Cultural Activities (cultural + activity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Amenities Drive Urban Growth

Terry Nichols Clark
Studies of the city traditionally posit a division between a city's economy and its culture, with culture subordinate in explanatory power to work. However, post,industrial and globalizing trends are dramatically elevating the importance of culture. Cultural activities are increasingly crucial to urban economic vitality. Models to explain the growth of cities from the era of industrial manufacturing are outmoded. Citizens in the postindustrial city increasingly make quality of life demands, treating their own urban location as if tourists, emphasizing aesthetic concerns. These practices impact considerations about the proper nature of amenities that post,industrial cities can sustain. [source]


This essay contributes to the debate about the alleged spillover effects associated with Wal-Mart's growth. Combining county-level data on Wal-Mart entry and location from 1985 through 1998 with individual-level data on leisure activities, we estimate a positive relationship between Wal-Mart penetration and participation in activities involving inputs that can be bought at Wal-Mart. The relationship between Wal-Mart penetration and activities that do not involve inputs that can be bought at Wal-Mart is negative in most cases but may be positive or zero for "cultural" activities such as attending classical music concerts and visiting art galleries. The evidence is consistent with the thesis that deeper Wal-Mart penetration expands consumption possibilities.(JELA13, D00, C12, Z11, Z13) [source]

The Creation and Management of Cultural Clusters

Erik Hitters
This paper analyses two cultural clusters, the Westergasfabriek (WGF) in Amsterdam and the Witte de Withstraat (WdW) in Rotterdam, and evaluates their contrasting creative management strategies. The WGF has to date been fairly successful in creating an attractive mix of different cultural activities, based on the creative potential of the buildings on the site, its image as a cultural centre and the general atmosphere of creativity. The more ,top,down' approach of the Local Authority owned but commercially managed WFG has injected new commercial skills and investment into the cluster, and creates the conditions for innovation through managing the mix of creative functions. The WdW, on the other hand, takes a more ,bottom,up' approach to the problems of cultural management, and so far the participants have resisted the imposition of formal management. This may allow cultural and commercial functions to co,exist more easily, but, thus far, there seems to be less evidence of innovation. [source]

Archaeological site distribution by geomorphic setting in the southern lower Cuyahoga River Valley, northeastern Ohio: Initial observations from a GIS database

Andrew Bauer
In this study, we compiled unpublished archival documentation of archaeological site locations from the southern part of the Cuyahoga River Valley in northeastern Ohio, USA, registered at the State of Ohio Historic Preservation Office into a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) database. Using digitized soil shapefiles to generate a geomorphic data layer, we assessed the spatial and temporal distribution of 79 known archaeological sites by landform association. This digital compilation indicates that Woodland period, Late Prehistoric, and Historic sites occur in most geomorphic settings along the river valley. In contrast, Paleoindian and Archaic sites only occur on Wisconsinan cut terraces and in upland interfluve settings, indicating that most of these documented sites are in primary contexts and have not been reworked. We discuss the distribution of archaeological sites in the study region as a function of various factors, including cultural activities, taphonomic processes, landform development, and the nature and extent of the original archaeological surveys. Observed spatial patterns of known sites clearly reflect local geomorphological controls; artifactual contexts from the earlier prehistoric periods are underrepresented in the database. We conclude that additional site surveys, as well as the excavation and documentation of new sites in this part of Ohio, are required to understand local prehistoric economies and to ascertain patterns of culturally mediated land use. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Radiographic clues to fractures of distal humerus in archaeological remains

B Glencross
Abstract Today, distal humeral fractures occur most frequently in children and adolescents, and are usually the result of a fall onto extended arms, or less often on flexed elbows. Trauma to the distal humerus at the physis and epiphyses often produces non-displaced or mildly displaced fractures that are difficult to recognize radiographically. To help identify these types of injuries, clinicians have developed two measurement techniques that are applied to the X-rays of the injured bones. In a preliminary attempt to assess the usefulness of these measurement techniques for recognizing trauma in archaeological skeletal remains, 25 humeri from two Ontario ossuary samples were submitted to radiography. Clinical data on distal humeral fractures, their incidence, and mechanisms of injury were also used to interpret the lifestyles and cultural activities of the aboriginal individuals under study. While only one healed fracture was suspected after gross observation, a total of four fractures were ultimately identified using the two measurements, the humerotangential-angle (HTA) and the anterior hunieral line (AHL). Our results provide indirect, but telling, evidence of accidental childhood injuries to distal humerus in an archaeological population. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Exploitation of Encephalartos transvenosus outside and inside Mphaphuli Cycads Nature Reserve, Limpopo Province, South Africa

A. M. Ravele
Abstract This study has investigated the use and threats of Encephalartos transvenosus outside and inside Mphaphuli Cycads Nature Reserve, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Data were collected from 2005 to 2006 through social and ecological surveys. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a total of 40 people per household, sampled from four selected villages around the reserve. E. transvenosus is used for medicinal purposes, decorations, cultural activities and as food. Youth and adult persons harvest E. transvenosus for income generation, while children and aged people mainly use it for subsistence purposes. The survival of E. transvenosus in the wild is uncertain due to various threats, such as illegal collection, habitat destruction, fire and grazing. Some conservation measures are also discussed. Résumé Cet article rapporte les recherches sur l'utilisation et les menaces sur E. transvenosus en dehors et à l'intérieur de la Mphaphuli Cycads Nature Reserve, dans la Province du Limpopo, en Afrique du Sud. Des données ont été récoltées de 2005 à 2006 via des enquêtes sociales et écologiques. Des interviews semi structurées ont été menées chez un total de 40 personnes, par ménage, pris au hasard dans quatre villages choisis autour de la réserve. E. transvenosus est utiliséà des fins médicinales, pour la décoration, des activités culturelles et l'alimentation. Jeunes et adultes récoltent E. transvenosus pour en tirer des revenus, tandis que les enfants et les vieilles personnes les utilisent beaucoup pour leur subsistance. La survie d'E. transvenosus dans la nature est incertaine en raison de diverses menaces telles que la récolte illégale, la destruction de l'habitat, les feux et le pâturage. Certaines mesures de conservation furent aussi discutées. [source]

Seeking the Truth, Spiritual and Political: Japanese American Community Building through Engaged Ethnic Buddhism

PEACE & CHANGE, Issue 1 2010
Masumi Izumi
This essay documents the history of the Senshin Buddhist Temple in South Central Los Angeles, a Japanese American temple belonging to the Jodo Shinshu (True Pure Land) School. In the United States, ethnic Buddhists are generally perceived as socially conservative and politically passive, while convert Buddhists are known to be active in peace movements and social activism. The essay analyzes the reforms Senshin members introduced to the temple's religious rituals and elucidates the development of new cultural activities and art forms, which not only contributed to the emergence of vernacular ethnic art and music, but also to the construction of a community of socially engaged Japanese American Buddhists. By opening their temple to members of local minority communities, Senshin Buddhists formed artistic and political coalitions with other peoples of color, harboring subaltern cultural activism, which transgressed national, racial, and religious borders, and defied hegemonic racial, gender, and class hierarchies. [source]

Activity-induced dental modification in holocene siberian hunter-fisher-gatherers

Andrea Waters-Rist
Abstract The use of teeth as tools provides clues to past subsistence patterns and cultural practices. Five Holocene period hunter-fisher-gatherer mortuary sites from the south-western region of Lake Baikal, Siberia, Russian Federation, are observed for activity-induced dental modification (AIDM) to further characterize their adaptive regimes. Grooves on the occlusal surfaces of teeth are observed in 25 out of 123 individuals (20.3%) and were most likely produced during the processing of fibers from plants and animals, for making items such as nets and cordage. Regional variation in the frequency of individuals with occlusal grooves is found in riverine versus lakeshore sites. This variation suggests that production of material culture items differed, perhaps in relation to different fishing practices. There is also variation in the distribution of grooves by sex: grooves are found predominately in females, except at the Late Neolithic-Bronze Age river site of Ust'-Ida I where grooves are found exclusively in males. Occlusal grooves were cast using polyvinylsiloxane and maxillary canine impressions were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine striation patterns. Variation in striae orientation suggests that a variety of activities, and/or different manufacturing techniques, were involved in groove production. Overall, the variability in occlusal groove frequency, sex and regional distribution, and microscopic striae patterns, points to the multiplicity of activities and ways in which people used their mouths and teeth in cultural activities. Am J Phys Anthropol 143:266,278, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Becoming a Hurdler: How Learning Settings Afford Identities

Na'ilah Suad Nasir
In this article, we present a model for thinking about how learning settings provide resources for the development of the practice-linked identities of participants, drawing on data from a study on an African American high school track and field team. What does it mean to make an identity available in the context of a learning setting? In this article, we draw on current theories in anthropology, psychology, sociology, and sociocultural theory to develop a conceptual frame that might be helpful in addressing these questions. We focus on how individuals are offered (and how they take up) identities in cultural activities. We define three types of identity resources that were made available to student-athletes learning to run track and explore how they took shape in teaching and learning interactions in track.,[identity, learning, African American students, culture] [source]

Ground-penetrating radar survey of the Sny Magill Mound Group, Effigy Mounds National Monument, Iowa

William E. Whittaker
A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey of 101 mounds at the Sny Magill Unit of Effigy Mounds National Monument, Iowa, demonstrates that GPR can be an effective tool to evaluate the structure and condition of mounds without damaging them. Ideal survey conditions and improved processing technology allow for the identification of strata within the mounds, as well as areas of post-construction disturbance and possible archaeological features within the mounds. Provisional interpretations indicate that 60 are intact conical mounds with minimal post-construction disturbance, and two show very strong evidence of containing interior burial platforms; 29 are badly damaged by non-cultural or cultural activity; two are probable non-cultural mounds; nine are reasonably intact linear and effigy mounds; one is an excavated effigy mound. GPR and other remote-sensing techniques are highly recommended for mound investigation, but wherever possible such techniques need to be coordinated with mound excavation so as to test the remote-sensing results. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Searching for the ,Popular' and the ,Art' of Popular Art

Theodore Gracyk
Philosophy of art presupposes differences between art and other cultural activity. Philosophers have recently paid more attention to this excluded activity, particularly to the range of cultural production known as popular art. Three issues have dominated these discussions. First, there is debate about the basis of the distinction. Some philosophers contend that fine art is essentially different from popular art, but others hold that the distinction is entirely social in origin. Second, philosophers disagree on the degree of continuity or discontinuity that holds between fine and popular art. Third, there is controversy about the relative value of the two, and about the basis for the supposed superiority of fine art. [source]