Current Achievements (current + achievement)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN INDONESIAN INDUSTRY AND TRADE: AN INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS

THE DEVELOPING ECONOMIES, Issue 1 2005
Mitsuhiro HAYASHI
This study evaluates the current achievement of industrialization in Indonesia and clarifies what the major challenges are for sustaining industrialization. This is done by examining structural changes in the economy from the period before to the period after economic crisis using the method of input-output (I-O) analysis. After tracing the history of economic development in Indonesia, changes in industry and trade between 1995 and 2000 are viewed using skyline chart analysis, industrial linkage analysis, and growth-factor decomposition analysis. Results indicate that from 1995 to 2000, the manufacturing industry expanded the share of production, strengthened export orientation, and lowered import dependency. However, these phenomena appear to have resulted primarily from slumps in growth factors other than export demand as well as sharp declines in the value of the rupiah. This study shows that the current decrease of investment is a bottleneck in industrialization and indicates an urgent need for Indonesia to improve the investment environment, particularly for foreign investors. [source]


Understanding software maintenance and evolution by analyzing individual changes: a literature review

JOURNAL OF SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE AND EVOLUTION: RESEARCH AND PRACTICE, Issue 6 2009
Hans Christian Benestad
Abstract Understanding, managing and reducing costs and risks inherent in change are key challenges of software maintenance and evolution, addressed in empirical studies with many different research approaches. Change-based studies analyze data that describes the individual changes made to software systems. This approach can be effective in order to discover cost and risk factors that are hidden at more aggregated levels. However, it is not trivial to derive appropriate measures of individual changes for specific measurement goals. The purpose of this review is to improve change-based studies by (1) summarizing how attributes of changes have been measured to reach specific study goals and (2) describing current achievements and challenges, leading to a guide for future change-based studies. Thirty-four papers conformed to the inclusion criteria. Forty-three attributes of changes were identified, and classified according to a conceptual model developed for the purpose of this classification. The goal of each study was to either characterize the evolution process, to assess causal factors of cost and risk, or to predict costs and risks. Effective accumulation of knowledge across change-based studies requires precise definitions of attributes and measures of change. We recommend that new change-based studies base such definitions on the proposed conceptual model. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Application of genomics to grapevine improvement

AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF GRAPE AND WINE RESEARCH, Issue 2010
G. DI GASPERO
Abstract Imagine a breeder browsing a grape chromosome nucleotide-by-nucleotide around a trait locus, scrolling down the list of catalogued genes along a genetic interval, resequencing for a few thousand dollars a potential parent or a selected breeding line. In the past couple of years, this vision has become a reality. The availability of the reference genome sequence has provided significant assistance in the saturation of loci with targeted genetic markers. Grape breeders are now offered unprecedented possibilities for selecting plants using deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences within or near the gene that controls a desirable trait rather than handling their phenotypes. Genomics-assisted selection offers unique advantages in the correct choice of elite genotypes, in order to improve traits for which limitations of phenotyping technologies or low hereditability adversely affect the efficiency of phenotypic selection. DNA technologies enable the application of marker-assisted selection to thousands of grape seedlings every year, which was previously feasible only for cereals and annuals, enhancing the possibilities of finding an ideal recombinant in populations bred from highly heterozygous parents. The expected outcome is a renewal of the varietal choices available to viticulturists, with novel genotypes that meet the demand for disease-free vines and flavourful grapes. The depth of exploration and characterisation of the existing germplasm is crucial for translating natural diversity into new varieties that could perform beyond the fence of the experimental vineyards and gain substantial market share. We review here how current achievements in genomics and genome sequencing are expected to increase the efficiency of grapevine breeding programs. [source]


Electrochemical Microstructuring with Short Voltage Pulses

CHEMPHYSCHEM, Issue 1 2007
Rolf Schuster Prof. Dr.
Abstract The application of short (nanosecond) voltage pulses between a tool electrode and a workpiece immersed in an electrolyte solution allows the three-dimensional machining of electrochemically active materials with submicrometer resolution. The method is based on the finite charging time constant of the double-layer capacitance, which varies approximately linearly with the local separation between the electrode surfaces. Hence, the polarization of the electrodes during short pulses and subsequent electrochemical reactions are confined to regions where the electrodes are in sufficiently close proximity. This Minireview describes the principles behind electrochemical microstructuring with short voltage pulses, and its current achievements and limitations. [source]