Cult

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences


Selected Abstracts


STATUE, CULT AND REPRODUCTION

ART HISTORY, Issue 2 2006
MILETTE GAIFMAN
The article examines replications of Greek monuments of cult in the fifth and fourth centuries bce. It considers the process which allows a grand statue to be copied and analyses specific cases of replications of Phidias's Athena ,Partnenos' to demonstrate how an image of the god, which was not easily viewable at any time, could become an iconic emblem that was embedded in daily experience outside the realm of ritual. In addition to the ,Parthenos', the paper explores a literary text of the fourth century bce, Xenophon's account of his establishment of a sanctuary to Ephesian Artemis. By visually marking the propagation of the cult itself, replications of cult monuments in ancient Greece could be instrumental for the establishment of filial cults and the creation of cultic affiliations, a phenomenon in Greek religion which was inextricably bound up with the politics of pre-Roman classical antiquity. [source]


EXPENDING MULTIPLICITY: MONEY IN CUBAN IFÁ CULTS

THE JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, Issue 2 2005
Martin Holbraad
Countering the assumption that money acts as an agent of abstraction and ,disembedment', anthropologists tend to draw money into analogies with other objects of exchange, downplaying its uniquely quantitative nature. This article seeks to disentangle the association, implicit in this tendency, of quantity with abstraction. Focusing on the peculiar character of money as a ,purely multiple' object, the aim is to account for ,embeddedness' without bracketing quantity: what does quantity look like when it is not viewed as an abstract denominator? The question is explored with reference to Ifá, an Afro-Cuban diviner cult that takes monetary transactions as a cosmological premise. [source]


THE SOVIET WAR MEMORIAL IN TREPTOW, BERLIN,

GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW, Issue 2 2003
PAUL STANGL
ABSTRACT. The Soviet War Memorial in Treptow, Berlin, was an important emblem of political power and ideology during and after the cold war. Designed as the Soviet Union's premiere extraterritorial battlefield shrine, the site combines a veterans' cemetery with a large-scale memorial complex celebrating the Soviet victory in World War II. The monument was intended for use in Soviet military commemorative activity and became a key sacred space in the Cult of the Soviet War Dead, but its location in Berlin meant that it served other political purposes. By avoiding definitive statements on key issues the memorial attained a semantic flexibility that enabled it to remain a focal point of commemorative activity for decades. The memorial continues to play a part in contemporary Berlin, though the political overtones are now overshadowed by its role as a shrine to the war dead. [source]


The Urban Question as Cargo Cult: Opportunities for a New Urban Pedagogy

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF URBAN AND REGIONAL RESEARCH, Issue 3 2008
ROB SHIELDS
Abstract Urban research is unreflexive toward its object of study, the city, compromising its methodologies and theoretical capacity. This polemic draws on examples such as ,creative cities', which have been profiled and analysed for their local recipes for economic success. ,Global cities' have become stereotypes of a neoliberal form of the ,good life' to which much recent urban research is a handmaiden, a hegemonic knowledge project. These ,metro-poles' of value are a form of urban pedagogy that presents lesser local elites with lessons to be followed. A form of cargo cult theory suggests, build it and wealth will come , hence the symmetry of urban scholarship with the fad for city rankings in pop journalism. In contrast to neo-structural analyses of the global city, other research focuses too closely on regional geographies, local forces and urban affordances. A synthetic level of theory is proposed to bridge the divide which marks urban and regional studies. The ,urban' needs to be rediscovered as a central question. The urban is an object of theory and the city is a truth spot. The urban is more than infrastructure and bodies but an intangible good or ,virtuality' that requires an appropriate methodological toolkit. Résumé La recherche urbaine manque de réflexivitéà l'égard de son objet d'étude, la ville, ce qui compromet ses méthodologies et sa capacité théorique. Cette critique part d'exemples tels que les "villes créatives" dont on a établi le profil et l'analyse pour en déterminer les recettes locales de réussite économique. Les "villes planétaires" sont devenues des stéréotypes d'une forme néolibérale de la "bonne vie" au service de laquelle se met généralement la recherche urbaine, un projet de savoir hégémonique. Ces métro-pôles de valeur constituent une sorte de pédagogie urbaine qui expose aux moindres élites locales des leçons à suivre. Un genre de théorie du culte du cargo suggère qu'il suffit de construire pour voir la richesse arriver, d'où la symétrie entre les travaux de recherche urbaine et la mode pour les palmarès de villes dans le journalisme populaire. Contrairement aux analyses néo-structuralistes de la ville planétaire, d'autres études se consacrent de trop près aux géographies régionales, aux forces locales et aux affordances urbaines. Un niveau de théorie synthétique est proposé pour franchir la ligne de démarcation des études urbaines et régionales. Il faut redécouvrir "l'urbain" en tant que question centrale. L'urbain est un objet de théorie, la ville est un lieu de vérité. L'urbain est plus qu'une infrastructure et des entités, c'est un bien intangible, une "virtualité", qui nécessite un jeu d'outils méthodologiques approprié. [source]


The Aum Cult leader Asahara's mental deviation and its social relations

PSYCHIATRY AND CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCES, Issue 1 2006
HARUO AKIMOTO md
Abstract, This paper is a further discussion of the author's previous reports on the crimes committed by the Asahara-Aum Cult. First, the motivations of Asahara-Aum crimes, in particular those of murders, and their abnormality beyond the realm of criminology are ascertained. Second, psychopathology of the leader, Asahara, was considered, and it was assumed that Asahara was affected with the syndrome of pseudologia phantastica which was confirmed by his strange attitude during his trials. Third, the mental status of Asahara after the first trial was investigated, and some evidence was found that his mental status was so severe as to be ,unfit to plead' that psychiatric evaluation and treatment would be necessary. Fourth, the reasons for making people, in particular scientific elites, fascinated with Asahara and the Aum Cult were scrutinized and some clues were described. Finally, the problem that Aum has survived under the name of Aleph, how heavy capital punishment for Leader Asahara is appropriate, and that reparations for victims of Asahara-Aum crimes are urgent from the standpoint of social psychiatry, are discussed. [source]


Jewish Cult and Hellenistic Culture: Essays on the Jewish Encounter with Hellenism and Roman Rule , By John J. Collins

RELIGIOUS STUDIES REVIEW, Issue 2 2007
Fred W. Burnett
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Combating "Cults" and "Brainwashing" in the United States and Western Europe: A Comment on Richardson and Introvigne's Report

JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF RELIGION, Issue 2 2001
Thomas Robbins
The surge of harsh anti-cultism in parts of Europe may be generally contextualized in terms of recent spectacular violence involving new movements as well as globalization, which transplants esoteric, aggressive movements to societies with antithetical values. The notion of "brainwashing" as an anti-cult rationale was pioneered by American activists but is now more influential in continental Western Europe than in the United States due in part to the greater influence of secular humanism, the greater European tendency toward activist, paternalist government, the shock of the Solar Temple killings, American deference to religious "free exercise," and problems of national unity and cultural assimilation in Europe that enhance distrust of what are perceived as alien spiritual imports. Nevertheless, the legal climate regarding religious movements may conceivably become less favorable in the United States. In general the "brainwashing" controversy has been characterized by pervasive confusions of fact and interpretation and of process and outcome. [source]


Persecution of Indian Christians

DIALOG, Issue 2 2002
Monica Melanchthon
Christians are one among many minority religious groups in India that face "persecution.""Persecution" here relates to the unjust treatment of lower classes in the Hindu caste system; it is not only Christians that are persecuted, but all those who fall in the lower castes. Part of the animosity towards Christians, then, is due to the fact that many Christian schools have been built to educate the masses thereby upsetting the existing caste system; furthermore, Christianity preaches a classless gospel. Persecution of Christians in India takes place under the guise that Christian Missionaries are covertly trying to convert Hindu,Indian society to the western cult of individualism. Government propaganda, laws, and programs designed to thwart Christian efforts, feed off of this mentality. Unfortunately, there are certain Christian groups that feed off of the misery of people in an unjust caste,system, offering salvation through conversion. These groups do not help matters at all; in fact, they add fuel to the fire. [source]


COMPARING BALLOON DIAMETER ON PERFORMING ENDOSCOPIC PAPILLARY BALLOON DILATATION WITH ISOSORBIDE DINITRATE DRIP INFUSION FOR REMOVAL OF BILE DUCT STONES

DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 4 2004
Hiroshi Nakagawa
Background:, Endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation (EPBD) is one of the methods to remove bile duct stones. EPBD might preserve the function of the sphincter of Oddi despite the potential risk of acute pancreatitis. There are only a few reports of EPBD reducing the risk of acute pancreatitis and, at same time, preserving the function of the sphincter of Oddi. Methods:, We performed EPBD for bile duct stone removal in 60 patients using two balloons with different diameters. Patients were randomized to EPBD with a 6 mm balloon (n = 30) or an 8 mm balloon (n = 30). In both groups, isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) was infused in a rate of 5 mg/h while low pressure EPBD were being performed. The pressure of the sphincter of Oddi was observed before and after the EPBD procedures. Also, serum amylase level after EPBD was observed for both groups. Results:, Serum amylase level of the 6 mm group was signi,cantly higher than that of the 8 mm group (P < 0.05). Acute pancreatitis occurred in two patients ( 6.7%) in the 6 mm group whereas no case was observed for the 8 mm group. The rates of duct clearance were 93% in the 6 mm group and 100% in the 8 mm group. Stone removals were dif,cult in seven cases with 6 mm balloon dilatations due to the narrow ori,ces of the papilla. In the 6 mm group, there was no signi,cant difference between the basal sphincter of Oddi pressure (BSOP) and the phasic sphincter of Oddi pressure (PSOP) before and after EPBD. However in the 8 mm group, the BSOP observed after the EPBD procedure was signi,cantly higher than BSOP before the treatments. Within this group, BSOP values after EPBD were preserved by approximately 80% of the BSOP values before the treatments. In contrast, there was no signi,cant difference in PSOP before and after the treatments. Regarding the stone numbers, no signi,cant difference was observed in BSOP before and after the treatments for the 6 mm group with less than two stones. Also, as for stone size, no signi,cant difference was observed in BSOP before and after the treatments for the 6 mm group with stones of less than 6 mm in diameter. Conclusion:, We are now conducting EPBD with ISDN infusion using a 6 mm balloon for a patient who has less than two stones with size not exceeding 6 mm in diameter. An 8 mm balloon is used for a patient with more than two stones or a stone greater than 6 mm in size. [source]


The making of a minor saint in Drogo of Saint-Winnoc's Historia translationis s. Lewinnae

EARLY MEDIEVAL EUROPE, Issue 4 2008
David Defries
In 1058, the Flemish abbey of Saint-Winnoc stole St Lewinna's relics from a minster in southern England. The community worked to establish her cult in Flanders. Although scholars have focused on the material gain Saint-Winnoc probably hoped the cult would bring, this article argues that the development of the abbey's communal identity figured more prominently in its motives. The community saw Lewinna primarily as a means to help bolster its bid for independence from its mother house. [source]


Material memory: rebuilding the basilica of S. Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome

EARLY MEDIEVAL EUROPE, Issue 1 2007
Caroline J. Goodson
Examining Pope Paschal I's early ninth-century architectural project of S. Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome, brings to light the diversity of functions of tituli in early medieval Rome. Not only was the church a papal basilica and site of the stational liturgy of Rome, but it was also a shrine to the saint Cecilia, a popular Roman martyr. The architectural arrangement makes clear that the papal project incorporated both the papal cult and the popular cult of the saint by manipulating the archaeology of the site and translating corporeal relics to the urban church. [source]


The first two centuries of Saint Martin of Tours

EARLY MEDIEVAL EUROPE, Issue 2 2006
Allan Scott McKinley
This paper presents a critical examination of the evidence for the cult of St Martin in the fifth and sixth centuries. Through examination of the various manifestations of Martin's cult, it argues that the cult had different meanings and significance at different times and places, and that the commonly perceived popularity of Martin's cult was in fact an illusion created by the constant reinvention and promotion of various interpretations of Martin by interested parties, from aristocratic ascetics to politically active bishops. [source]


The ,vigorous rule' of Bishop Lull: between Bonifatian mission and Carolingian church control

EARLY MEDIEVAL EUROPE, Issue 3 2005
James Palmer
This paper argues that the reputation of St Boniface, one of the ,founders of Christian Europe', needs to be understood in relation to the career of Lull of Mainz, the saint's pupil and successor. It analyses Lull's literary, pastoral and missionary interests, as well as his political networks, to illustrate how he helped give form to the legends of Boniface and, in particular, Willibald's Vita Bonifatii and the Bonifatian letter collections. Study of the commemoration of Lull, principally in Mainz, Fulda, Hersfeld and Malmesbury, also reveals much about the ways Lull used the cult of Boniface to pursue a ,vigorous rule' over his flock in Mainz and in the process alienate many contemporaries. [source]


Scinditur in partes populus: Pope Damasus and the Martyrs of Rome

EARLY MEDIEVAL EUROPE, Issue 3 2000
Marianne Sághy
Pope Damasus (366,384) was the impresario of the late antique cult of the martyrs at Rome. Damasus celebrated the martyrs with epigrams written in Virgilian hexameters which he had engraved in exquisite lettering on their tombs. This article investigates the specifically Roman context of these activities as a means of shedding new light on Damasus' purposes. The enhancement of the cult of the Roman martyrs was more than a stage in the process of christianisation, creating Christian but still distinctively Roman holy patrons for the urbs. It was also directed against rival Christian traditions, including Nicene splinter groups such as the Ursinians and Luciferians who contested Damasus' election. The epi grams allowed Damasus to inscribe very specific and carefully shaped meanings on strategic and often contested sites within the Christian topography of Rome. By placing the Damasan epigrams in the context of a bloody ecclesiastical factionalism in Rome, this paper argues that these very public celebrations of the martyrs were used to promote concord and consensus within the Catholic community in Rome. [source]


The temptations of cult: Roman martyr piety in the age of Gregory the Great

EARLY MEDIEVAL EUROPE, Issue 3 2000
Conrad Leyser
Pope Gregory the Great (590,604) was arguably the most important Roman writer and civic leader of the early middle ages; the Roman martyrs were certainly the most important cult figures of the city. However modern scholarship on the relationship between Gregory and the Roman martyrs remains curiously underdeveloped, and has been principally devoted to comparison of the gesta martyrum with the stories of Italian holy men and women (in particular St Benedict) told by Gregory in his Dialogues; in the past generation the Dialogues have come to be understood as a polemic against the model of sanctity proposed by the Roman martyr narratives. This paper explores Gregory's role in the development of Roman martyr cult in the context of the immediate social world of Roman clerical politics of the sixth and seventh centuries. Gregory's authority as bishop of Rome was extremely precarious: the Roman clerical hierarchy with its well-developed protocols did not take kindly to the appearance of Gregory and his ascetic companions. In the conflict between Gregory and his followers, and their opponents, both sides used patronage of martyr cult to advance their cause. In spite of the political necessity of engaging in such ,competitive generosity', Gregory was also concerned to channel martyr devotion, urging contemplation on the moral achievements of the martyrs , which could be imitated in the present , as opposed to an aggressive and unrestrained piety focused on their death. Gregory's complex attitude to martyr cult needs to be differentiated from that which was developed over a century later, north of the Alps, by Carolingian readers and copyists of gesta martyrum and pilgrim guides, whose approach to the Roman martyrs was informed by Gregory's own posthumous reputation. [source]


Dating the Gesta martyrum: a manuscript-based approach

EARLY MEDIEVAL EUROPE, Issue 3 2000
Clare Pilsworth
The gesta martyrum are an anonymous and disparate group of texts celebrating saints venerated in early medieval Rome as having been martyred in that city. This paper investigates the problems involved in placing these texts in their early medieval contexts. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, when scholarship moved away from attempts to identify a core of authentic ancient tradition in these early medieval narratives, most work on the corpus has concentrated on dating the composition of the accounts of individual martyrs. Given the sparsity of absolute chronological markers through references or citations in other written sources, this has inevitably rested on circumstantial evidence and the reconstruction of probable contexts for the redaction of specific works. This paper argues that much new light can be shed on the development of the cult of Roman martyrs if we shift the focus of our investigation from the origin and composition of the Urtexts to the surviving manuscript witnesses , all bar one eighth century or later , and the complex process of transmission which they document. The earliest copies of gesta martyrum, in both legendaries and other manuscripts, reveal surprisingly diverse contexts of transmission. Detailed investigation of Vienna National bibliothek 357, which Dufourcq argued contains a copy of a collection of martyr-narratives available to Gregory the Great, shows that in fact this manuscript sheds light on interest in Roman martyrs north of the Alps in the late Carolingian period, and the networks of contact and communication through which information about the Roman martyrs was transmitted across time and space. [source]


Enjoying the saints in late antiquity

EARLY MEDIEVAL EUROPE, Issue 1 2000
Peter Brown
The discovery at Mainz by Fran,ois Dolbeau of a new collection of sermons of Augustine has enabled us to study, in far greater detail, the attitude of Augustine to the reform of the cult of the martyrs between 391 and 404. This study aims to understand Augustine's insistence on the need to imitate the martyrs against the background of his views on grace and the relation of such views to the growing differentiation of the Christian community. It also attempts to do justice to the views of those he criticized: others regarded the triumph of the martyrs over pain and death as a unique manifestation of the power of God, in which believers participated, not through imitation but through celebrations reminiscent of the joy of pagan festivals. In this debate, Augustine by no means had the last word. The article attempts to show the continuing tension between notions of the saints as imitable and inimitable figures in the early medieval period, and more briefly, by implication, in all later centuries. [source]


Sites and sanctity: revisiting the cult of murdered and martyred Anglo-Saxon royal saints

EARLY MEDIEVAL EUROPE, Issue 1 2000
Catherine Cubitt
The cults of the murdered and martyred royal saints of Anglo-Saxon England have been interpreted as political in origin and this view has received widespread acceptance. This article, which discusses the cults of the kings, Oswald, Oswiu and Edwin of Northumbria, and Edward the Martyr and those of the princes, Kenelm of Mercia and Æthelred and Æthelberht of Kent, puts forward a new interpretation, suggesting that their cults originated in lay and non-élite devotion to the innocent victims of unjust and violent death, before being taken up for political and other purposes. It addresses the problem of popular religion in Anglo-Saxon England and seeks to show how these cults may be used to shed light on the beliefs of the ordinary Anglo-Saxon laity. [source]


Flume experiments on the horizontal stream offset by strike-slip faults

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 2 2004
Shunji OuchiArticle first published online: 4 FEB 200
Abstract Flume experiments, in which the middle section of an erosion channel is displaced horizontally, have been conducted to assess the response of streams to horizontal displacement by a strike-slip fault. The experimental erosion channel was developed in a mixture of sand and clay, which provided relatively stable banks with its cohesiveness. Horizontal displacement of a strike-slip fault perpendicular to the channel is expected to add a ,at section to its longitudinal pro,le along the fault line. The experimental stream eliminated this ,at section with downstream degradation, upstream aggradation, and lateral channel shift. As a result, a roughly continuous longitudinal pro,le was maintained. This maintenance of a continuous longitudinal pro,le along channel is considered to be the principle of stream response to horizontal displacement by a strike-slip fault. Downstream degradation was the dominant process of this stream response in the overall tendency of erosion without sand supply. When the rate of fault displacement was low (long recurrence interval), the experimental stream eroded the fault surface, jutting laterally into the channel like a scarp, and de,ected the channel within the recurrence interval. This lateral channel shift gave some gradient to the reach created by fault displacement (offset reach), and the downstream degradation occurred as much as completing the remaining longitudinal pro,le adjustment. When the rate of fault displacement was high (short recurrence interval), the lateral erosion on the ,rst fault surface was interrupted by the next fault displacement. The displacement was then added incrementally to the existing channel offset making channel shift by lateral erosion increasingly dif,cult. The channel offset with sharp bends persisted without much modi,cation, and downstream degradation and upstream aggradation became evident with the effect of the offset channel course, which worked like a dam. In this case, a slight local convexity, which was incidentally formed by downstream degradation and upstream aggradation, tended to remain in the roughly continuous longitudinal pro,le, as long as the horizontal channel offset persisted. In either case, once the experimental stream obtained a roughly continuous gradient, further channel adjustment seemed to halt. Horizontal channel offset remained to a greater or lesser extent at the end of each run long after the last fault displacement. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Culture, Charisma, and Consciousness: The Case of the Rajneeshee

ETHOS, Issue 4 2002
Professor Charles Lindholm
This article outlines the basics of a theory of charisma drawn from a synthesis of the classic texts of Weber, Marx, and Freud. This abstract theoretical perspective is then applied to an analysis of the charismatic religious cult led by Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh. Emphasis is placed on the methods used to inculcate loyalty infollowers and on the personal history and psychic capacities of the leader. [source]


Territorial Behaviour and Communication in a Ritual Landscape

GEOGRAFISKA ANNALER SERIES B: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2001
Leif Sahlqvist
Landscape research in the last decade, in human geography as well as in anthropology and archaeology, has often been polarized, either according to traditional geographical methods or following the principles of a new, symbolically orientated discipline. This cross,disciplinary study in prehistoric Östergötland, Sweden, demonstrates the importance of using methods and approaches from both orientations in order to gain reasonable comprehension of landscape history and territorial structure. Funeral monuments as cognitive nodes in a prehistoric cultural landscape are demonstrated as to contain significant elements of astronomy, not unlike what has been discussed for native and prehistoric American cultures, e.g. Ancestral Pueblo. A locational analysis with measurements of distances and directions was essential in approaching this structure. A nearest neighbour method was used as a starting,point for a territorial discussion, indicating that the North European hundreds division could have its roots in Bronze Age (1700,500 BC) tribal territories, linked to barrows geographically interrelated in cardinal alignments. In the European Bronze Age faith and science, the religious and the profane, were integrated within the framework of a solar cult, probably closely connected with astronomy in a ritual landscape, organized according to cosmological ideas, associated with power and territoriality. Cosmographic expression of a similar kind was apparently used even earlier, as gallery,graves (stone cists) from the Late Neolithic (2300,1700 BC) in Östergötland are also geographically interrelated in cardinal alignments. [source]


The new economy: a cultural history

GLOBAL NETWORKS, Issue 3 2003
Orvar Löfgren
The focus is on the ways in which processes of culturalization became an important part of production, in such fields as e-commerce and ,the experience economy'. How was culture packaged and marketed in new ways, for example in the production of symbols, images, auras, experiences and events? I explore how the technologies of imagineering, performance, styling and design came to play important roles in this process. Other important traits of this development are discussed in a comparison with earlier examples of the emergence of ,new economies': the aesthetics and practices of speed, the cult of creativity, ,the catwalk economy' and the importance of public display and performance, as well as the importance of ,newness'. [source]


The Dilemma of "Authentic Self" Ideology in Contemporary Japan

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF JAPANESE SOCIOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
Michiko Maekawa
This paper examines dilemmas inherent in the pursuit of the modern ideology of "authentic self", which first emerged in the 1960s and is now widespread in contemporary cultures. The ideology is exemplified, in a religious scene, as "self-transformative" religions wherein seekers seek to transform themselves spiritually in order to realize their authentic, or "sacred" selves. Through an examination of Aum Shinrikyo, which began as a typical "self-transformative" religion but later transformed into a destructive cult, I will explain the intrinsic moral imperatives of the ideology of "authenticity". This study of Aum explores the introverted lifestyle and extreme desocialization, which resulted in obsession with the central guru, being legitimated by the ideology. This search for "authenticity" resulted in the members cutting themselves off from the reality of the world. The final analysis suggests that possible consequences of the endless pursuit of the "authentic self" are a "vacuum" self and a loss of empathy with other people. The ontological conditions created by this bring about potential destructiveness, either internal or external. [source]


Durkheim's theory of violence

INTERNATIONAL SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL, Issue 2006
Mike Gane
Emile Durkheim (1858,1917) developed a wide-ranging foundational sociology that has often been read as lacking a theory of politics, power and violence. This article argues that this view can be contested and outlines a reading of Durkheim's work that reveals that it places power and violence at the centre of its concerns through the concept of social energy. The discussion examines aspects of Durkheim's work on education, the family, gender, suicide, politics and war. It argues that Durkheim's theory centres on the way that social energies are produced and distributed. The heart of the theory suggests that in social development social energy can be centralised and concentrated in an absolute form, and as societies become more complex and institutionally balanced energies are dispersed towards the individual and this shift is the underlying cause for the move towards the cult of the individual and human rights. But this is not an inevitable progression as societies can experience tensions that shift social energies into tyrannical forms. [source]


Raising the dead: war, memory and American national identity,

NATIONS AND NATIONALISM, Issue 4 2005
Susan-Mary Grant
The dead, particularly the war dead, play a central role in the development of nationalism, nowhere more so than in America. America's mid-nineteenth century Civil War produced a recognisable and influential ,cult of the dead', comparable in its construction with similar developments in Europe following World War I. Focused on the figure of the fallen soldier, especially the volunteer soldier, this cult found physical expression in the development of national cemeteries devoted not just to the burial of those who fell in the war but to the idea of America as a nation, in the development of monuments to the dead that, again, reinforced the new national symbolism of the war era, and in the beginnings of Memorial Day, an American sacred ceremony with clear parallels with the later Armistice Day ceremonies in Europe. In all these developments, America preceded the European nations by several decades, making America a valuable case study for the role that the cult of the fallen soldier plays in national development more generally. [source]


PROCESSION AND SYMBOLISM AT TARA: ANALYSIS OF TECH MIDCHÚARTA (THE ,BANQUETING HALL') IN THE CONTEXT OF THE SACRAL CAMPUS

OXFORD JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
CONOR NEWMAN
Summary. New analysis explores Tech Midchúarta (the ,Banqueting Hall') from the point of view of a sacral, processional approach to the summit of the Hill of Tara, the pre-eminent cult and inauguration site of prehistoric and early medieval Ireland. It is suggested that aspects of its architectural form symbolize the liminal boundary between the human world and the Otherworld of Tara, and that in so far as Tech Midchúarta is also designed to control and manipulate how the ceremonial complex is disclosed to the observer, it assembles the existing monuments into one, integrated ceremonial campus. It is argued that Tech Midchúarta is one of the later monuments on the Hill of Tara and that it may date from the early medieval period. Using the evidence of documentary sources and extant monuments, a possible processional route from Tech Midchúarta to Ráith na Ríg is described. Immráidem fós Long na Láech frisanabar Barc Ban mbáeth. Tech na Fían, nirbo long lec, co cethri doirsib deac. Let us consider too the Hall of the Heroes which is called the Palace of Vain Women; the House of Warriors, it was no mean hall, with fourteen doors. (Gwynn 1903,35, Metrical Dindshenchas III, 18) [source]


Structural investigations of isomeric oxidised forms of hyperforin by HPLC-NMR and HPLC-MSn

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS, Issue 5 2003
J.-L. Wolfender
Abstract The prenylated phloroglucinol hyperforin, thought to be an essential component for the anti-depressant activity of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), is unstable. The facile oxidative degradation of hyperforin poses serious problems for standardisation, and may also dramatically affect the pharmacological activity of the extracts. Hyperforin was dissolved in hexane and stored at room temperature for 3 days and yielded various closely related degradation products which, although dif,cult to isolate on the preparative scale, have been analysed by on-,ow and stop-,ow HPLC-NMR and HPLC-MS/MS. From on-line spectroscopic data, and with the aid of complementary in-mixture standard NMR two-dimensional correlation experiments, the different oxidised forms of hyperforin were found to be phloroglucinol derivatives in which a hydroxy-dihydrofuran ring is formed involving the enol OH at C-7 or C-9 (tautomeric form) and the prenyl chain at C-8 of the core nucleus of hyperforin. The strategy followed for the on-line identi,cation of these constituents is discussed. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Narcissism: fragile bodies in a fragile world.

PSYCHOTHERAPY AND POLITICS INTERNATIONAL, Issue 3 2008
Part
Abstract In this two-part paper, we explore how, in Western society, intensified consumer culture, playing on feelings of shame and inadequacy, can be seen as reactivating the ,narcissistic wound' while the recent growth of information technology increasingly provides access to a global spectacle and a virtual world that offer an escape from reality, fuelling the illusion of immortality and invulnerability to physical/emotional needs. We ask who benefits from this culture of unrelatedness and disembodiment and what are the repercussions in terms of participation in social life and organized response to global issues. Using material from our practices and from social life, we seek to identify the collective cost of maintaining a disassociation that can permeate not only the therapeutic process but also work, personal relationships and events on the political stage. We consider a view of Bush as a narcissistic president in a narcissistic culture with the Iraq war as a narcissistic misadventure, and we present vignettes from the consulting room, Dance Movement Therapy work in Holloway Prison, and the academic world of prehistoric archaeology to show how narcissistic behaviours are embedded in many diverse situations in Western society. We ask how the concept of narcissism in our media age can help us understand phenomena such as the rise of fundamentalism; celebrity cult; insatiable aspirations to ,self-improvement'; obsession with ,success' and consumer goodies; the denial of ageing; the upsurge in cosmetic surgery, body modification and self-harm; as well as growing addiction to alcohol and hard drugs. Finally we ask, how do the narcissistic fantasy of self-sufficiency, the disavowal of loss and the denial of the ultimate non-discursive reality of death affect our ability to respond appropriately to human injustice and the fragility of our planet? Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Spirit possession, power, and the absent presence of Islam: re-viewing Les maîtres fous,

THE JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, Issue 4 2006
Paul Henley
In the history of ethnographic documentary, the late Jean Rouch's film Les maîtres fous is widely regarded as initiating a new phase in the development of the genre. It concerns the hauka spirit-possession cult of Songhay-Zerma migrants from the middle Niger river who had come to work in Accra, then the capital of the British colony of the Gold Coast, West Africa. When released in 1955, the film was both banned by the colonial authorities and simultaneously denounced by African intellectuals and leading French anthropologists. Since then it has gone through a progressive rehabilitation and today, some fifty years on, it is hailed in many sources as a remarkable counter-hegemonic representation of European colonialism in Africa. This article proposes a re-interpretation of Les maîtres fous, arguing that in order to defend the film against criticism, its counter-hegemonic features have been over-emphasized, thereby obscuring its continuity with other forms of Songhay-Zerma religious belief and practice. The article concludes with some brief reflections on the place of film in anthropology. [source]


EXPENDING MULTIPLICITY: MONEY IN CUBAN IFÁ CULTS

THE JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, Issue 2 2005
Martin Holbraad
Countering the assumption that money acts as an agent of abstraction and ,disembedment', anthropologists tend to draw money into analogies with other objects of exchange, downplaying its uniquely quantitative nature. This article seeks to disentangle the association, implicit in this tendency, of quantity with abstraction. Focusing on the peculiar character of money as a ,purely multiple' object, the aim is to account for ,embeddedness' without bracketing quantity: what does quantity look like when it is not viewed as an abstract denominator? The question is explored with reference to Ifá, an Afro-Cuban diviner cult that takes monetary transactions as a cosmological premise. [source]