Cultivated Species (cultivated + species)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


GENETIC DIVERSITY AND INTROGRESSION IN TWO CULTIVATED SPECIES (PORPHYRA YEZOENSIS AND PORPHYRA TENERA) AND CLOSELY RELATED WILD SPECIES OF PORPHYRA (BANGIALES, RHODOPHYTA),

JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
Kyosuke Niwa
We investigated the genetic variations of the samples that were tentatively identified as two cultivated Porphyra species (Porphyra yezoensis Ueda and Porphyra tenera Kjellm.) from various natural populations in Japan using molecular analyses of plastid and nuclear DNA. From PCR-RFLP analyses using nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA and plastid RUBISCO spacer regions and phylogenetic analyses using plastid rbcL and nuclear ITS-1 rDNA sequences, our samples from natural populations of P. yezoensis and P. tenera showed remarkably higher genetic variations than found in strains that are currently used for cultivation. In addition, it is inferred that our samples contain four wild Porphyra species, and that three of the four species, containing Porphyra kinositae, are closely related to cultivated Porphyra species. Furthermore, our PCR-RFLP and molecular phylogenetic analyses using both the nuclear and plastid DNA demonstrated the occurrence of plastid introgression from P. yezoensis to P. tenera and suggested the possibility of plastid introgression from cultivated P. yezoensis to wild P. yezoensis. These results imply the importance of collecting and establishing more strains of cultivated Porphyra species and related wild species from natural populations as genetic resources for further improvement of cultivated Porphyra strains. [source]


PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSES, SENSORY EVALUATION AND POTENTIAL OF MINIMAL PROCESSING OF PEJIBAYE (BACTRIS GASIPAES) COMPARED TO MASCARENES PALMS

JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 2010
J. JOAS
ABSTRACT A palm species native of South America, pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes), was recently introduced in Reunion Island in an attempt to diversify its agriculture. Morphological analyses highlighted the agronomic advantages of pejibaye including a high weight-to-harvest-date ratio compared to three mascarenes palm species. Sensory analyses by a trained panel allowed the elaboration of sensory profiles of the four palms tested. Ranking test done by 120 consumers revealed that pejibaye was preferred to the Mascarenes palms at the 5% level of significance and triangle test showed that Acanthophoenix rubra (red palm), the most cultivated species for the local market, was significantly different from pejibaje at the 1% level. Phenolic profiles revealed that pejibaye differed from the other species by a peak absorbing at 272 nm and weak polyphenol oxidase activities. As no browning reaction was observed in fresh cut pejibaye, this palm could be used for minimal processing (local and export market). PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Sensorial characteristics of fresh hearts of palm are different of those of canned heart of palm, and fresh heart palms are generally preferred by consumers. However, the marketing of fresh palm is limited by the high level of oxidation of most of palm species. The high stability of pejibaye after cutting and its slow rate of oxidation offer the possibility of minimal processing, without special additives. So the packaging in wrapped trays of this palm, cut and stored at low temperature opens up new perspectives, ensuring sensorial quality of a "fresh" product with a shelf life allowing a controlled management of market supply. [source]


Tracing back seed and pollen flow within the crop,wild Beta vulgaris complex: genetic distinctiveness vs. hot spots of hybridization over a regional scale

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2004
Frédérique Viard
Abstract Hybrids between transgenic crops and wild relatives have been documented successfully in a wide range of cultivated species, having implications on conservation and biosafety management. Nonetheless, the magnitude and frequency of hybridization in the wild is still an open question, in particular when considering several populations at the landscape level. The Beta vulgaris complex provides an excellent biological model to tackle this issue. Weed beets contaminating sugar beet fields are expected to act as a relay between wild populations and crops and from crops-to-crops. In one major European sugar beet production area, nine wild populations and 12 weed populations were genetically characterized using cytoplasmic markers specific to the cultivated lines and nuclear microsatellite loci. A tremendous overall genetic differentiation between neighbouring wild and weed populations was depicted. However, genetic admixture analyses at the individual level revealed clear evidence for gene flow between wild and weed populations. In particular, one wild population displayed a high magnitude of nuclear genetic admixture, reinforced by direct seed flow as evidenced by cytoplasmic markers. Altogether, weed beets were shown to act as relay for gene flow between crops to wild populations and crops to crops by pollen and seeds at a landscape level. [source]


Biotechnology in Aquaculture: Transgenics and Polyploidy

COMPREHENSIVE REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND FOOD SAFETY, Issue 1 2007
Rosalee S. Rasmussen
ABSTRACT:, Although capture fisheries have experienced slow to stagnant growth in recent years, the world population has been increasing, with subsequent rises in demands for marine-based foods. One possibility for alleviating potential food shortages and price increases is through aquaculture, which has experienced rapid worldwide expansion. A major focus of research in the aquaculture industry is on the use of biotechnology to increase food availability and reduce production costs, specifically through the manipulation of the genes and chromosomes of cultivated species. Examples include transgenic fish with properties such as increased growth rates, feed conversion efficiency, disease resistance, cold tolerance, and improved metabolism of land-based plants. However, use of transgenic organisms in aquaculture is a very controversial topic due to a number of environmental and human health concerns such as escapement and introduction of genetically modified organisms into the food chain. In response, some transgenic research has also been focused on inducing sterility to reduce the risk of transgenic organisms breeding with wild species. A method of chromosome manipulation, referred to as polyploidy, provides the option of creating sterile organisms, some of which also exhibit increased growth rates. This review paper will discuss recent advances in biotechnology research, specifically in regards to the manipulation of genes and chromosomes, for enhanced cultivation of fish and invertebrates. Major environmental and human health concerns will also be addressed. [source]