Cultivated Potato (cultivated + potato)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The potato StLTPa7 gene displays a complex Ca2+ -associated pattern of expression during the early stage of potato,Ralstonia solanacearum interaction

SUMMARY Although nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are widely expressed during plant defence responses to pathogens, their functions and regulation are not fully understood. In this article, we report the isolation of a cDNA for the new nsLTP, StLTPa7, from cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) infected with Ralstonia solanacearum. The cDNA was predicted to encode a type 1 nsLTP containing an N-terminal signal sequence and possessing the characteristic features of nsLTPs. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the encoded amino acid sequence of the nsLTP was similar to those of other previously reported plant nsLTPs, which contain a putative calmodulin-binding site consisting of approximately 12 highly conserved amino acid residues. The expression of the StLTPa7 gene was studied during the early stages of potato,R. solanacearum interaction using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Northern analyses, and a complex calcium (Ca2+)-associated pattern of expression was observed with the following features: (i) transcripts of the StLTPa7 gene were systemically up-regulated by infection with R. solanacearum; (ii) the StLTPa7 gene was stimulated by salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, abscisic acid and Ca2+; (iii) qRT-PCR showed that, during the early stage of R. solanacearum infection, nsLTP transcripts accumulated over a time course that paralleled that of Ca2+ accumulation, detected using environmental scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectrometry; and (iv) the Ca2+ channel blocker, ruthenium red, partially blocked R. solanacearum -induced StLTPa7 expression. This report represents the first use of EDAX analysis to establish a synchrony between Ca2+ accumulation and nsLTP expression in response to potato,R. solanacearum interactions. Collectively, these results suggest that StLTPa7 may be a pathogen- and Ca2+ -responsive plant defence gene. [source]

Potato spindle tuber viroid: the simplicity paradox resolved?

SUMMARY Taxonomy: , Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) is the type species of the genus Posipiviroid, family Pospiviroidae. An absence of hammerhead ribozymes and the presence of a ,central conserved region' distinguish PSTVd and related viroids from members of a second viroid family, the Avsunviroidae. Physical properties: , Viroids are small, unencapsidated, circular, single-stranded RNA molecules which replicate autonomously when inoculated into host plants. Because viroids are non-protein-coding RNAs, designation of the more abundant, highly infectious polarity strand as the positive strand is arbitrary. PSTVd assumes a rod-like, highly structured conformation that is resistant to nuclease degradation in vitro. Naturally occurring sequence variants of PSTVd range in size from 356 to 361 nt. Hosts and symptoms: , The natural host range of PSTVd,cultivated potato, certain other Solanum spp., and avocado,appears to be quite limited. Foliar symptoms in potato are often obscure, and the severity of tuber symptoms (elongation with the appearance of prominent bud scales/eyebrows and growth cracks) depends on both temperature and length of infection. PSTVd has a broad experimental host range, especially among solanaceous species, and strains are classified as mild, intermediate or severe based upon the symptoms observed in sensitive tomato cultivars. These symptoms include shortening of internodes, petioles and mid-ribs, severe epinasty and wrinkling of the leaves, and necrosis of mid-ribs, petioles and stems. [source]

Mapping polygenes for tuber resistance to late blight in a diploid Solanum phureja × S. stenotomum hybrid population

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 4 2006
I. Simko
Abstract Potato tuber blight is a disease caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. Due to the significant economic impact of this disease, introgression of durable resistance into the cultivated potato is one of the top priorities of breeding programmes worldwide. Though numerous resistance loci against this devastating disease have already been mapped, most of the detected loci are contributing towards foliar resistance while specific information on tuber resistance is limited. To identify the genetic components of tuber resistance and its relationship to foliar resistance and plant maturity we have investigated the host-pathogen interaction in a segregating diploid hybrid Solanum phureja × S. stenotomum family. Mature tubers from this mapping family were inoculated with a sporangial suspension of P. infestans (US-8 clonal lineage) and evaluated for lesion expansion. No significant correlation was detected between late blight resistance in foliage and tubers, and between plant maturity and tuber resistance. Four chromosomal regions were significantly associated with tuber resistance to the disease. The largest effect was detected near the marker locus PSC (LOD 10.7) located on chromosome 10. This locus explained about 63% of the total phenotypic variation of the trait. The other three resistance-related loci were mapped on chromosomes 8 (GP1282, LOD 4.4), 6 (CP18, LOD 4.0) and 2 (CP157, LOD 3.8). None of the four tuber resistance loci coincides with the foliage resistance loci detected in this same family. Tuber blight resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosomes 2, 8 and 10 are distinct from the maturity QTLs and have an additive effect on tuber resistance. These results indicate that different genes are involved in foliar and tuber resistance to P. infestans in the present family and that some of the resistance genes might be associated with late maturity. [source]

Expression and promoter activity of the desiccation-specific Solanum tuberosum gene, StDS2

R. Dóczi
Abstract Environmental stresses induce the expression of several plant genes via multiple and cross-talking signalling pathways. Previously it was shown that ScDS2, a gene of the wild potato species, Solanum chacoense, is highly inducible by dehydration but not by abscisic acid (ABA), the mediator of many plant stress responses. Herein it is shown that ScDS2 -related genes are present in the cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum (StDS2) and also in the non-tuberizing Solanum species, Solanum brevidens (SbDS2). We show that expression of StDS2 is dehydration-specific, is not inducible by cold, heat, salt, hypoxia or oxidative stresses, and is independent of ABA. Signalling of StDS2 induction, however, is dependent on the synthesis of novel proteins because cycloheximide can block StDS2 expression. To analyse the promoter region of StDS2 a genomic library of Solanum tuberosum was established and 1140 and 498 bp regions of the StDS2 promoter were isolated. The promoter fragments were fused to the , -glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and tested in transgenic potato plants. Both promoter fragments were able to induce GUS activity in response to dehydration. This result suggests that drought-specific cis -elements are located within 498 bp upstream to the StDS2 coding sequence. [source]