Cultivation Methods (cultivation + methods)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

An Ecological and Economic Assessment of the Nontimber Forest Product Gaharu Wood in Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Gary D. Paoli
We studied the demographic effect and economic returns of harvesting aromatic gaharu wood from fungus-infected trees of Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. at Gunung Palung National Park, Indonesia, to evaluate the management potential of gaharu wood. Aquilaria malaccensis trees openface> 20 cm in diameter occurred at low preharvest densities (0.16,0.32 ha) but were distributed across five of six forest types surveyed. During a recent harvest, 75% of trees were felled, with harvest intensities ranging from 50% to 100% among forest types. Overall, 50% of trees contained gaharu wood, but trees at higher elevations contained gaharu wood more frequently ( 73%) than trees at lower elevation (27%). The mean density of regeneration ( juveniles> 15 cm in height) near adult trees (3,7 m away) was 0.2/m2, 200 times greater than at random in the forest (10/ha), but long-term data on growth and survivorship are needed to determine whether regeneration is sufficient for population recovery. Gaharu wood extraction from Gunung Palung was very profitable for collectors, generating an estimated gross financial return per day of US $8.80, triple the mean village wage. Yet, the estimated sustainable harvest of gaharu wood at natural tree densities generates a mean net present value of only $10.83/ha, much lower than that of commercial timber harvesting, the dominant forest use in Kalimantan. Returns per unit area could be improved substantially, however, by implementing known silvicultural methods to increase tree densities, increase the proportion of trees that produce gaharu wood, and shorten the time interval between successive harvests. The economic potential of gaharu wood is unusual among nontimber forest products and justifies experimental trials to develop small-scale cultivation methods. Resumen: Datos ecológicos y económicos son esenciales para la identificación de productos forestales no maderables tropicales con potencial para la extracción sostenible y rentable en un sistema bajo manejo. Estudiamos el efecto demográfico y los beneficios económicos de la cosecha de la madera aromática gaharu de árboles de Aquilaria malaccenis Lam infectados por hongos en el Parque Nacional Gunung Palung Indonesia para evaluar el potencial de manejo de la madera. Arboles de Aquilaria malaccenis> 20 cm de diámetro ocurrieron en bajas densidades precosecha (0.16,0.32 ha,1) pero se distribuyeron en cinco de los seis tipos de bosque muestreados. Durante una cosecha reciente, 75% de los árboles fueron cortados, con intensidades de cosecha entre 50 y 100% en los tipos de bosque. En conjunto, 50% de los árboles contenían madera gaharu, pero árboles de elevaciones mayores contenían madera gaharu más frecuentemente ( 73%) que árboles de elevaciones menores (27%). La densidad promedio de regeneración ( juveniles> 15 cm de altura) cerca de árboles adultos (de 3 a 7 m de distancia) fue de 0.2 m,2, 200 veces mayor que en el bosque (10 ha,1), pero se requieren datos a largo plazo sobre el crecimiento y la supervivencia para determinar si la regeneración es suficiente para la recuperación de la población. La extracción de madera gaharu de Gunung Palung fue muy redituable, generando un rendimiento financiero bruto estimado en US $8.80 diarios, el triple del salario promedio en la zona. Sin embargo, la cosecha sostenible estimada de madera gaharu en densidades naturales de árboles genera un valor presente neto de sólo $10.83 ha,1, mucho menor que el de la cosecha comercial de madera, uso dominante del bosque en Kalimantan. Sin embargo, los rendimientos por unidad de área podrían mejorar sustancialmente mediante la instrumentación de métodos silviculturales para incrementar la densidad de árboles, incrementar la proporción de árboles que producen madera gaharu y reducir el intervalo de tiempo entre cosechas sucesivas. El potencial económico de la madera gaharu es poco usual entre los productos forestales no maderables y justifica la experimentación para desarrollar métodos de cultivo en pequeña escala. [source]

Microbial communities in a porphyry copper tailings impoundment and their impact on the geochemical dynamics of the mine waste

Nouhou Diaby
Summary The distribution and diversity of acidophilic bacteria of a tailings impoundment at the La Andina copper mine, Chile, was examined. The tailings have low sulfide (1.7% pyrite equivalent) and carbonate (1.4% calcite equivalent) contents and are stratified into three distinct zones: a surface (0-70-80 cm) ,oxidation zone' characterized by low-pH (2.5,4), a ,neutralization zone' (70,80 to 300,400 cm) and an unaltered ,primary zone' below 400 cm. A combined cultivation-dependent and biomolecular approach (terminal restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism and 16S rRNA clone library analysis) was used to characterize the indigenous prokaryotic communities in the mine tailings. Total cell counts showed that the microbial biomass was greatest in the top 125 cm of the tailings. The largest numbers of bacteria (109 g,1 dry weight of tailings) were found at the oxidation front (the junction between the oxidation and neutralization zones), where sulfide minerals and oxygen were both present. The dominant iron-/sulfur-oxidizing bacteria identified at the oxidation front included bacteria of the genus Leptospirillum (detected by molecular methods), and Gram-positive iron-oxidizing acidophiles related to Sulfobacillus (identified both by molecular and cultivation methods). Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was also detected, albeit in relatively small numbers. Heterotrophic acidophiles related to Acidobacterium capsulatum were found by molecular methods, while another Acidobacterium -like bacterium and an Acidiphilium sp. were isolated from oxidation zone samples. A conceptual model was developed, based on microbiological and geochemical data derived from the tailings, to account for the biogeochemical evolution of the Piuquenes tailings impoundment. [source]

Diversity of endophytic bacterial communities in poplar grown under field conditions

Kristina Ulrich
Abstract Bacterial endophytes may be important for plant health and other ecologically relevant functions of poplar trees. The composition of endophytic bacteria colonizing the aerial parts of poplar was studied using a multiphasic approach. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rRNA genes demonstrated the impact of different hybrid poplar clones on the endophytic community structure. Detailed analysis of endophytic bacteria using cultivation methods in combination with cloning of 16S rRNA genes amplified from plant tissue revealed a high phylogenetic diversity of endophytic bacteria with a total of 53 taxa at the genus level that included Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The community structure displayed clear differences in terms of the presence and relative proportions of bacterial taxa between the four poplar clones studied. The results showed that the genetic background of the hybrid poplar clones corresponded well with the endophytic community structure. Out of the 513 isolates and 209 clones identified, Actinobacteria, in particular the family Microbacteriaceae, made up the largest fraction of the isolates, whereas the clone library was dominated by Alpha - and Betaproteobacteria. The most abundant genera among the isolates were Pseudomonas and Curtobacterium, while Sphingomonas prevailed among the clones. [source]

Formation of nonculturable Escherichia coli in drinking water

L.A. Bjergbæk
Abstract Aims:, To examine whether incubation of Escherichia coli in nondisinfected drinking water result in development of cells that are not detectable using standard procedures but maintain a potential for metabolic activity and cell division. Methods and Results:, Survival and detectability of four different E. coli strains were studied using drinking water microcosms and samples from contaminated drinking water wells. Recovery of E. coli was compared using different cultivation-dependent methods, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using specific oligonucleotide probes, direct viable counts (DVC), and by enumeration of gfp -tagged E. coli (green fluorescent protein, GFP). Two levels of stress responses were observed after incubation of E. coli in nondisinfected drinking water: (i) the presence of cells that were not detected using standard cultivation methods but could be cultivated after gentle resuscitation on nonselective nutrient-rich media, and (ii) the presence of cells that responded to nutrient addition but could only be detected by cultivation-independent methods (DVC, FISH and GFP). Collectively, the experiments demonstrated that incubation for 20,60 days in nondisinfected drinking water resulted in detection of only 0·7,5% of the initial E. coli population using standard cultivation methods, whereas 1,20% could be resuscitated to a culturable state, and 17,49% could be clearly detected using cultivation-independent methods. Conclusions:, Resuscitation of stressed E. coli on nonselective nutrient-rich media increased cell counts in drinking water using both traditional (CFU), and cultivation-independent methods (DVC, FISH and GFP). The cultivation-independent methods resulted in detection of 10,20 times more E. coli than the traditional methods. The results indicate that a subpopulation of substrate-responsive but apparent nonculturable E. coli may develop in drinking water during long-term starvation survival. Significance and Impact of the Study:, The existence of substrate-responsive but nonculturable cells should be considered when evaluating the survival potential of E. coli in nondisinfected drinking water. [source]

A novel microplate-based screening strategy to assess the cellulolytic potential of Trichoderma strains

Stefano Cianchetta
Abstract Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuel requires a hydrolysis step to obtain fermentable sugars, generally accomplished by fungal enzymes. An assorted library of cellulolytic microbial strains should facilitate the development of optimal enzyme cocktails specific for locally available feedstocks. Only a limited number of strains can be simultaneously assayed in screening based on large volume cultivation methods, as in shake flasks. This study describes a miniaturization strategy aimed at allowing parallel assessment of large numbers of fungal strains. Trichoderma strains were cultivated stationary on microcrystalline cellulose using flat bottom 24-well plates containing an agarized medium. Supernatants obtained by a rapid centrifugation step of the whole culture plates were evaluated for extracellular total cellulase activity, measured as filter paper activity, using a microplate-based assay. The results obtained were consistent with those observed in shake-flask experiments and more than 300 Trichoderma strains were accordingly characterized for cellulase production. Five strains, displaying on shake-flasks at least 80% of the activity shown by the hyper-cellulolytic mutant Trichoderma Rut-C30, were correctly recognized by the screening on 24-well plates, demonstrating the feasibility of this approach. Cellulase activity distribution for the entire Trichoderma collection is also reported. One strain (T. harzianum Ba8/86) displayed the closest profile to the reference strain Rut-C30 in time course experiments. The method is scalable and addresses a major bottleneck in screening programs, allowing small-scale parallel cultivation and rapid supernatant extraction. It can also be easily integrated with high-throughput enzyme assays and could be suitable for automation. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2010;107: 461,468. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]