Cultural Beliefs (cultural + belief)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Cultural and spiritual coping in sobriety: Informing substance abuse prevention for Alaska Native communities

Kelly L. Hazel
Culture and spirituality have been conceptualized as both protecting people from addiction and assisting in the recovery process. A collaborative study, utilizing focus group and survey methods, defined and examined cultural and spiritual coping in sobriety among a select sample of Alaska Natives. Results suggest that the Alaska Native worldview incorporates a circular synthesis and balance of physical, cognitive, emotional, and spiritual processes within a protective layer of family and communal/cultural beliefs and practices embedded within the larger environment. Cultural-spiritual coping in sobriety is a process of appraisal, change, and connection that leads the person toward achieving an overarching construct: a sense of coherence. Cultural and spiritual processes provide important areas for understanding the sobriety process as well as keys to the prevention of alcohol abuse and addiction. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

The Camera's Positioning: Brides, Grooms, and Their Photographers in Taipei's Bridal Industry

ETHOS, Issue 2 2004
Bonnie Adrian
This article analyzes the intense orchestration of the bride's appearance,both her physical beauty and her ability to appear to captivate her groom,in Taiwanese bridal salons. Historical circumstance, competitive consumption, and family politics combine to render young women willing if not always eager subjects. Photographers, in turn, attempt to provoke specific subjective states in their clients so as to produce atractive, naturalistic poses and facial expressions. Through attention to positioning processes, the subtleties of the relationships among subjective experience, social performance, and cultural belief are examined. [source]

Cancer and men from minority ethnic groups: an exploration of the literature

S. Lees
The authors reviewed literature which has been published in the last 20 years. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in developed countries and is expected to become a significant cause of death in developing countries. Whilst there are a large number of studies on cancer and men, there is a paucity of data on men from minority ethnic groups. In the USA, African Americans are more likely to develop cancer than any other ethnic group. Although cancer rates amongst minority ethnic groups in the UK are thought to be low, 11% of Indian and African men and 19% of Caribbean men died from cancer during 1979,1983. There is also further evidence in the USA that African American, Filipinos and Native Americans have the lowest cancer survival rates. Service utilization, especially tertiary care, is also thought to be low amongst minority ethnic groups from the USA and the UK. Reasons for these variations include artefactual, cultural, materialist and social selectivist explanations as well as the effects of migration, racism and genetic disposition. This area is under-researched, in particular cultural beliefs about cancer. Further research into this area should apply culturally competent methods to ensure valid data to inform cancer policy, education and practice. [source]

What Should Historians Do With Heroes?

Reflections on Nineteenth-, Twentieth-Century Britain
This article reviews research on modern British heroes (in particular Henry Havelock, Florence Nightingale, Amy Johnson and Robert Falcon Scott) to argue that heroes should be analysed as sites within which we can find evidence of the cultural beliefs, social practices, political structures and economic systems of the past. Much early work interpreted modern heroes as instruments of nationalist and imperialist ideologies, but instrumental interpretations have been superseded within the New Cultural History by broader analyses of the range of gendered meanings encoded in heroic reputations. Studies of heroic icons have generated important insights for historians of masculinity and femininity. More research, however, is needed on the reception rather than the representation of heroic icons, on visual and material sources, and on the changing forms and functions of national heroes after 1945. [source]

The influence of HIV/AIDS on the practice of primary care nurses in Jordan: Rhetoric and reality

Hani Nawafleh PhD(Cand)
The role of nurses in raising community awareness about HIV/AIDS is well-reported. However, little is known about the practice of Jordanian nurses and the role they play in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. This interpretive ethnographic study sought to illuminate the role of primary care nurses and examine the influence of HIV/AIDS on their practice. The study was undertaken in Jordan in three rural and three urban primary health-care centres. Data collection included participant observation, key informant interviews and document analysis. These data informed the development of descriptive ethnographic accounts that allowed for the subsequent identification of common and divergent themes reflective of factors recognized as influencing the practice of the nurse participants. The findings indicate that the rhetoric offered by all levels of administration and endorsed in policy is not reflective of the reality of practice. Poor resources and educational preparation, a limited nursing skill mix and access to professional development, lack of nursing leadership and role models, cultural beliefs and geographic isolation are factors that reduced the capacity of the primary care nurses to raise awareness and, therefore, influence the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. [source]

Barriers to kidney transplants in Indonesia: a literature review

P.N. Bennett rn
Background:, People living with chronic kidney disease will require renal dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain life. Although Indonesia has a developing healthcare industry, Indonesia's kidney transplant rates are lower than comparable nations. Purpose:, To explore the healthcare literature to identify barriers to kidney transplants in particular in relation to Indonesia. Methods:, Healthcare databases were searched (CINAHL, Medline, EBSCOhostEJS, Blackwell Synergy, Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar and Proquest 5000) using the search terms: transplant, kidney disease, renal, dialysis, haemodialysis, Indonesia and nursing. The search was limited to English and Indonesian language data sources from 1997 to 2007. Reference lists of salient academic articles were hand searched. Results:, The results of our search identified six articles that met our criteria. Costs are the major barrier to kidney transplant in Indonesia, followed by cultural beliefs, perception of the law, lack of information and lack of infrastructure. In addition, kidney disease prevention strategies are required. Conclusions:, There are many complex socio-economic, geographical, legal, cultural and religious factors that contribute to low kidney transplant rates in Indonesia. Although an increase in transplantation rates will require strategies from various agencies, healthcare professionals, including nurses, can play a role in overcoming some barriers. Community education programmes, improving their own education levels and by increasing empowerment in nursing we may contribute to improved kidney transplant rates in Indonesia. [source]

Cultural barriers in the education of cardiovascular disease patients in Iran

M.A. Farahani bscn
Background:, Cardiovascular diseases are responsible for the highest mortality rate in Iran; however, there is a lack of evidence for cultural factors influencing patient education. Such information is important for the provision of effective patient care. Aim:, To identify key issues relating to cultural factors influencing education of cardiovascular disease patients in Iran. Methods:, The qualitative research approach was used in this study, with open-ended interviews used to gather data. Eighteen nurses, four cardiovascular specialists, nine patients with cardiovascular disease and four family members were interviewed at two educational hospitals in Tehran. Interviews were taped, transcribed and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Findings:, Participants expressed a range of cultural factors influencing patient education. Five themes emerged from the analysis: (a) patients' lifestyle, (b) beliefs about disease and treatment, (c) concealment of true diagnosis, (d) different opinions regarding the preferred instructor, and (e) ineffective communication. Conclusion:, Findings show that cultural beliefs may act as risk factors for, or serve to intensify, cardiovascular disease. Consideration of these factors is essential for the success of patient education programmes. [source]

On Acting Against One's Best Judgement: A Social Constructionist Interpretation for the Akrasia Problem

Abstract Akrasia is a philosophical concept meaning the possibility to perform actions against one's best judgement. This contribution aims to clarify this phenomenon in terms of a social construction, stating it as a narrative configuration generated by an observer. The latter finds himself engaged in justifying a "problematic" line of action with regard to specific cultural beliefs referring to the self, the others and the behaviour. This paper intends to make explicit the assumptions underlying the traditional definitions of akrasia when, paradoxically, an agent performs an action not in accordance with his/her best judgement. In the transition from modern to post-modern psychology, we here propose an interpretation of the phenomenon in psychological terms, envisaging akrasia as a narrative form functional to the identity processes and to the social dynamics of the structures of contemporary societies. Implications in the psychological practice will be taken into account. [source]

Psychotherapy in Brunei Darussalam

N. Kumaraswamy
Clinical psychologists face unique challenges in developing Southeast Asian countries because mental health care has not received the kind of attention it deserves. In part, this has been the result of lack of knowledge or misunderstanding about mental health and adherence to various religious and traditional beliefs. In this article, the practice of psychotherapy in Brunei Darussalam is reviewed and then illustrated with a typical case, Mrs. A Asian psychotherapists need more comprehensive knowledge of prevailing cultural beliefs and religious practices among multiethnic population groups. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol: In Session 63: 735,744, 2007. [source]

Ethical and social dilemmas in community-based controlled trials in situations of poverty: a view from a South African project

Nosisana Nama
Abstract All psychological and social research presents ethical dilemmas, many of which centre around the difficulties which flow from the power imbalances between those conducting the research and the research respondents or participants. Issues of power are magnified in research undertaken in contexts of poverty, and there is a burgeoning literature on ethical issues in research in developing countries. In this article, we augment the existing literature by focusing on the experiences of an assessor working in a controlled trial of a mother,infant intervention in a poor South African community. We consider issues of community expectations, the presentation to our project of physical health problems, the issue of HIV/AIDS, cultural beliefs which impact on the research, child protection issues, and the tensions between research assessment and ubuntu,a cultural norm which requires helpful engagement with others. We suggest that our experiences may assist with the development of further research. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Effects of superstitious beliefs on consumer novelty seeking and independent judgment making: Evidence from China

Monica D. Hernandez
Cultural content has been examined in consumer adoption of new products, whereas the relationship between enduring cultural beliefs and adoption remains unexplored. In this study, proactive superstitious behaviors (e.g., carrying a lucky charm) and passive superstitious beliefs (e.g., belief in fate) were empirically tested as antecedents of consumer novelty seeking (CNS) and consumer independent judgment making (CIJM). The results suggest that proactive superstitious beliefs positively influence CNS, whereas passive beliefs negatively influence CNS. Only passive superstitious beliefs positively influence CIJM. Results also suggest that previous superstition scales are incomplete and fail to reflect contemporary thinking about superstitious beliefs. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Uncovering beliefs embedded in the culture and its implications for practice: the case of Maltese married couples

Angela Abela
Given the low incidence of marriage breakdown in Malta, this study investigates the level of marital satisfaction among Maltese couples and how they manage conflict between them. One particular interest in conducting this study has been that of exploring how cultural beliefs shape marital relationships and to what extent Maltese clinicians can rely on the Anglo-American literature in their clinical work with married couples. Three hundred and fifty-four randomly selected couples answered a self-administered questionnaire simultaneously and separately. A number of findings, namely the influence of a child-oriented family in the level of marital satisfaction and the predominance of a constructive style of conflict resolution, differed from those we normally find in the Anglo-American literature. The study addresses the importance of taking into account the cultural context when working with couples. The implications for practice of the various beliefs embedded in the culture are highlighted. [source]

The experiences of carers in Taiwanese culture who have long-term schizophrenia in their families: a phenomenological study

X.-Y. HUANG rn msc dnsc
Accessible summary ,,Carers in families with long-term schizophrenia in Taiwanese culture are suffering several burdens, such as burdens of caring and emotional burdens. ,,Strategies of coping, cognitive and religious coping strategies were used by carers in order to cope with their burdens. ,,The awareness of such traditional cultural values would help people to provide care in a culturally sensitive manner. Abstract Schizophrenia is a severe illness with little hope of recovery and requires long-term care. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of carers who live with someone with long-term schizophrenia, within the cultural context of Taiwan. The study was conducted in a community setting in central Taiwan. A qualitative phenomenological approach was used to explore the experiences of carers. Purposive sampling was used by selecting the carers who were close relatives of the clients, had lived with the clients for at least 1 year and bore most of the responsibilities. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect the data and narratives were analysed using Colaizzi's (1978) seven-step method. Data saturation was achieved after interviewing 10 carers. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified: burdens of caring (helping clients' illness, lack of professional support and family conflicts), emotional burdens (sadness, worry and fear) and strategies of coping (cognitive and religious coping strategies). Our study supported the importance for nurses to understand the cultural aspects of mental illness, particularly the widespread cultural beliefs and patterns of help seeking behaviours, in order to provide culturally sensitive health care. [source]

An overview of ethnicity and assessment of family history in primary care settings

Ann Maradiegue PhD(c), FNP-C (Instructor, Family Nurse Practitioner Program)
Abstract Purpose: To discuss the importance of and the nurse practitioner's (NP's) role in the assessment of ethnicity/family of origin in conducting a multigenerational family history in primary care settings. Data sources: A review of the literature on past research results addressing racial and ethnic disparities and current articles from scientific journals exploring the relationship between race and genetics. Web sites were from the National Institutes of Health, the Human Genome Research Institute, the National Cancer Institute, and the Health and Human Services Minority Health and Disparities report. Conclusions: The family history has received renewed interest due to the sequencing of the human genome. A multigenerational family history is an important first step in screening for a multitude of disorders impacted by genetic susceptibility, shared environments, and common behaviors. Assessment of the patient's ethnicity/family of origin is an integral part of the multigenerational family history, particularly in the diagnosis of chronic diseases and the assessment of risks for genetic disorders. The multigenerational family history is important in diagnosis, predictive genetic testing, disease prevention, and health promotion. Challenges facing NPs and the utilization of a multigenerational family history in the current U.S. health system include (a) training clinicians on the correct assessment and utilization of a multigenerational family history, (b) assessment of the subtleties of ethnicity and identifying multiple ethnic groups within a family, (c) collection of the family history in a manner that is sensitive to the cultural beliefs of individuals, and (d) avoidance of stereotyping Implications for practice: Significant advances in genetics and genetic testing requires that NPs be well versed in collecting and interpreting a multigenerational family history to include assessment of the patient/family's ethnicity/family of origin. The ability to effectively conduct and evaluate the individual's and family's health risk through a multigenerational family history will be important in diagnosis, health promotion, disease prevention, and the determination for genetic counseling referral and predictive testing when appropriate. Assessment of risk and prevention of disease is also important in reducing health disparities. [source]

Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Physician and Lay Models of the Common Cold

Roberta D. Baer
We compare physicians and laypeople within and across cultures, focusing on simi-larities and differences across samples, to determine whether cultural differences or lay,professional differences have a greater effect on explanatory models of the common cold. Data on explanatory models for the common cold were collected from physicians and laypeople in South Texas and Guadalajara, Mexico. Structured interview materials were developed on the basis of open-ended interviews with samples of lay informants at each locale. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information from each sample on causes, symptoms, and treatments for the common cold. Consensus analysis was used to estimate the cultural beliefs for each sample. Instead of systematic differences between samples based on nationality or level of professional training, all four samples largely shared a single-explanatory model of the common cold, with some differences on subthemes, such as the role of hot and cold forces in the etiology of the common cold. An evaluation of our findings indicates that, although there has been conjecture about whether cultural or lay,professional differences are of greater importance in understanding variation in explanatory models of disease and illness, systematic data collected on community and professional beliefs indicate that such differences may be a function of the specific illness. Further generalizations about lay,professional differences need to be based on detailed data for a variety of illnesses, to discern patterns that may be present. Finally, a systematic approach indicates that agreement across individual explanatory models is sufficient to allow for a community-level explanatory model of the common cold. [source]

Understanding Disparities in Transplantation: Do Social Networks Provide the Missing Clue?

K. Ladin
Although the National Organ Transplant Act calls for equity in access to transplantation, scarcity and racial disparities persist. To date, even the most comprehensive models have been unable to adequately explain these racial disparities, leaving policymakers unsure how best to intervene. Previous individual-level analyses, which have implicated risk factors such as race, financial status, cultural beliefs, unemployment, lack of commitment to surgery and lack of continuous access to care, overlook contextual and social network exposures. Social networks present a compelling way to examine cumulative risk clustered across individuals. Social networks have been shown to influence health outcomes and health behaviors through various pathways, including shared social capital, engaging in similar or group risky behaviors, diffusion of information and adopting or propagating social norms. Precursors to chronic kidney disease, including obesity, have been shown to spread through social networks. Social network analysis can reveal shared risks between potential donors and recipients in a given network, clarifying the likelihood of finding an appropriate match through either direct donation or paired exchanges. This paper presents a novel application of social network analysis to transplantation, illustrating implications for disparities and future clinical interventions. [source]

Complexities of conflict: the importance of considering social factors for effectively resolving human,wildlife conflict

A. J. Dickman
Abstract Human,wildlife conflict is one of the most critical threats facing many wildlife species today, and the topic is receiving increasing attention from conservation biologists. Direct wildlife damage is commonly cited as the main driver of conflict, and many tools exist for reducing such damage. However, significant conflict often remains even after damage has been reduced, suggesting that conflict requires novel, comprehensive approaches for long-term resolution. Although most mitigation studies investigate only the technical aspects of conflict reduction, peoples' attitudes towards wildlife are complex, with social factors as diverse as religious affiliation, ethnicity and cultural beliefs all shaping conflict intensity. Moreover, human,wildlife conflicts are often manifestations of underlying human,human conflicts, such as between authorities and local people, or between people of different cultural backgrounds. Despite evidence that social factors can be more important in driving conflict than wildlife damage incurred, they are often ignored in conflict studies. Developing a broader awareness of conflict drivers will advance understanding of the patterns and underlying processes behind this critical conservation issue. In this paper, I review a wide variety of case studies to show how social factors strongly influence perceptions of human,wildlife conflict, and highlight how mitigation approaches should become increasingly innovative and interdisciplinary in order to enable people to move from conflict towards coexistence. [source]

Baby walkers: a perspective from Turkey

Derya Gumus Dogan
Abstract Aim:, To determine in an urban population in Turkey, the frequency of baby walker (BW) use, beliefs and attitudes of mothers regarding BWs, frequency of BW-related injuries and whether families receive counselling from their paediatricians about BWs or not. Methods:, Children aged 2 months to 5 years who attended the well-child care clinics of Fatih University Hospital in Ankara comprised the sample. A semi-structured questionnaire was verbally administered. Results:, Of 495 children, 75.4% was found to use BW. Female gender [odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.19,2.78) and lower maternal education (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 1.18,0.74) were found to be associated with BW use. Frequencies of injuries associated with BWs were low (7.8%). Only 92 (18.6%) families received appropriate counselling by their paediatricians. Conclusion:, The results of our study show that BW use is common in urban Turkey. Families are not informed about the lack of benefits and potential hazards of BWs and base reasons of using and not using on unique cultural beliefs rather than informed, evidence-based decisions. Paediatricians in Turkey and potentially other countries require information about the need for counselling families about the hazards associated with BW use. [source]