Cue Reactivity (cue + reactivity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Cue reactivity as a predictor of outcome with bulimia nervosa

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 3 2002
Frances A. Carter
Abstract The present study sought to evaluate specific hypotheses concerning the relation between cue reactivity and outcome among women with bulimia nervosa. Participants were 135 women aged between 17 and 45 years with a current, primary diagnosis of bulimia nervosa who participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the additive efficacy of exposure and nonexposure-based behavior therapy, to a core of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Physiological, self-report, and behavioral measures of cue reactivity to individualized high-risk binge foods were obtained at pretreatment and posttreatment. Primary, secondary, and tertiary outcome measures are reported for posttreatment and six-month follow-up. Self-report measures of cue reactivity at posttreatment were significantly positively associated with symptomatology at posttreatment. Cue reactivity at posttreatment was significantly positively associated with symptomatology at 6-month follow-up. However, cue reactivity at posttreatment did not contribute to the prediction of outcome at follow-up over and above posttreatment outcome. The notion that pretreatment cue reactivity may predict which treatment modality will be most beneficial (exposure or nonexposure-based treatment), as measured by reductions in symptomatology at posttreatment could not be supported. Implications for future research are discussed. 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 31: 240,250, 2002; DOI 10.1002/eat.10041 [source]


CLINICAL STUDY: Predicting the effect of naltrexone and acamprosate in alcohol-dependent patients using genetic indicators

ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
Wendy Ooteman
ABSTRACT Acamprosate and naltrexone are effective medications in the treatment of alcoholism. However, effect sizes are modest. Pharmacogenomics may improve patient-treatment-matching and effect sizes. It is hypothesized that naltrexone exerts its effect through genetic characteristics associated with the dopaminergic/opioidergic positive reinforcement system, whereas acamprosate works through the glutamatergic/GABAergic negative reinforcement system. Alcohol-dependent subjects were randomly assigned to either acamprosate or naltrexone. Subjects participated in a cue-exposure experiment at the day before and at the last day of medication. Reductions in cue-induced craving and physiological cue reactivity were measured. Differential effects of naltrexone and acamprosate on these outcomes were tested for different polymorphisms of the opioid, dopamine, glutamate and GABA-receptors. Significant matching effects were found for polymorphisms at the DRD2, GABRA6 and GABRB2 gene. In addition, a trend was found for the OPRM1 polymorphism. This provides evidence for the matching potential of genotypes. It is expected that more effective treatments can be offered when genetic information is used in patient-treatment-matching. [source]


Prefrontal cortex activity is reduced in gambling and nongambling substance users during decision-making,

HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 12 2007
Jody Tanabe
Abstract Objective: Poor decision-making is a hallmark of addiction, whether to substances or activities. Performance on a widely used test of decision-making, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), can discriminate controls from persons with ventral medial frontal lesions, substance-dependence, and pathological gambling. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies indicate that substance-dependent individuals show altered prefrontal activity on the task. Here we adapted the IGT to an fMRI setting to test the hypothesis that defects in ventral medial and prefrontal processing are associated with impaired decisions that involve risk but may differ depending on whether substance dependence is comorbid with gambling problems. Method: 18 controls, 14 substance-dependent individuals (SD), and 16 SD with gambling problems (SDPG) underwent fMRI while performing a modified version of the IGT. Result: Group differences were observed in ventral medial frontal, right frontopolar, and superior frontal cortex during decision-making. Controls showed the greatest activity, followed by SDPG, followed by SD. Conclusion: Our results support a hypothesis that defects in ventral medial frontal processing lead to impaired decisions that involve risk. Reductions in right prefrontal activity during decision-making appear to be modulated by the presence of gambling problems and may reflect impaired working memory, stimulus reward valuation, or cue reactivity in substance-dependent individuals. Hum Brain Mapp, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Cue reactivity as a predictor of outcome with bulimia nervosa

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 3 2002
Frances A. Carter
Abstract The present study sought to evaluate specific hypotheses concerning the relation between cue reactivity and outcome among women with bulimia nervosa. Participants were 135 women aged between 17 and 45 years with a current, primary diagnosis of bulimia nervosa who participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the additive efficacy of exposure and nonexposure-based behavior therapy, to a core of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Physiological, self-report, and behavioral measures of cue reactivity to individualized high-risk binge foods were obtained at pretreatment and posttreatment. Primary, secondary, and tertiary outcome measures are reported for posttreatment and six-month follow-up. Self-report measures of cue reactivity at posttreatment were significantly positively associated with symptomatology at posttreatment. Cue reactivity at posttreatment was significantly positively associated with symptomatology at 6-month follow-up. However, cue reactivity at posttreatment did not contribute to the prediction of outcome at follow-up over and above posttreatment outcome. The notion that pretreatment cue reactivity may predict which treatment modality will be most beneficial (exposure or nonexposure-based treatment), as measured by reductions in symptomatology at posttreatment could not be supported. Implications for future research are discussed. 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 31: 240,250, 2002; DOI 10.1002/eat.10041 [source]


A Functional Polymorphism of the , -Opioid Receptor Gene (OPRM1) Influences Cue-Induced Craving for Alcohol in Male Heavy Drinkers

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2007
Esther Van Den Wildenberg
Background: The , -opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) codes for the , -opioid receptor, which binds , -endorphin. The A118G polymorphism in this gene affects , -endorphin binding such that the Asp40 variant (G allele) binds , -endorphin 3 times more tightly than the more common Asn40 variant (A allele). This study investigated the influence of the A118G polymorphism on cue reactivity after exposure to an alcoholic beverage in male heavy drinkers. Methods: Participants were either homozygous for the A allele (n=84) or carrying at least 1 copy of the G allele (n=24). All participants took part in a cue-reactivity paradigm where they were exposed to water and beer in 3-minute trials. The dependent variables of main interest were subjective craving for alcohol, subjective arousal, and saliva production. Results: G allele carriers reported significantly more craving for alcohol than the A allele participants (as indicated by the within-subject difference in craving after beer vs after water exposure). No differences were found for subjective arousal and saliva. Both groups did not differ in family history of alcoholism. Participants with the G allele reported a significantly higher lifetime prevalence of drug use than participants homozygous for the A allele. Conclusions: A stronger urge to drink alcohol after exposure to an alcoholic beverage might contribute to a heightened risk for developing alcohol-related problems in individuals with a copy of the G allele. The G allele might also predispose to drug use in general. [source]