Cultural Understandings (cultural + understanding)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Identifying the core components of cultural competence: findings from a Delphi study

Maria Jirwe
Aim., To identify the core components of cultural competence from a Swedish perspective. Background., The cultural diversity of Swedish society raises challenges for nursing practice. Nurses need to be culturally competent, i.e. demonstrate the effective application of knowledge, skills and attitudes to practice safely and effectively in a multicultural society. Existing frameworks of cultural competence reflect the socio-cultural, historical and political context they were developed in. To date, there has been no research examining cultural competence within a Swedish context. Design., A Delphi survey. Methods., A purposeful sample of 24 experts (eight nurses, eight researchers and eight lecturers) knowledgeable in multicultural issues was recruited. Interviews were undertaken to identify the knowledge, skills and attitudes that formed the components of cultural competence. Content analysis yielded statements which were developed into a questionnaire. Respondents scored questionnaire items in terms of perceived importance. Statements which reached consensus were removed from questionnaires used in subsequent rounds. Three rounds of questionnaires were distributed during 2006. Results., A total of 118 out of 137 components reached a consensus level of 75%. The components were categorised into five areas, cultural sensitivity, cultural understanding, cultural encounters, understanding of health, ill-health and healthcare and social and cultural contexts with 17 associated subcategories. Conclusions., There are some similarities between the issues raised in the current study and existing frameworks of cultural competence from the USA and the UK. However, Swedish experts placed less emphasis on ethnohistory and on developing skills to challenge discrimination and racism. Relevance to clinical practice., This study identified the core components of cultural competence important to nurses practising within a multicultural society such as Sweden. Acquisition of the knowledge, skills and attitudes identified should enable nurses to meet the needs of patients from different cultural backgrounds. The components of cultural competence can form the basis of nursing curricula. [source]

Promoting Openness toward Culture Learning: Ethnographic Interviews for Students of Spanish

Blair E. Bateman
Although learning to understand another culture is often mentioned as a benefit of foreign language learning, merely studying a foreign language does not automatically produce cross,cultural understanding. Many students study a language only to fulfill requirements and see culture learning as a nonessential element of the curriculum. This article explains how conducting ethnographic interviews can promote openness toward culture learning. Following a brief review of the culture learning process and of attitudinal theory, the article reports on a study that replicated Robinson,Stuart and Nocon's (1996) San Diego State study in a Midwestern setting. Thirty,five college students from 2 second,year Spanish classes were introduced to ethnographic interviewing skills and assigned to interview a native speaker of Spanish. As in the previous study, the results showed that the interviews positively affected students' attitudes toward the target language and its speakers as well as their desire to learn Spanish. [source]

,In the Company of Men': A Reflexive Tale of Cultural Organizing in a Small Organization

Denise Fletcher
A tale of fieldwork in a small organization is discussed in this article with a view to highlighting how social processes, cultural understandings and expressions of gender are produced during fieldwork interaction. The tale is told reflexively and retrospectively, recording an ongoing conversation about fieldwork experience. Central to the tale is discussion of how the researcher is drawn into ,culture,making' within the organization and the ways in which fieldwork interaction creates a ,space' through which organizational members engage with, work through and realize work,place values. In this article there are multiple levels of reflection. At one level it is examined how the organizational,researcher role of ,emotional nurturer' was constructed during fieldwork. At the same time some cultural insights drawn from ethnographic inquiry and intensive interviewing within the small organization are presented. The analysis is also shaped by a further layer of post,fieldwork reflection and interpretation which draws in emotional issues and expressions of gender. It is argued that a close scrutiny of fieldwork roles is important to organizational research in that it makes explicit how the researcher,,native' interaction is central to the theorizing process and how the researcher can become a participant in organizational culture,making. [source]

Narratives of Community and Change in a Contemporary Rural Setting: The Case of Duaringa, Queensland

Ruth Panelli
Contemporary rural communities are being affected by a range of changes and processes in Australia, including major changes in demographic patterns; the organisation and performance of primary industries; levels of government support for economic and social infrastructure; and wider developments in technology and changing socio-cultural values. The impact of these processes has been felt unequally and small communities which have had a traditionally close relationship with agricultural industries are particularly challenged. The current paper reports on one such community and provides the opportunity to analyse both the the substance and cultural understandings of such forms of rural change/uncoupling. The paper presents local narratives of community and change in Duaringa, Central Queensland and responds to recent international literature suggesting that the meanings and politics of rural change are as significant as the economic trends that are occurring. The Duaringa narratives demonstrate both the substance and dynamics of expressions of community (and loss). And the paper concludes that these meanings are also influenced by wider processes including consumption-oriented lifestyles and national interests in South East Asian relations. [source]

Old English Literature and Feminist Theory: A State of the Field

Mary Dockray-Miller
Feminist and gender scholars working in Anglo-Saxon studies in the past ten years have been asking new and important questions of a variety of Old English and Anglo-Latin texts. Most crucially, this interdisciplinary new work redefines the historiographical paradigms of Anglo-Saxon cultural production and reception so that women must now be regularly included in discussions of Anglo-Saxon cultural agency. This paradigm shift can and should inform broader cultural understandings of the history of gender relations, despite current communication problems among the varied subfields of medieval studies and gender studies. Furthermore, the pedagogy of both medievalists and faculty specializing in later periods must be informed by this shift as well. [source]

Shellfish aquaculture and First Nations' sovereignty: The quest for sustainable development in contested sea space

Alyssa L. Joyce
Abstract Aquaculture tenures or leases have become an increasingly important management tool for regulating access rights to coastal and offshore marine habitat. Tenure, as a form of private property rights to marine space, is generally considered a prerequisite for aquaculture development, as are the associated exclusive access rights which provide necessary incentives for producers to invest in infrastructure. The shellfish industry in British Columbia (BC), Canada, is presented as a case study of a transition from a primarily common property wild fishery to a rights-based system for aquaculture. In BC, seafood production has grown substantially during the past two decades as a result of aquaculture production. However, despite the inherent economic advantages of the tenuring system for increasing seafood production, rights to aquaculture sites in BC remain highly controversial, particularly in response to environmental concerns and infringements on Aboriginal territorial claims. Shellfish farming has, to-date, been far less controversial than salmon farming; however, shellfish aquaculture has not been uniformly adopted across the province, and analyses of industry capacity or economic opportunities for coastal communities have failed to adequately explain development patterns. This paper, which identifies perceptions of the risks and benefits of the shellfish aquaculture tenuring system, presents the results of 56 interviews conducted with individuals involved in shellfish production in BC. Results indicate that heightened perceptions of risk about shellfish aquaculture tenuring are related to unresolved Aboriginal territorial claims, economic dependence on wild shellfish resources, as well as place-based values favouring access to wild resources. Underlying values and cultural understandings also strongly shape public perceptions of the risks of aquaculture, and as such, influence local decisions to either accept or resist industry growth. In this case, interviewees' risk perceptions were found to be more important indicators of the potential for industry expansion than studies of capacity or economic cost-benefit analyses. [source]

Theory and language: locating agency between free will and discursive marionettes

Pamela K. Hardin
Theory and language: locating agency between free will and discursive marionettes This article outlines a research methodology that embraces individual narratives, yet recognizes that individual narratives are nested within a backdrop of broader social and cultural understandings of who we are and how we come to understand our world. This dialectical move requires an epistemological shift, focusing on the utility of reconceptualizing the ,environment', not only as the social, political, or economic conditions in society, but also as language. Reconceptualizing the environment as language makes it epistemologically possible to construct a bridge between varying levels of analysis, namely, between individual accounts and life stories and the cultural, social, and historical worlds from which those accounts emerge. [source]

What is the meaning of palliative care in the Asia-Pacific region?

Margaret O'CONNOR
Abstract This paper describes the preliminary work required to understand cultural differences in palliative care in the United Kingdom and three countries in the Asia-Pacific region, in preparation for a cross-country study. The study is intended to address cultural understandings of palliative care, the role of the family in end of life care, what constitutes good care and the ethical issues in each country. Suggestions are then made to shape the scope of the study and to be considered as outcomes to improve care of the dying in these countries. It is anticipated that the method used to achieve consensus on cross-country palliative care issues will be both qualitative and quantitative. Identifying key priorities in the delivery and quality measures of palliative care will involve participants in focus groups, a Delphi survey and in the development of clinical indicators towards creating standards of palliative care common to the Asian Pacific region. [source]

The experiences of staff concerning the introduction and impact of a fall prevention intervention in aged care facilities: a qualitative study

Meg Butler
Objective: Falls in aged care facilities are a major public health concern. A pilot study tested the acceptability of a falls risk management intervention. Method: Focus group discussions with care giving staff and falls coordinators and individual interviews with principal nurse managers were taped and transcribed and thematic analysis identified main issues for staff in utilising the intervention. Results: Acceptance of the intervention was high for principal nurse managers and falls coordinators, although the paper work was found to be time consuming. While most caregivers found undertaking fall prevention strategies worthwhile, others found such strategies were irrelevant to them as they "knew" their residents. Conclusions: Among all levels of staff, falls among residents were regarded as stressful events. While the general acceptunce of the intervention programme was high, resistance to changing practices of care by some staff could limit the wider implementation of such a programme. Further research is needed to examine appropriate delivery of educational messages for caregivers, which include multiple cultural understandings. [source]