Cultivation Process (cultivation + process)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


The Perception of Distance in the Cultivation Process: A Theoretical Consideration of the Relationship Between Television Content, Processing Experience, and Perceived Distance

COMMUNICATION THEORY, Issue 3 2006
Helena Bilandzic
This article proposes an integrative theoretical perspective of the cultivation process, starting from the notion that subjective social reality is organized in "zones of relevance," with some social elements being closer, and some more remote, to an individual's everyday life (L. P. Berger & T. Luckmann, 1967; A. Schutz, 1970b). Media effects are assumed to depend on such a perception of distance that modifies the mode in which television content is processed, stored, and integrated into existing beliefs and attitudes. Two notions of closeness are elaborated for television viewing: experiential closeness, emphasizing the personal biographical situation, and mediated closeness, focusing on the narrative experience. Recent theoretical approaches to cultivation and research on transportation into narratives are integrated within the framework of perceived distance. [source]


Optimization and Control of Industrial Microbial Cultivation Processes

ENGINEERING IN LIFE SCIENCES (ELECTRONIC), Issue 2 2006
M. Jenzsch
Abstract Compared to the immense achievements in fundamental molecular biological sciences, the improvements in the fermentation and downstream processing technologies used in industry have been less spectacular over the last decade. Hence, there is a misbalance between new cellular systems and production technologies, resulting in a decreasing annual rate of approved production processes. In its PAT initiative the U.S. Food and Drug Administration identifies the potential for continuous improvement and makes concrete suggestions how this can be achieved. Here, some of these suggestions were applied to recombinant protein production with Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris cultures. Concretely, the development of process operational procedures is discussed that allow a more tight supervision of the processes and the automatic control in cases where processes deviate from their set-point profiles. [source]


Cultivation and engineering of a software metrics program

INFORMATION SYSTEMS JOURNAL, Issue 1 2003
Jakob Iversen
Abstract. This paper reports from a case study of an organization that implements a software metrics program to measure the effects of its improvement efforts. The program measures key indicators of all completed projects and summarizes progress information in a quarterly management report. The implementation turns out to be long and complex, as the organization is confronted with dilemmas based on contradictory demands and value conflicts. The process is interpreted as a combination of a rational engineering process in which a metrics program is constructed and put into use, and an evolutionary cultivation process in which basic values of the software organization are confronted and transformed. The analysis exemplifies the difficulties and challenges that software organizations face when bringing known principles for software metrics programs into practical use. The article discusses the insights gained from the case in six lessons that may be used by Software Process Improvement managers in implementing a successful metrics program. [source]


Microalgae for oil: Strain selection, induction of lipid synthesis and outdoor mass cultivation in a low-cost photobioreactor

BIOTECHNOLOGY & BIOENGINEERING, Issue 1 2009
Liliana Rodolfi
Abstract Thirty microalgal strains were screened in the laboratory for their biomass productivity and lipid content. Four strains (two marine and two freshwater), selected because robust, highly productive and with a relatively high lipid content, were cultivated under nitrogen deprivation in 0.6-L bubbled tubes. Only the two marine microalgae accumulated lipid under such conditions. One of them, the eustigmatophyte Nannochloropsis sp. F&M-M24, which attained 60% lipid content after nitrogen starvation, was grown in a 20-L Flat Alveolar Panel photobioreactor to study the influence of irradiance and nutrient (nitrogen or phosphorus) deprivation on fatty acid accumulation. Fatty acid content increased with high irradiances (up to 32.5% of dry biomass) and following both nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation (up to about 50%). To evaluate its lipid production potential under natural sunlight, the strain was grown outdoors in 110-L Green Wall Panel photobioreactors under nutrient sufficient and deficient conditions. Lipid productivity increased from 117 mg/L/day in nutrient sufficient media (with an average biomass productivity of 0.36 g/L/day and 32% lipid content) to 204 mg/L/day (with an average biomass productivity of 0.30 g/L/day and more than 60% final lipid content) in nitrogen deprived media. In a two-phase cultivation process (a nutrient sufficient phase to produce the inoculum followed by a nitrogen deprived phase to boost lipid synthesis) the oil production potential could be projected to be more than 90 kg per hectare per day. This is the first report of an increase of both lipid content and areal lipid productivity attained through nutrient deprivation in an outdoor algal culture. The experiments showed that this marine eustigmatophyte has the potential for an annual production of 20 tons of lipid per hectare in the Mediterranean climate and of more than 30 tons of lipid per hectare in sunny tropical areas. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2009;102: 100,112. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Exhaustive in vivo labelling of plasmid DNA with BrdU for intracellular detection in non-viral transfection of mammalian cells

BIOTECHNOLOGY JOURNAL, Issue 10 2009
Valérie Jérôme
Abstract The study of the non-viral gene delivery process at the molecular level, e.g. during the transfection of mammalian cells, is currently limited by the difficulties of specifically detecting the transfected plasmid DNA within the cells. Here we describe the in vivo production of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labelled plasmid DNA by a thymine-requiring Escherichia coli strain leading to 92 ± 15% BrdU incorporation while minimizing plasmid structure alteration. The labelled plasmid is produced on the milligram scale in a two-stage cultivation process. The relevance of this approach for plasmid DNA visualisation in the field of gene delivery is demonstrated by localising the BrdU-labelled plasmid DNA via immunodetection/fluorescence microscopy in CHO-K1 cells after electroporation with naked, BrdU-labelled plasmid DNA and after polyfection with polyethylenimine/BrdU-labelled plasmid complexes. [source]


A robust method for the joint estimation of yield coefficients and kinetic parameters in bioprocess models

BIOTECHNOLOGY PROGRESS, Issue 3 2009
V. Vastemans
Abstract Bioprocess model structures that require nonlinear parameter estimation, thus initialization values, are often subject to poor identification performances because of the uncertainty on those initialization values. Under some conditions on the model structure, it is possible to partially circumvent this problem by an appropriate decoupling of the linear part of the model from the nonlinear part of it. This article provides a procedure to be followed when these structural conditions are not satisfied. An original method for decoupling two sets of parameters, namely, kinetic parameters from maximum growth, production, decay rates, and yield coefficients, is presented. It exhibits the advantage of requiring only initialization of the first subset of parameters. In comparison with a classical nonlinear estimation procedure, in which all the parameters are freed, results show enhanced robustness of model identification with regard to parameter initialization errors. This is illustrated by means of three simulation case studies: a fed-batch Human Embryo Kidney cell cultivation process using a macroscopic reaction scheme description, a process of cyclodextrin-glucanotransferase production by Bacillus circulans, and a process of simultaneous starch saccharification and glucose fermentation to lactic acid by Lactobacillus delbrückii, both based on a Luedeking-Piret model structure. Additionally, perspectives of the presented procedure in the context of systematic bioprocess modeling are promising. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009 [source]


The Perception of Distance in the Cultivation Process: A Theoretical Consideration of the Relationship Between Television Content, Processing Experience, and Perceived Distance

COMMUNICATION THEORY, Issue 3 2006
Helena Bilandzic
This article proposes an integrative theoretical perspective of the cultivation process, starting from the notion that subjective social reality is organized in "zones of relevance," with some social elements being closer, and some more remote, to an individual's everyday life (L. P. Berger & T. Luckmann, 1967; A. Schutz, 1970b). Media effects are assumed to depend on such a perception of distance that modifies the mode in which television content is processed, stored, and integrated into existing beliefs and attitudes. Two notions of closeness are elaborated for television viewing: experiential closeness, emphasizing the personal biographical situation, and mediated closeness, focusing on the narrative experience. Recent theoretical approaches to cultivation and research on transportation into narratives are integrated within the framework of perceived distance. [source]


MICROALGAE AND CYANOBACTERIA: FOOD FOR THOUGHT,

JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
Miroslav Gantar
In non-Western civilizations, cyanobacteria have been part of the human diet for centuries. Today, microalgae and cyanobacteria are either produced in controlled cultivation processes or harvested from the natural habitats and marketed as food supplements around the world. Cyanobacteria produce a vast array of different biologically active compounds, some of which are expected to be used in drug development. The fact that some of the active components from cyanobacteria potentially have anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and other effects is being used for marketing purposes. However, introduction of these products in the form of whole biomass for alimentary purposes raises concerns regarding the potential toxicity and long-term effects on human health. Here, we review data on the use of cyanobacteria and microalgae in human nutrition and searched for available information on legislature that regulates the use of these products. We have found that, although the quality control of these products is most often self-regulated by the manufacturers, different governmental agencies are introducing strict regulations for placing novel products, such as algae and cyanobacteria, on the market. The existing regulations require these products to be tested for the presence of toxins, such as microcystin; however, other, sometimes novel, toxins remain undetected, and their long-term effects on human health remain unknown. [source]


Microfluidic biolector,microfluidic bioprocess control in microtiter plates

BIOTECHNOLOGY & BIOENGINEERING, Issue 3 2010
Matthias Funke
Abstract In industrial-scale biotechnological processes, the active control of the pH-value combined with the controlled feeding of substrate solutions (fed-batch) is the standard strategy to cultivate both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. On the contrary, for small-scale cultivations, much simpler batch experiments with no process control are performed. This lack of process control often hinders researchers to scale-up and scale-down fermentation experiments, because the microbial metabolism and thereby the growth and production kinetics drastically changes depending on the cultivation strategy applied. While small-scale batches are typically performed highly parallel and in high throughput, large-scale cultivations demand sophisticated equipment for process control which is in most cases costly and difficult to handle. Currently, there is no technical system on the market that realizes simple process control in high throughput. The novel concept of a microfermentation system described in this work combines a fiber-optic online-monitoring device for microtiter plates (MTPs),the BioLector technology,together with microfluidic control of cultivation processes in volumes below 1,mL. In the microfluidic chip, a micropump is integrated to realize distinct substrate flow rates during fed-batch cultivation in microscale. Hence, a cultivation system with several distinct advantages could be established: (1) high information output on a microscale; (2) many experiments can be performed in parallel and be automated using MTPs; (3) this system is user-friendly and can easily be transferred to a disposable single-use system. This article elucidates this new concept and illustrates applications in fermentations of Escherichia coli under pH-controlled and fed-batch conditions in shaken MTPs. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2010;107: 497,505. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]