of hospital, airway management. There are no data on current availability of airway equipment on UK rescue helicopters. An internet search revealed all UK rescue helicopters, and a questionnaire was sent to the bases asking for available airway management items. We identified 27 helicopter bases and 26 (96%) sent the questionnaire back. Twenty-four bases (92%) had at least one supraglottic airway device; 16 (62%) helicopters had material for establishing a surgical airway (e.g. a cricothyroidotomy set); 88% of the helicopters had CO2 detection; 25 (96%) helicopters carried automatic ventilators; among these, four (15%) had sophisticated ventilators and seven (27%) helicopters carried special face masks suitable for non-invasive ventilation. We found a wide variation in the advanced airway management equipment that was carried routinely on air ambulances. Current guidelines for airway management are not met by all UK air ambulances. [source]

Management Strategies for Stage-D Patients with Acute Heart Failure

David Feldman M.D., Ph.D.
Abstract Heart Failure (HF) accounted for 3.4 million ambulatory visits in 2000. Current guidelines from the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology, the Heart Failure Society of America, and the International Society for Heart & Lung Transplantation recommend aggressive pharmacologic interventions for patients with HF. This may include a combination of diuretics, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitors, ,-blockers, angiotensin receptor blockers, aldosterone antagonists, and digoxin. Nitrates and hydralazine are also indicated as part of standard therapy in addition to ,-blockers and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitors, especially but not exclusively, for African Americans with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. For those with acute decompensated HF, additional treatment options include recombinant human B-type natriuretic peptide, and in the future possible newer agents not yet approved for use in the U.S., such as Levosimendan. Medical devices for use in patients with advanced HF include LV assist devices, cardiac resynchronization therapy, and implantable cardioverter defibrillators. For refractory patients, heart transplantation, the gold-standard surgical intervention for the treatment of refractory HF, may be considered. Newer surgical options such as surgical ventricular restoration may be considered in select patients. Copyright © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

The Role of Lipid-lowering Therapy in Preventing Coronary Heart Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Dean G. Karalis M.D., F.A.C.C.
Abstract Coronary heart disease is the most common cause of death among diabetic patients. The increased risk of coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes is due, in part, to lipid abnormalities often present in the diabetic patient. Diabetic dyslipidemia is characterized by elevated triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and an increased preponderance of small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) particles. Current guidelines for the prevention of coronary heart disease in diabetic patients identify elevated LDL-C as the primary target of lipid-lowering therapy, and recommend statins as the first-line treatment for diabetic dyslipidemia. This review evaluates the large statin trials that have included diabetic patients, and discusses the role of combination therapy in managing dyslipidemia in diabetic patients. Copyright © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Rigidity of commonly used dental trauma splints

Christine Berthold
We evaluated the rigidity of various commonly used splints in vitro Material and Methods:, An acrylic resin model was used. The central incisors simulated injured teeth, with increased vertical and horizontal mobility. The lateral incisors and canines stimulated uninjured teeth. Tooth mobility was measured with the Periotest® device. Vertical and horizontal measurements were made before and after splinting, and the difference between values was defined as the splint effect. We evaluated 4 composite splints, 3 wire-composite splints, a titanium trauma splint, a titanium ring splint, a bracket splint, and 2 Schuchardt splints Results:, For all injured teeth and all splints, there was a significant splint effect for the vertical and horizontal dimensions (P < 0.05). For injured teeth, the composite splints produced the largest changes in vertical tooth mobility; wire-composite splints 1 and 2, using orthodontic wires, produced the smallest vertical splint effects. For uninjured teeth, the Schuchardt 1 splint and the bracket splint produced the largest splint effects; wire-composite splints 1 and 2 produced only a slight change in tooth mobility. Composite splints 2 and 3 produced the largest horizontal splint effects for injured teeth, and the 4 composite splints produced the largest horizontal splint effects for uninjured teeth. The most horizontally flexible splints were the titanium trauma splint and wire-composite splints 1 and 2. Conclusions:, According to the current guidelines and within the limits of an in vitro study, it can be stated that flexible or semirigid splints such as the titanium trauma splint and wire-composite splints 1 and 2 are appropriate for splinting teeth with dislocation injuries and root fractures, whereas rigid splints such as wire-composite splint 3 and the titanium ring splint can be used to treat alveolar process fractures. [source]

Splinting duration and periodontal outcomes for replanted avulsed teeth: a systematic review

Susan Elisabeth Hinckfuss
The principles of evidence-based dentistry can be used to assess whether these guidelines are based on currently-available evidence. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of relevant clinical literature to examine the evidence on splinting duration and periodontal healing outcomes. The review was constrained markedly by small sample sizes, retrospective nature of clinical audits, dissimilarities of selected studies in their design, methodology and observation periods, and lack of uniformity in terminology for outcomes. A total of 138 replanted avulsed permanent teeth pooled from four papers each reporting both short-term splinting (14 days or less) and long-term splinting (over 14 days) in accord with current clinical guidelines, were studied. The evidence for an association between short-term splinting and an increased likelihood of functional periodontal healing, acceptable healing, or decreased development of replacement resorption, appears inconclusive. The study found no evidence to contraindicate the current guidelines and suggests that the likelihood of successful periodontal healing after replantation is unaffected by splinting duration. Pending future research to the contrary, it is recommended that dentists continue to use the currently-recommended splinting periods when replanting avulsed permanent teeth. [source]

An evidence-based assessment of the clinical guidelines for replanted avulsed teeth.

Part II: prescription of systemic antibiotics
The principles of evidence-based dentistry can be used to assess whether this is the best approach based on currently-available evidence. The objective of this study was to use the principles of evidence-based dentistry to answer the PICO question: (P) for a replanted avulsed permanent tooth, (I) is prescribing SAT, (C) compared with not prescribing SAT, (O) associated with an increased likelihood of successful periodontal healing after tooth replantation? Materials and methods:, A literature search was performed across four internet databases (Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library, PubMed, ISI Web of Science), for relevant citations (n = 35 702). Limiting citations to those in English and removing duplicates produced a set of titles (n = 14 742) that were sieved according to evidence-based dentistry principles. Relevant titles were selected for abstract assessment (n = 782), identifying papers for examination (n = 74). Inclusion criteria were applied and three papers (326 total teeth) met the final criteria for meta-analysis. Results:, Meta-analyses found no statistically significant difference between prescribing or not prescribing antibiotics for acceptable periodontal healing without progressive root resorption (common odds ratio = 0.90, SE = 0.29, 95% confidence intervals = 0.51,1.58). Conclusion:, The evidence for an association between prescribing SAT and an increased likelihood of acceptable periodontal healing outcome is inconclusive. This investigation of antibiotic use as defined in the clinical guidelines indicates there is inconclusive clinical evidence from studies of replanted avulsed human teeth to either contradict or support the guideline. Pending future research to the contrary, dentists are recommended to follow current guidelines in prescribing SAT when replanting avulsed teeth. [source]

Knowledge of oral health professionals of treatment of avulsed teeth

Nestor Cohenca
Abstract,,, The management and immediate treatment of an avulsed permanent tooth will determine the long-term survival of the tooth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of oral health professionals on the new guidelines for emergency treatment of avulsed teeth. A 12-item questionnaire was distributed among general dentists, specialists, dental hygienists and dental assistants attending Continuing Education courses at the School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, between 2003 and 2004. This study reports only on the general practitioners who comprised 83% of the participants. The results revealed an uneven pattern of knowledge among them regarding the emergency management of an avulsed tooth. Statistically significant associations were related to the participants' previous dental trauma education and their age. In conclusion, there is a need to improve the knowledge of general dentists in the current guidelines for emergency treatment of avulsed teeth. [source]

Schizophrenia and physical health problems

Y. Von Hausswolff-Juhlin
Objective:, To estimate the prevalence of physical health problems in patients with schizophrenia, and to appraise the impact on mortality rates and quality of life (QoL) in such patients. Method:, A selective review of clinical articles relating to physical health such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and QoL. In addition, current guidelines and recommendations for the monitoring of physical health in schizophrenia were reviewed. Results:, Cardiovascular events contribute most strongly to the excess mortality observed in schizophrenia. Other factors that contribute significantly include obesity, metabolic aberrations, smoking, alcohol, lack of exercise and poor diet , all of which might be targets for health promoting activities. Conclusion:, Physical health problems in patients with schizophrenia are common, and contribute to the excess mortality rate, as well as decreasing QoL. Many adverse physical factors are malleable in such patients, and physical benefit may be gained by following practical guidelines for their monitoring and improvement. [source]

Cardiovascular drugs as antidiabetic agents: evidence for the prevention of type 2 diabetes

D. P. Macfarlane
Given the long-term health consequences and increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes, there is great interest to potentially prevent or delay its onset. Primary prevention studies have demonstrated that intensive exercise and weight reduction, and to a lesser extent certain antidiabetic agents, can reduce new onset diabetes in at-risk individuals. Results from post hoc analyses and secondary end-point outcomes of large randomized controlled trials of cardiovascular drugs suggest that these may also have beneficial effects, reducing the incidence of new onset diabetes in addition to their proven cardiovascular benefits. Multiple meta-analyses confirm that drugs primarily acting on the renin,angiotensin system (RAS) reduce the incidence of diabetes in the populations studied, perhaps via improved insulin sensitivity and/or effects on pancreatic beta cells. However, results from the recent Diabetes REduction Approaches with Medication study specifically failed to show a significant reduction in the incidence of diabetes with ramipril in individuals with abnormal glucose tolerance at baseline. There is only limited evidence that statins improve glucose tolerance, and although beta-blockers tend to have detrimental effects on glucose tolerance, newer agents with vasodilatory properties may confer benefits. With current guidelines, the use of cardiovascular drugs modifying the RAS will increase in at-risk individuals, but at present, they cannot be recommended to prevent diabetes. [source]

Glycemic risk factors of diabetic vascular complications: the role of glycemic variability

Francesco Zaccardi
Abstract Achieving adequate targets relatively to all risk factors is considered a standard of care for patients with diabetes mellitus. To date, current guidelines underline the importance of the ,glucose triad' (post-prandial glucose, fasting plasma glucose and glycated haemoglobin) as the three glycemic factors that should be controlled in diabetes care; however, several literature data show that optimizing glycemic control needs achieving a control of glycemic variations. The objective of the present work is reviewing biological and clinical data supporting the role of glycemic variability, its measurement and relationship with the three other well-known glycemic risk factors and evidencing the areas that need further investigation. At last, we propose a simple model that summarizes the ,glucose triad' plus the ,new' risk factor glycemic variability (the ,Pyramid of the Risk'). Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Risk factor control in patients with Type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease: findings from the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR)

S. Gudbjörnsdottir
Abstract Aims Patients with Type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD) are infrequently treated to risk factor targets in current guidelines. We aimed to examine risk factor management and control levels in a large sample of patients with Type 2 diabetes with CHD. Methods This was an observational study of 1612 patients with first incidence of CHD before 2002, and of 4570 patients with first incidence of CHD before 2005, from the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR). Results In patients with CHD 1,2 years before follow-up, the achievement of cardiovascular risk factor targets (follow-up 2002/follow-up 2005) was: HbA1c < 7%, 47%/54% (P < 0.01); blood pressure , 130/80 mmHg, 31%/40% (P < 0.001); total cholesterol < 4.5 mmol/l, 47%/60% (P < 0.001); and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol < 2.5 mmol/l, 49%/65% (P < 0.001). Use of medication: antihypertensives, 90%/94% (P < 0.01); lipid-lowering drugs, 75%/86% (P < 0.001); and aspirin, 85%/89% (P < 0.05). A high prevalence of adverse lifestyle characteristics prevailed (2002/2005): overweight [body mass index (BMI) , 25 kg/m2], 86%/85%; obesity (BMI , 30 kg/m2), 41%/42%; smokers in age group < 65 years, 16,23%/18,19%; as well as waist circumference , 102 cm (men) or , 88 cm (women), 68% in 2005. Conclusions Patients with a combination of Type 2 diabetes and CHD showed an increased use of lipid-lowering drugs over time, corresponding to improving blood lipid levels. A discrepancy existed between the prevalent use of antihypertensive drugs and the low proportion reaching blood pressure targets. Regretfully, a high prevalence of adverse lifestyle characteristics prevailed. Evidence-based therapy with professional lifestyle intervention and drugs seems urgent for improved quality of secondary prevention in these patients. [source]

Delivery of care to diabetic patients with foot ulcers in daily practice: results of the Eurodiale Study, a prospective cohort study

L. Prompers
Abstract Aims To determine current management and to identify patient-related factors and barriers that influence management strategies in diabetic foot disease. Methods The Eurodiale Study is a prospective cohort study of 1232 consecutive individuals presenting with a new diabetic foot ulcer in 14 centres across Europe. We determined the use of management strategies: referral, use of offloading, vascular imaging and revascularization. Results Twenty-seven percent of the patients had been treated for > 3 months before referral to a foot clinic. This varied considerably between countries (6,55%). At study entry, 77% of the patients had no or inadequate offloading. During follow-up, casting was used in 35% (0,68%) of the plantar fore- or midfoot ulcers. Predictors of use of casting were male gender, large ulcer size and being employed. Vascular imaging was performed in 56% (14,86%) of patients with severe limb ischaemia; revascularization was performed in 43%. Predictors of use of vascular imaging were the presence of infection and ischaemic rest pain. Conclusion Treatment of many patients is not in line with current guidelines and there are large differences between countries and centres. Our data suggest that current guidelines are too general and that healthcare organizational barriers and personal beliefs result in underuse of recommended therapies. Action should be undertaken to overcome these barriers and to guarantee the delivery of optimal care for the many individuals with diabetic foot disease. [source]

Critical reappraisal of current surveillance strategies for Barrett's esophagus: analysis of a large German Barrett's database

B. H. A. Von Rahden
SUMMARY Endoscopic surveillance is recommended for patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE). Based on a large database, gathered from predominantly community-based practices in Germany, we aimed to investigate the time-course of malignant progression and apply these findings to current clinical practice. Data of 1438 patients with BE from a large German BE database were analyzed. Patients with at least one follow-up endoscopy/biopsy were included. Detection of ,malignant Barrett' (either high-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia or invasive adenocarcinoma) was considered as study end-point. Of 1438 patients with BE, 57 patients had low-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia (LG-IN) on initial biopsy and 1381 exhibited non-neoplastic BE. ,Malignant Barrett' was detected in 28 cases (1.9%) during a median follow-up period of 24 months (1,255), accounting for an incidence of 0.95% per patient year of follow-up. The frequency of ,malignant Barrett' was significantly higher (P < 0.001, ,2 -test) in the LG-IN group (n = 11, 19.3%) compared with the non-neoplastic BE group (n = 17, 1.2%). In the non-neoplastic BE group, ,malignant Barrett' was predominantly found during re-endoscopy within the first year of follow-up (12 of 17; 70.6%), in contrast to the LG-IN group, in which ,malignant Barrett' was observed predominantly after a time exceeding 12 months (8 of 11, 72.7%; P = 0.05, Fisher's exact test). Initial endoscopic evaluations seem to play the most crucial role in managing BE. After 1 year of follow-up, endoscopic surveillance should be focused on patients with LG-IN. In patients with repeatedly proven non-neoplastic BE, elongation of the follow-up intervals to the upper limit of current guidelines, that is, 5 years, might be justified. [source]

Knowledge and attitude towards paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation among the carers of patients attending the Emergency Department of the Children's Hospital at Westmead

Jonathan Cu
Abstract The present study aimed to describe the knowledge and attitudes of parents and carers in performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation on infants and children. A self-administered questionnaire distributed to a convenience sample of parents and carers attending the Emergency Department of The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Australia from February to March 2008. Main outcome measures were the prevalence of previous cardiopulmonary resuscitation training, willingness and confidence to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation on infants and children compared with adults, and an objective assessment of knowledge of current resuscitation guidelines. A total of 348 parents and carers were surveyed; 53% had received previous cardiopulmonary resuscitation training, 75% prior to the previous year. There was no significant difference on their willingness to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation on an adult versus a child (75.6% and 75.8% respectively, P= 0.870). However, 81% were willing to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a relative whereas only 64% were willing to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a stranger (P < 0.001). Respondents were moderately confident in delivering cardiopulmonary resuscitation to a collapsed child; mean score of 2.9 on 5-point Likert scale. Only 11% of respondents knew the correct rate for chest compressions and the ratio of compressions to ventilations; 8% had performed cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a real situation. Parents and carers are willing to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation, especially on family members. However, their knowledge of the current guidelines was poor. More public education is required to update those with previous training and to encourage those who haven't to be trained. [source]

Validation of a tool to safely triage selected patients with chest pain to unmonitored beds

Ronald V Sultana
Abstract Objective: To externally validate a chest pain protocol that triages low risk patients with chest pain to an unmonitored bed. Methods: Retrospective study of all patients admitted from the emergency department of a tertiary referral public teaching hospital with an admission diagnosis of ,unstable angina' or suspected ischemic chest pain. Data was collected on adverse outcomes and analysed on the basis of intention-to-treat according to the chest pain protocol. Results: There were no life-threatening arrhythmias, cardiac arrests or deaths within the first 72 h of admission in the group assigned to an unmonitored bed by the chest pain protocol ([0/244]; 0.0%: 95% confidence interval 0.0,1.5%). Four patients had an uncomplicated myocardial infarction, two patients had recurrent ischemic chest pain and one patient developed acute pulmonary oedema ([7/244]; 2.9%: 95% confidence interval 1.2,5.8%). Conclusion: This retrospective study externally validated the chest pain protocol. Care in a monitored bed would not have altered outcomes for patients triaged to an unmonitored bed by the chest pain protocol. Compared to current guidelines, application of the chest pain protocol could increase the availability of monitored beds. [source]

The training stimulus experienced by the leg muscles during cycling in humans

Jamie S. McPhee
Considerable variability exists between people in their health- and performance-related adaptations to conventional endurance training. We hypothesized that some of this variability might be due to differences in the training stimulus received by the working muscles. In 71 young sedentary women we observed large variations in the ratio of one-leg cycling muscle aerobic capacity to two-leg cycling whole-body maximal oxygen uptake (; Ratio1:2; range 0.58,0.96). The variability in Ratio1:2 was primarily due to differences between people in one-leg (r= 0.71, P < 0.0005) and was not related to two-leg (r= 0.15, P= 0.209). Magnetic resonance imaging (n= 30) and muscle biopsy sampling (n= 20) revealed that one-leg was mainly determined by muscle volume (r= 0.73, P < 0.0005) rather than muscle fibre type or oxidative capacity. A high one-leg was associated with favourable lipoprotein profiles (P= 0.033, n= 24) but this was not the case for two-leg . Calculations based on these data suggest that conventional two-leg exercise at 70% requires subjects with the lowest Ratio1:2 to work their legs at 60% of single-leg , whilst those with the highest Ratio1:2 work their legs at only 36% of maximum. It was concluded that endurance training carried out according to current guidelines will result in highly variable training stimuli for the leg muscles and variable magnitudes of adaptation. These conclusions have implications for the prescription of exercise to improve health and for investigations into the genetic basis of muscle adaptations. [source]