Cultural Control (cultural + control)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Root-knot nematode parasitism and host response: molecular basis of a sophisticated interaction

Pierre Abad
SUMMARY Taxonomy: Eukaryota; Metazoa; Nematoda; Chromadorea; order Tylenchida; Tylenchoidea; Heteroderidae; genus Meloidogyne. Physical properties: Microscopic-non-segmented worms. Meloidogyne species can reproduce by apomixis, facultative meiotic parthenogenesis or obligate mitotic parthenogenesis. Obligate biotrophic parasites inducing the re-differentiation of plant cells into specialized feeding cells. Hosts: Meloidogyne spp. can infest more than 3000 plant species including vegetables, fruit trees, cereals and ornamental flowers. Symptoms: Root swellings called galls. Alteration of the root vascular system. Disease control: Cultural control, chemical control, resistant cultivars. Agronomic importance: Major threat to agriculture in temperate and tropical regions. [source]

Pests, pesticide use and alternative options in European maize production: current status and future prospects

M. Meissle
Abstract Political efforts are made in the European Union (EU) to reduce pesticide use and to increase the implementation of integrated pest management (IPM). Within the EU project ENDURE, research priorities on pesticide reduction are defined. Using maize, one of the most important crops in Europe, as a case study, we identified the most serious weeds, arthropod pests, and fungal diseases as well as classes and amounts of pesticides applied. Data for 11 European maize growing regions were collected from databases, publications and expert estimates. Silage maize dominates in northern Europe and grain production in central and southern Europe. Crop rotations range from continuous growing of maize over several years to well-planned rotation systems. Weeds, arthropod pests and fungal diseases cause economic losses in most regions, even though differences exist between northern countries and central and southern Europe. Several weed and arthropod species cause increasing problems, illustrating that the goal of reducing chemical pesticide applications is challenging. Pesticides could potentially be reduced by the choice of varieties including genetically modified hybrids, cultural control including crop rotation, biological control, optimized application techniques for chemicals, and the development of more specific treatments. However, restrictions in the availability of alternative pest control measures, farm organization, and the training and knowledge of farmers need to be overcome before the adoption of environmentally friendly pest control strategies can reduce chemical pesticides in an economically competitive way. The complex of several problems that need to be tackled simultaneously and the link between different control measures demonstrates the need for IPM approaches, where pest control is seen in the context of the cropping system and on a regional scale. Multicriteria assessments and decision support systems combined with pest monitoring programs may help to develop region-specific and sustainable strategies that are harmonized within a EU framework. [source]

A comparison of management options for leatherjacket populations in organic crop rotations using mathematical models

Rod P. Blackshaw
Abstract 1,Pest management in organic systems is challenged by the paucity of options for direct interventions to control damaging populations compared with conventional agriculture. Consequently, a greater emphasis has to be placed on managing pest numbers through a rotation. In the present study, simulation modelling is used to evaluate the effects of different management options on populations of Tipula paludosa (leatherjackets) in organic rotations. 2,The growth of leatherjacket populations in grass was simulated over 5 years for different starting numbers. A significant risk of leatherjacket attack to subsequent crops can be avoided by limiting the fertility building phase of a rotation to a maximum of 2 years. 3,The effect of cultural control through additional cultivation interventions was compared in rotations comprising a grass/clover fertility building phase with host and/or nonhost crops. It is concluded that the effects are marginal and that prophylactic use cannot be recommended. 4,The prophylactic use of biological control agents in permanent grass and grass/arable rotations was investigated. Maximum population reductions in grass were achieved through annual autumn applications but the optimal economic strategy was less frequent than this. Application in the autumn preceding a spring-sown arable crop provided the best risk reduction. 5,A model decision support system for the control of pests in organic systems using data for leatherjacket damage to spring barley is presented. Economic threshold concepts are used to define when cultural control (as additional cultivation) and biocontrol applications should be used. 6,The present study shows the potential benefits of simulation modelling for the rapid evaluation of a wide range of pest management options. Any conclusions drawn from such simulations, however, are provisional until they can be tested experimentally. [source]

Behaviour and ecology of the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte)

Joseph L. Spencer
Abstract 1,The western corn rootworm (WCR) is a historic pest with a legacy of resistance and behavioural plasticity. Its behaviour and nutritional ecology are important to rootworm management. The success of the most effective and environmentally benign rootworm management method, annual crop rotation, was based on an understanding of rootworm behaviour and host,plant relationships. Enthusiastic adoption of crop rotation, provided excellent rootworm management, but also selected for behavioural resistance to this cultural control. 2,Though well-studied, significant gaps in WCR biology remain. Understanding the topics reviewed here (mating behaviour, nutritional ecology, larval and adult movement, oviposition, alternate host use, and chemical ecology) is a starting point for adapting integrated pest management and insect resistance management (IRM) to an expanding WCR threat. A presentation of significant questions and areas in need of further study follow each topic. 3,The expansion of WCR populations into Europe exposes this pest to new environmental and regulatory conditions that may influence its behaviour and ecology. Reviewing the state of current knowledge provides a starting point of reference for researchers and pest management decision-makers in North America and Europe. 4,The trend toward increasing adoption of transgenic maize will place an increasing premium on understanding WCR behaviour. IRM plans designed to promote sustainable deployment of transgenic hybrids are grounded on assumptions about WCR movement, mating and ovipositional behaviour. Preserving the utility of new and old management options will continue to depend on a thorough understanding of WCR biology, even as the ecological circumstances and geography of WCR problems become more complex. [source]

Role of rainfall in the development of coffee berry disease in Coffea arabica caused by Colletotrichum kahawae, in Cameroon

J. A. Mouen Bedimo
The development of coffee berry disease (CBD) epidemics (caused by Colletotrichum kahawae) in Cameroon was monitored over two successive years (2004 and 2005) on coffee trees protected from rainfall by transparent plastic sheets and on unprotected control trees. This work was done to assess how rain affected disease development when it did not fall directly onto the coffee trees and to determine the influence of primary inoculum on the severity of CBD. Weekly observations over the 2 years showed that there were 11% diseased berries on coffee trees completely protected from rainfall, compared with 45% diseased berries on unprotected coffee trees. Disease severity on unprotected trees during the 2 years of the experiment was estimated at 53% diseased berries, compared with 27% on trees only protected in the first year. These results confirmed rainfall as one of the key physical factors in the development of Arabica CBD. They also provided evidence of a subsequent effect of protecting coffee trees from rainfall in 2004 on the severity of CBD in 2005. This suggested some practices that might lead to very effective cultural control of CBD in regions where severe epidemics of the disease occur. [source]

Narrow rows reduce biomass and seed production of weeds and increase maize yield

A.B. Mashingaidze
Abstract Smallholder farmers in southern African countries rely primarily on cultural control and hoe weeding to combat weeds, but often times, they are unable to keep up with the weeding requirements of the crop because of its laboriousness, causing them to incur major yield losses. Optimisation of crop planting pattern could help to increase yield and suppress weeds and to reduce the critical period of weed control and the weeding requirements to attain maximum yield. Experiments were carried out in Zimbabwe during two growing seasons to assess the effect of maize density and spatial arrangement on crop yield, growth and seed production of weeds and to determine the critical period for weeding. Planting maize at 60 cm row distance achieved higher yields and better weed suppression than planting at 75 or 90 cm row distance. Increasing crop densities beyond the customary three to four plants m,2 gave modest reductions in weed biomass but also diminished crop yields, probably because of increased competition for water and nutrient resources. Maize planted in narrow rows (60 cm) intercepted more radiation and suffered less yield reduction from delaying hoe weeding than those planted in wider rows (75 or 90 cm), and the duration of the weed-free period required to attain maximum grain yield was 3 weeks shorter in the narrow spacing than that in the 75- and 90-cm row spacings. Weeding was more effective in curtailing weed seed production in the narrow row spatial arrangements than in the wide row planting. The results of these studies show that narrow row spacings may reduce weeding requirements and increase yields. [source]