Cultural Differences (cultural + difference)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Teaching Sensitivity to Cultural Difference in the First-Year Foreign Language Classroom

Article first published online: 31 DEC 200, Dennis O. Durocher Jr.
Abstract: This article summarizes teacher action research for the teaching of subjective culture in the foreign language classroom. It begins with a literature review, followed by a description of Milton J. Bennett's Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (Bennett, 1993), the theoretical paradigm upon which classroom activities and experiments were based. Bennett's model is compared and contrasted with other approaches to teaching culture, its strengths and weaknesses are discussed, and suggestions for implementing the model are presented. The article then summarizes efforts to mobilize the theory at the elementary French level, describes various culture-teaching strategies, and presents the results of evaluations of the effectiveness of the strategies using the Intercultural Development Inventory. Final remarks concern the goals of the culture component in the foreign language curriculum and suggestions for next steps in research. [source]

Regional Cultural Differences and Ethical Perspectives within the United States: Avoiding Pseudo-emic Ethics Research

ABSTRACT National cultures are often described as if they were homogeneous in spite of notable regional differences. As one example, there are significant differences between two distinct regions of the United States, Hawaii and Florida. This study provides a platform to exemplify a more regionally aware position for cultural and ethics research. Using select Hofstede cultural dimensions, regional differences were found in relation to both collectivism/individualism and uncertainty avoidance. The Hawaii sample had higher levels of collectivism and uncertainty avoidance, demonstrating unique regional-cultural patterns within the United States. Regional samples were examined for potential differences in their general perception of what constitutes ethical business practice. While honesty appeared as a key trait across samples, significant differences emerged in the magnitude of importance between samples for integrity (which was more significant for the Hawaii sample) and loyalty (which was more significant for the Florida sample). [source]

An Odd Couple with Promise: Researchers and Practitioners in Evaluation Settings,

Judith A. Myers-Walls
Evaluation of programs for families continues to grow in importance. The best evaluation studies involve collaborations between evaluation researchers and practitioners, but the two groups represent different cultures. Cultural differences are seen in temporal orientation, cognitive resources, values and definitions of excellence, patterns of communication, daily life styles, and use of tools. The author provides eight suggested steps to improve collaboration through the determination of shared goals, clarification of boundaries, and improved communication. [source]

Peer Effects in the Trading Decisions of Individual Investors

Lilian Ng
This study examines for evidence of peer effects in the trading decisions of individual investors from Mainland China, a country whose cultural and social structures are vastly different from those of Western countries. Cultural differences, as widely documented, play a significant role in social interactions and word-of-mouth behavior. In contrast to US studies, we find robust evidence that the trading decisions of Chinese investors are influenced, via word of mouth, by those of their peers who maintain brokerage accounts at the same branch, but not by those whose accounts are maintained at another branch located in the same city. [source]

Cultural differences in conceptual models of ride comfort for high-speed trains

Joo Hwan Lee
This study focuses on an analysis of the difference in cultural experiences for similar services through analyzing the difference in conceptual models of ride comfort for passengers of KTX (Korea Train eXpress) and TGV (Train a Grand Vitesse). These trains operate with identical platforms; KTX was introduced by K-TGV (Korea-TGV) based on TGV (French high-speed train). For the conceptual models of ride comfort, this study surveyed 200 KTX passengers on the Seoul--Busan line (duration: 2 hours 30 minutes) and surveyed 150 France TGV passengers on the Paris--Marseilles line (duration: 2 hours 40 minutes). The conceptual models of ride comfort were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). In the results of the study, though there were differences in cultural environment (e.g., physical environment, body size, etc.) and cultural mentality (e.g., preference, unconscious rule, etc.), the models of ride comfort for both countries shared similar critical factors. However, there were significant differences in loading values of ride comfort for these critical factors. In particular, there were differences of 1.5 to 2 times between the two models regarding the subfactors seat factor and human fatigue factor. In conclusion, this study elicits that experience factor is the most influential on ride comfort, and cultural factors are applied as essential variables in ride comfort improvement. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

A comparative study of knowledge about and attitudes toward the combined oral contraceptives among Korean and Japanese university students,

Hyun-Ja Lim RN
Abstract Purpose To compare university students' knowledge about and attitudes toward the combined oral contraceptives (COC) in two countries with different pharmaceutical systems (Japan and Korea), and to explore the reasons limiting the use of the COC in these populations. Methods University students in Korea and Japan completed a questionnaire containing a total of 55 questions about the students' demographics (8 questions), knowledge about the COC (15 questions), attitudes toward the COC (24 questions) and the reasons for limited use of the COC among the population (8 questions). Results Male students' attitudes toward the COC were significantly more positive than those of female students in Korea, but not in Japan. Knowledge about and attitudes toward the COC did not differ significantly between the two countries. The age at which students desired to use the COC was significantly correlated with age in both countries. There were significant correlations between knowledge about and attitude towards the COC in both countries and between age and attitude towards the COC in Japan. In both countries, the most commonly cited reasons for limited use of the COC were concern about adverse side effects. Conclusions These results confirm the need to develop appropriate sex education programs in Korea and Japan. Cultural differences and differences in the pharmaceutical and medical systems between the two countries should be considered when designing sex education programs for young people in Korea and Japan. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Why best cannot last: Cultural differences in predicting regression toward the mean

Roy R. Spina
Four studies were conducted to investigate cultural differences in predicting and understanding regression toward the mean. We demonstrated, with tasks in such domains as athletic competition, health and weather, that Chinese are more likely than Canadians to make predictions that are consistent with regression toward the mean. In addition, Chinese are more likely than Canadians to choose a regression-consistent explanation to account for regression toward the mean. The findings are consistent with cultural differences in lay theories about how people, objects and events develop over time. [source]

Cultural differences in estimation of other people's self-construals: Comparison of Korea and USA

Hee Sun Park
The current study examined cultural differences in the relationship between individuals' self-ratings and their estimation of others on independent and interdependent self-construals. With data from undergraduates in the USA and Korea, findings showed that, in both USA and Korea, participants rated themselves higher than others on independent self-construal. For interdependent self-construal, however, Korean participants rated themselves higher than others, whereas American participants rated themselves lower than others. The positive relationship between self-esteem and the extent to which self-ratings exceeded ratings of others on independent self-construal was stronger for Korean than for American participants. [source]

Cultural differences related to positive and negative valence

Kenji Noguchi
Differences between North American and East Asian cultures were examined in terms of the valence of psychological constructs. Americans were more likely than Japanese to focus on positive things. In contrast, Japanese (vs Americans) were more likely to attend to negative information of the self, but not more or less likely to focus on negative things about others. Based on within-culture analyses, the Americans' data were better described by their tendency to focus on positive things over negative things than by their tendency for self-enhancement. In contrast, the Japanese data were better described by their self-critical tendency. This result was replicated in a second study. In addition, correlations between constructs with opposite valences were negative in the USA, but positive or absent in Japan. [source]

The psychology behind the masks: Psychological responses to the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak in different regions

Cecilia Cheng
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was first reported in China, and spread to 29 regions, affecting over 8000 people worldwide. For the general public, the psychological impact of SARS may have been greater than the physical health danger of the disease. The present paper proposes the influence of psychological factors on people's cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses during the SARS outbreak. The various papers in this special issue of the Journal reveal how people have reacted during the SARS outbreak: People's general coping styles may be related to their health behavior during the outbreak. Cultural differences were evident in the perception of SARS, and individuals' perceptual styles may have influenced their ability to cope with the outbreak. The way in which individuals coped with SARS-related stressful events was different from their usual practices of managing daily stress. Individual differences in the adoption of preventive measures were related to the distinct susceptibility to several social-cognitive biases. [source]

Cultural differences in the perception of a social-constructivist e-learning environment

Chang Zhu
First page of article [source]

Self in Context: Autonomy and Relatedness in Japanese and U.S. Mother,Preschooler Dyads

Tracy A. Dennis
Cultural differences and similarities in socialization during two contrasting laboratory tasks were examined in 30 Japanese mothers and their preschoolers, both temporarily residing in the United States, and 30 U.S. mothers and their preschoolers (age: M= 55.8 months, SD= 4.9). Mother and child actions, speech, emotion, and attention were coded from videotaped observations during a free play task and waiting task. Cross,cultural comparisons showed that U.S. mothers had more conversations that emphasized individual experiences, more often acted as playmates and used joint attention, maintained more physical distance, showed more positive emotions, and made more positive responses to child accomplishment. In contrast, Japanese mothers had more conversations that emphasized shared experiences, showed more divided attention, and maintained social role distinctions. Similar, but fewer cultural differences emerged for children. However, maternal and child characteristics also varied by task context. The results suggested an emphasis on autonomy in U.S. dyads and an emphasis on relatedness in Japanese dyads, but the interactions with task context revealed the coexistence of autonomy and relatedness. [source]

Mediation, power, and cultural difference

Morgan Brigg
In Western mediation practice, conflict and violence are typically seen as destructive and unhelpful ways of being, and this does not allow for the constitutive and productive role of conflict in many non-Western traditions. The playing out of these assumptions in mediation practice effects an operation of power that is particularly significant in intercultural mediations. Explicit and implicit mediator techniques lead disputants in intercultural mediations to behave in ways consistent with the goals of mediation and Western norms around conflict and selfhood. The specificity of this analysis means that the findings are indicative and explorative rather than comprehensive. Nevertheless, the results highlight the need to consider ways in which researchers and mediators can begin to mitigate this operation of power and respond to cultural difference in ethical ways. [source]

Why do Westerners self-enhance more than East Asians?

Carl F. Falk
Abstract Much research finds that Westerners self-enhance more than East Asians, with the exception of studies using the implicit associations test for self-esteem (IATSE). We contrasted Japanese and Canadians on a new measure of self-enhancement under low- and high-attentional load to assess whether cultural differences vary across controlled and automatic processes. Participants also completed measures of relational mobility and the IATSE. Results indicated that Japanese and Asian-Canadians were more self-critical than Euro-Canadians, both under high- and low-attentional load. This cultural difference was partially mediated by relational mobility. The IATSE showed no cultural differences, but this measure did not positively correlate with any of the other measures in the study, suggesting that it is not a valid measure of ,true' self-feelings. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Migrant mobilization between political institutions and citizenship regimes: A comparison of France and Switzerland

Marco Giugni
This article focuses on the political claims made by immigrants and ethnic minorities in France and Switzerland. We look at cross-national variations in the overall presence of immigrants and ethnic minorities in the national public space, and the forms and content of their claims. Following a political opportunity approach, we argue that claim-making is affected both by institutional opportunities and by national models of citizenship. The civic-assimilationist conception of citizenship in France gives migrants greater legitimacy to intervene in the national public space. Furthermore, the inclusive definition of ,membership in the national community' favors claims pertaining to minority integration politics. However, the pressure toward assimilation to the republican norms and values tends to provoke claims for the recognition of ethnic and cultural difference. Finally, closed institutional opportunities push migrants' mobilization to become more radical, but at the same time the more inclusive model of citizenship favors a moderate action repertoire of migrants. Conversely, the ethnic-assimilationist view in Switzerland leads migrants to stress homeland-related claims. When they do address the policy field of ethnic relations, immigration and citizenship, they focus on issues pertaining to the entry and stay in the host society. Finally, the forms of action are more moderate due to the more open institutional context, but at the same time the action repertoire of migrants is moderated by the more exclusive model of citizenship. Our article is an attempt to specify the concept of ,political opportunity structure', and to combine institutional and cultural factors in explaining claim-making by immigrants and ethnic minorities. We confront our arguments with data from a comparative project on the mobilization on ethnic relations, citizenship and immigration. [source]

Globalization and cultural mediation: the construction of Arabia in London

Christa Salamandra
The Arab Gulf's relationship to London epitomizes the processes of globalization i.e. flows of people, images, ideas and wealth beyond national borders. The rise of oil wealth in the mid,1970s financed the growth of London as a centre of Gulf Cooperation Council,funded Arab cultural production. The British capital's populations of ex,servicemen, former diplomats and Middle Eastern immigrants serve as ,third culture' mediators. Often well educated, well heeled and well connected, these intermediaries possess the social position and cultural know,how to play a central role in the construction and marketing of Gulf Arab local culture and heritage. Romantic notions of Gulf Arab cultural particularism feature prominently in mediators' products and activities. In the case of Arab London's mediation industries, globalization results not in cultural homogenization, but rather in the (re)production and commodification of reified notions of cultural difference. [source]

The Comedy of National Character: Images of the English in Early Eighteenth-Century French Comedy

Abstract This article examines how various stereotypes of the English were expressed on the French comic stage in the first half of the eighteenth century. Focusing on the prolific and successful dramatist Louis de Boissy, four of whose comedies, written over a period of more than twenty-five years, explore the comic potential of national stereotypes, the article demonstrates that the comic theatre did not simply offer distorted perspectives on the English for straightforwardly satirical effect; rather, it also offered possibilities for a more complex exploration of the issues of cultural difference that were being discussed elsewhere in the period. [source]

Against the notion of a ,new racism'

Colin Wayne Leach
Abstract Despite the de jure equality achieved in the second half of the 20th century, racial discrimination and racist political movements persist. This has encouraged the orthodoxy that a ,new racism' serves as an ideological basis of contemporary white investment in racial inequality in Western Europe, North America and Australasia. It is argued that this ,new racism' is shown in more subtle and indirect formal expressions, such as a denial of societal discrimination, rather than the once popular expressions of ,old-fashioned' genetic inferiority and segregationism. In opposition to this conceptualization, I review quantitative and qualitative studies from social psychology, sociology and political science, as well as historical analyses, to show that the ,old-fashioned' formal expression of racism was not especially popular before de jure racial equality and is not especially unpopular now. I also show that there is nothing new about formal expressions that criticize cultural difference or deny societal discrimination. Thus, there is greater historical continuity in racism than the notion of a ,new racism' allows. This suggests that the first task of a critical social psychology of racism is a proper conceptualization of racism itself. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The Politics of Recognition in Culturally Appropriate Care

Over the last 20 years, the concept of culturally appropriate health care has been gradually gaining popularity in medicine and public health. In calling for health care that is culturally appropriate, minority groups seek political recognition of often racialized constructions of cultural difference as they intervene in health care planning and organization. Based on interview narratives from people involved in community organizing to establish a federally funded community health center in a mid-size New England city, I chart the emergence of a language of "culturally appropriate health care" in language used to justify the need for a health center. An identity model of recognition underlies the call for ethnic resemblance between patient and provider seen in many culturally appropriate care programs. I contrast this model of health care with earlier calls for community access and control by activists in the 1970s and explore the practical and theoretical implications of each approach. [source]

Co-Constructing Representations of Culture in ESL and EFL Classrooms: Discursive Faultlines in Chile and California

Based on qualitative research conducted in 3 university English as a foreign language classrooms in Chile and 3 community college English as a second language classrooms in California, this article examines the approaches used in teaching culture in these classrooms, the differences in how particular cultures (usually national cultures) were represented depending on teaching context, the processes by which these representations of culture were co-constructed by teachers and students, and the extent to which the observed cultural pedagogies seemed to cultivate interculturality. In particular, this article focuses on discursive faultlines (Kramsch, 1993), areas of cultural difference or misunderstanding that became manifest in classroom talk. Although teaching culture was not the primary goal in any of these classes, the teachers generally provided space for students to problematize cultural issues; however, this problematization did not necessarily lead to interculturality. The article concludes with implications for cultural pedagogies based on the observed interactions. [source]

How Do Real Indians Fish?

Contested Indigeneities in the Colorado Delta, Neoliberal Multiculturalism
ABSTRACT There has been a growing interest in anthropology regarding how certain political conditions set the stage for "articulations" between indigenous movements and environmental actors and discourses. However, relatively little attention has been paid to how these same conditions can suppress demands for indigenous rights. In this article, I argue that the pairing of neoliberalism and multiculturalism in contemporary Mexico has created political fields in which ethnic difference has been foregrounded as a way of denying certain rights to marginalized groups. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in northern Mexico, I analyze how the arguments of a group of Cucapá for fishing rights in the Colorado Delta have been constrained within these political circumstances. I argue that cultural difference has been leveraged by the Mexican federal government and local NGOs to prevent the redistribution of environmental resources among vulnerable groups such as the Cucapá. [source]

Brief communication: Self-suckling in Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) mothers before and after the death of their infant

Bonaventura Majolo
Abstract We report here self-suckling in four wild female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus), living in two troops (i.e. "Flat face" and "Large" troop) in the middle-Atlas Mountains, Morocco. The four females lost their infants due to predation or for unknown causes. Self-suckling was observed before and after the infants died in the four females living in the "Flat face" troop. When the infants were still alive, self-suckling was of short duration and it was probably a method to improve milk flow when the infant switched from one nipple to the other. After the infants died, self-suckling lasted significantly longer and the females were apparently drinking their own milk. Self-suckling was never observed among the four lactating females in the "Large" troop (including one monkey who lost her infant) and it could thus represent a cultural difference. Moreover, self-suckling after the death of an infant may be explained by the energetic and immunological benefits that a monkey may gain from drinking their own milk. Finally, self-suckling may have a stress-releasing effect on the mothers who have lost their infants. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Contesting "Culture": The Perspectives of Hmong American Female Students on Early Marriage

Bic Ngo
This article complicates the meanings of early marriage among Hmong American female students. It moves beyond explanations of cultural difference in the examination and explication of the discourse and practice of early marriage among female adolescents in the Hmong community. Drawing on the perspectives and experiences of Hmong American female students, this article reveals that early marriage may be an expression of students' opposition to the structures of and experiences with school and family. The significance of this analysis is its recognition and illumination of the fluidity of cultural and social practices, and the tensions between and within ethnic groups. [source]

From Polychronicity to Multitasking: The Warping of Time Across Disciplinary Boundaries

Amy Todd
Abstract Anthropologist Edward T. Hall's contrast between polychronic and monochronic orientations toward time has stimulated research in the business and management sciences. While Hall's approach to time is ethnographic, the business and management sciences measure polychronicity with a survey instrument, the Inventory of Polychronic Values (IPV). An examination of the IPV and the results it has yielded, however, indicate that it is not measuring polychronicity in the ethnographic sense. The IPV remains firmly within monochronic time and thus fails to seriously engage cultural difference. The transformation of the ethnographic meaning of polychronic to a conceptual one raises methodological and analytical questions of general relevance to the cross-cultural study of work. [source]

Learning from Small Change: Clerkship and the Labors of Convenience

Gavin Hamilton Whitelaw
Abstract Convenience stores are atop the list of global retail chains blamed for homogenizing landscapes, deskilling labor, and eroding local cultural difference. Further still, their very ubiquity and "nonplace"-ness is said to challenge conventional modes of ethnographic inquiry. In the following article, I move beyond such broad assumptions by examining how the convenience store constitutes a meaningful lifeworld and culturally embedded economic institution. Drawing on my training and experiences as a clerk, I explore in particular how impersonal familiarity is constructed and contested within the context of this retail environment. [source]

Similarity attraction and actually selecting similar others: How cross-societal differences in relational mobility affect interpersonal similarity in Japan and the USA

Joanna Schug
Several studies have demonstrated that similarity between friendship partners is higher in the West than in East Asian countries. We hypothesized that these differences could be explained by relational mobility, or the number of opportunities to form new relationships in a given society. Through two studies, we confirmed that whereas the preference for similarity did not differ, similarity between friendship partners was higher in the USA than in Japan. Furthermore, a measure of relational mobility mediated the cultural difference in similarity, supporting our hypothesis. The effectiveness of considering socio-ecological factors when interpreting cultural differences in behaviour is discussed. [source]

China,Australia,Hong Kong tripartite community mental health training program

Abstract The present paper describes the unique mental health training cooperation between two countries involving three training sites to facilitate the improvement of mental health care and service delivery in China. The priority is to build workforce capacity to deliver appropriate mental health care and rehabilitation in the community. In response to this challenge, a training program was collaboratively planned between partners in both countries to provide a comprehensive training program for multiskilled case workers for mainland China. The development and key activities of the training and exchange program correspond to a diverse range of training programs across multiple levels of staff and sectors. The tripartite training program represents a unique, large scale training program that has contributed significantly to developing one of the largest global national mental health program of reform and building a national community mental health service system for China. Over their many years of cooperation, the Australian and Chinese partners have developed a model for successful collaboration, one based on mutual respect, exchange of expertise and a deep appreciation of cultural difference and its influences on broad aspects of health system development. [source]

White Australia, Settler Nationalism and Aboriginal Assimilation,

Anthony Moran
This article examines policies of Aboriginal assimilation between the 1930s and the 1960s, highlights how different forms of settler nationalism shaped understandings of the Aboriginal future, and explores the impact of the shift from biological notions of Australian nationhood (white Australia) to culturalist understandings of national cohesion and belonging. Assimilation policies were underpinned by racist assumptions and settler nationalist imperatives. Aborigines of mixed descent were a special focus for governments and others concerned with Aboriginal welfare, "uplift" and assimilation. This is most evident in the discourse of biological absorption of the 1930s, but lived on in notions of cultural assimilation after the Second World War. One of the ongoing motivations for assimilation drew upon the nationalist message within "white Australia": the need to avoid the development of ethnic or cultural difference within the nation-state. The article highlights an ideological split among the advocates of individual assimilation and group assimilation, and uses the writings of Sir Paul Hasluck and A. P. Elkin to illustrate these two views. [source]

Brown Girls, White Worlds: Adolescence and the Making of Racialized Selves,

Jusquà récemment, les recherches sur les femmes venant de l'Asie du Sud portaient presque entièrement sur les immigrantes de première génération; cependant, les chercheurs commencent à explorer les différences qui existent entre les immigrantes de premiére et celles de deuxiéme génération. Ce qui reste peu clair, c'est comment l'âge, en tant que relation de puissance, se manifeste dans le contexte d'une diaspora. Par exemple, quel est l'apport de l'expérience occidentale de l'adolescence dans le processus identitaire ? l'auteure s'appuie sur le concept de Twine appeléévénement frontalier, qui s'adresse spéci-fiquement à l'expérience de racialisation de l'adolescente. Elle se penche également sur la culture des pairs et enfin sur les families et les com-munautés particulières pour évaluer comment celles-ci réussissent à convaincre les jeunes filles de deuxième génération de leur exclusion permanente de la normalité. Until recently, research on South Asian women has focussed almost exclusively on the immigrant experience; however, scholars have now begun to explore the differences between immigrant and second-generation identities. What remains unclear is how age, as a relation of power, asserts itself in diasporic contexts. For instance, how is modern Western adolescence a key period of racialized identity development? Building on Twine's concept of the "boundary event," I analyse second-generation South Asian girls' stories of difference making during adolescence, examining the work done by peer culture, friends and even family/community to remind girls of their racial and cultural difference. [source]

IRSS Psychology Theory: Telling Experiences Among Underrepresented IS Doctorates

Fay Cobb Payton
ABSTRACT With the changing demographics of the American workforce, the National Science Foundation, along with the U.S. Department of Commerce, has highlighted the shortage of minorities in information technology (IT) careers ( Using data from a 6-year period and the psychology Involvement-Regimen-Self Management-Social (IRSS) network theory as defined by Boice (1992), we discuss lessons learned from mentoring a group of Information Systems doctoral students who are members of a pipeline that can potentially increase the number of underrepresented faculty in business schools and who made conscious decisions to renounce the IT corporate domain. While our lessons speak to the need for more diversity awareness, we conclude that effective mentoring for underrepresented groups can and should include faculty of color (though limited in numbers) as well as majority faculty who are receptive to the needs and cultural differences of these student groups. Lastly, we draw on the work of Ethnic America to provide additional insight into our findings that are not offered by IRSS network theory. [source]