Cucumber

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Cucumber

  • sea cucumber

  • Terms modified by Cucumber

  • cucumber leaf
  • cucumber mosaic virus
  • cucumber plant
  • cucumber root

  • Selected Abstracts


    PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIOCIN FROM WEISSELLA PARAMESENTEROIDES DFR-8, AN ISOLATE FROM CUCUMBER (CUCUMIS SATIVUS)

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 5 2010
    AJAY PAL
    ABSTRACT Bacteriocin from Weissella paramesenteroides DFR-8 isolated from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) was purified by using only two steps, viz., pH-mediated cell adsorption,desorption method and gel permeation chromatography. A single peak observed in the purity check by analytical Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (Waters 600 analytical HPLC system, Milford, MA) and a single band (molecular weight,3.74 kDa) shown on SDS-PAGE analysis strongly indicated the homogeneity of the bacteriocin preparation. Treatment with proteolytic enzymes abolished the antimicrobial activity indicating the proteinaceous nature of bacteriocin. The purified bacteriocin exhibited a broad inhibitory spectrum against foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms, including gram-negative bacteria such as Salmonella typhimurium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria monocytogenes. Response surface methodology was employed to study the interactive effect of temperature and pH on bacteriocin activity, and a regression equation was developed. The bacteriocin retained full activity after storage at,20C for 90 days, while partial and complete activity loss was observed when stored at 4 and 37C, respectively. PRACTICAL APPLICATION In recent years, bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria have gained much attention as food biopreservatives because of their origin from generally regarded as safe organisms. In spite of various bacteriocins studied worldwide, studies on bacteriocins of Weissella paramesenteroides remain rare. The present work involves the purification of bacteriocin up to absolute homogeneity from W. paramesenteroides, an isolate first time reported from cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The purified bacteriocin (molecular weight ,3.74 kDa) was found to inhibit a large number of foodborne pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, which is resistant to commercially available bacteriocin, i.e., nisin. The application of central composite rotatable design enabled us to design a regression equation from which the residual activity of bacteriocin can be predicted at any given conditions of temperature and pH within the experimental domain. The broad inhibitory spectrum and thermostability of bacteriocin suggest its potential application in food preservation. [source]


    THERMAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF BRINE FROM FERMENTED AND SULFITE-PRESERVED CUCUMBERS,

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 4 2002
    O.O. FASINA
    ABSTRACT Pickling cucumbers may be temporarily preserved by fermentation in brine (6,8% NaCl) or without fermentation in salt-free, sulfite solution (300 ppm sulfite, pH 3.5). Brines obtained from preservation processes are often discarded. Due to environmental concerns, there is increasing consideration for further use of the brine solutions by recycling for use in bulk storage or filtration and incorporation into finished products. Thermal and rheological properties are fundamental to the reuse of the brine. The effect of temperature was determined on the rheological (5,45C) and thermal properties (5,75C) of brine. The properties of the brine samples were found to be significantly different (P < 0.05) from each other and from water. Salt content was the most important factor affecting the thermal and rheological properties of brine. At the same conditions, the values of the properties (thermal conductivity, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity, viscosity) were about 5 to 23% less than the corresponding values for water. [source]


    The Effect of Diet on the Energy Budget of the Brown Sea Cucumber, Stichopus mollis (Hutton)

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 2 2009
    Kimberley H. Maxwell
    This study investigated the ability of the brown sea cucumber, Stichopus (Australostichopus) mollis, to grow on diets made from aquaculture waste. Weight-standardized rates (ingestion, assimilation, respiration, ammonia excretion, and fecal excretion) of small (juvenile), medium (mature), and large (mature) sea cucumbers were measured and energy budgets constructed to quantify their growth rates when offered three different diets at 14, 16, and 18 C. Three types of diet were offered: uneaten abalone food (diet A) and two types of abalone feces, one where abalone were fed 50% Macrocystis pyrifera and 50% Undaria pinnatifida macroalgae (diet B) and the other where abalone were fed 25% M. pyrifera, 25% U. pinnatifida, and 50% Adam & Amos Abalone Food, where the latter is an industry standard diet (diet C). The organic contents of the diets were much higher than natural sediments and varied such that diet A (76.40%) > diet B (54.50%) > diet C (37.00%). Diet had a significant effect on S. mollis ingestion rates, assimilation efficiencies, and consequently energy budgets and growth rates. Greater quantities of organic matter (OM) from diet A and diet B were ingested and assimilated by the sea cucumbers compared with the OM in diet C. The energy budgets indicated that after taking routine metabolism into account, all sizes of sea cucumbers had energy to allocate to growth when offered diet A and diet B, but only juveniles had energy to allocate to growth when offered diet C. Fecal excretion rates when offered diet A and diet C at 14 C were greater than those at 18 C, but neither was significantly different from that at 16 C. Ammonia excretion rates increased nonlinearly with temperature for small and medium sea cucumbers but not for large sea cucumbers. Weight-standardized respiration rates increased with temperature and unexpectedly with animal size, which may have been because of the narrow weight range of test animals biasing the results. These results suggest that industry standard type abalone waste lacks sufficient energy to meet the metabolic requirements of mature sea cucumbers but that growing juveniles on these wastes appears to be feasible and warrants further investigation. [source]


    Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers from an Enriched Genomic Library of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

    PLANT BREEDING, Issue 1 2008
    N. Watcharawongpaiboon
    Abstract The development, characterization and application of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) microsatellite markers was accomplished using a library-enrichment procedure. Fifty-seven primer pairs flanking the microsatellite repeats were used for DNA amplification. Sixteen C. sativus accessions were assessed for polymorphisms using 45 primer pairs. The average number of alleles per locus was 3.6, and up to seven alleles were found at one locus. The maximum polymorphism information content value was 0.78 with an average of 0.47. The cucumber microsatellite makers could be useful for seed purity control in hybridity testing. Some of these cucumber markers were transferable to other cucurbit species (i.e. melon, watermelon, pumpkin and bitter gourd). [source]


    FRUIT AND VEGETABLES: Cucumbers, South Africa

    AFRICA RESEARCH BULLETIN: ECONOMIC, FINANCIAL AND TECHNICAL SERIES, Issue 10 2009
    Article first published online: 27 NOV 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Reduction of Microflora of Whole Pickling Cucumbers by Blanching

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 8 2000
    F. Breidt
    ABSTRACT: There is increasing interest in developing methods to control the presence of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms on fresh fruits and vegetables. Blanching whole pickling cucumbers for 15 s at 80 C reduced microbial cell counts by 2 to 3 log cycles from an initial population of typically 106 CFU/g. Vegetative microorganisms survived this blanching process (10,fold greater in number than the spore count), presumably because they were located beneath the surface of the cucumber. The sensitivity to heat of selected populations was measured by determining D values for pooled microorganisms (termed D values) isolated from fresh cucumbers. The Enterobacteriaceae population and the total aerobic microflora had similar Dp values to each other and to the D value for a selected lactic acid bacterium. [source]


    Regulation of sperm flagellar motility activation and chemotaxis caused by egg-derived substance(s) in sea cucumber

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 4 2009
    Masaya Morita
    Abstract The sea cucumber Holothuria atra is a broadcast spawner. Among broadcast spawners, fertilization occurs by means of an egg-derived substance(s) that induces sperm flagellar motility activation and chemotaxis. Holothuria atra sperm were quiescent in seawater, but exhibited flagellar motility activation near eggs with chorion (intact eggs). In addition, they moved in a helical motion toward intact eggs as well as a capillary filled with the water layer of the egg extracts, suggesting that an egg-derived compound(s) causes motility activation and chemotaxis. Furthermore, demembranated sperm flagella were reactivated in high pH (>7.8) solution without cAMP, and a phosphorylation assay using (,-32P)ATP showed that axonemal protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation also occurred in a pH-dependent manner. These results suggest that the activation of sperm motility in holothurians is controlled by pH-sensitive changes in axonemal protein phosphorylation. Ca2+ concentration affected the swimming trajectory of demembranated sperm, indicating that Ca2+ -binding proteins present at the flagella may be associated with regulation of flagellar waveform. Moreover, the phosphorylation states of several axonemal proteins were Ca2+ -sensitive, indicating that Ca2+ impacts both kinase and phosphatase activities. In addition, in vivo sperm protein phosphorylation occurred after treatment with a water-soluble egg extract. Our results suggest that one or more egg-derived compounds activate motility and subsequent chemotactic behavior via Ca2+ -sensitive flagellar protein phosphorylation. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Sound production in two carapids (Carapus acus and C. mourlani) and through the sea cucumber tegument

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2 2006
    Eric Parmentier
    Abstract Parmentier, E., Fine, M., Vandewalle, P., Ducamp, J.-J. and Lagardre, J.-P. 2006. Sound production in two carapids (Carapus acus and C. mourlani) and throught the sea cucumber teguments. ,Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 87: 113,119 Carapus acus and Carapus mourlani are able to live inside sea cucumbers and sea stars respectively. Unlike other carapids whose sounds have been recorded (C. boraborensis, C. homei and Encheliophis gracilis), these two species have a central constriction in their swimbladder and are unlikely to encounter heterospecific carapids within their hosts. We evoked sound production in Carapus acus and Carapus mourlani by adding several individuals to a tank with a single host and found that their sounds differ substantially from the sounds emitted by other carapids in pulse length, peak frequency and sharpness of tuning (Q3 dB). Unlike the other carapids, C. mourlani and C. acus produce shorter and less repetitive sounds and do not produce sounds when they enter their host. Since sounds produced within a sea cucumber have the potential to be heard by distant carapids and are typically recorded outside the sea cucumber, we examined the effect of the sea cucumber tegument on acoustic transmission. Attenuation by the tegument was negligible at the frequencies within carapid sounds. Therefore, carapids have the potential to call from the relative safety of a sea cucumber without sacrificing the distance over which their transmissions are heard. [source]


    Application of Toxkit microbiotests for toxicity assessment in soil and compost

    ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY, Issue 4 2004
    L. Dubova
    Abstract The potential of Toxkit microbiotests to detect and analyze pollution in agricultural soil and the quality of compost was studied. The toxicity tests used included seed germination biotests using cress salad (Lepidum sativum L.), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.), and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and the Toxkit microbiotests included those with microalgae (Selenastrum capricornutum), protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila), crustaceans (Daphnia magna, Thamnocephalus platyurus, and Heterocypris incongruens), and rotifers (Brachionus calyciflorus). Experiments on compost were undertaken in a modified solid-state fermentation system (SSF) and under field conditions (in a windrow). To promote the composting process, two strains of Trichoderma (Trichoderma lignorum and Trichoderma viride), as well as a nitrification association that regulated the nitrogen-ammonification and nitrification processes were applied. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 19: 274,279, 2004. [source]


    Effects of functionalized and nonfunctionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes on root elongation of select crop species,,

    ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 9 2008
    Jaclyn E. Caas
    Abstract Single-walled carbon nanotubes have many potential beneficial uses, with additional applications constantly being investigated. Their unique properties, however, create a potential concern regarding toxicity, not only in humans and animals but also in plants. To help develop protocols to determine the effects of nanotubes on plants, we conducted a pilot study on the effects of functionalized and nonfunctionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes on root elongation of six crop species (cabbage, carrot, cucumber, lettuce, onion, and tomato) routinely used in phytotoxicity testing. Nanotubes were functionalized with poly-3-aminoben-zenesulfonic acid. Root growth was measured at 0, 24, and 48 h following exposure. Scanning-electron microscopy was used to evaluate potential uptake of carbon nanotubes and to observe the interaction of nanotubes with the root surface. In general, nonfunctionalized carbon nanotubes affected root length more than functionalized nanotubes. Nonfunctionalized nanotubes inhibited root elongation in tomato and enhanced root elongation in onion and cucumber. Functionalized nanotubes inhibited root elongation in lettuce. Cabbage and carrots were not affected by either form of nanotubes. Effects observed following exposure to carbon nanotubes tended to be more pronounced at 24 h than at 48 h. Microscopy images showed the presence of nanotube sheets on the root surfaces, but no visible uptake of nanotubes was observed. [source]


    Uptake and translocation of p,p,-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene supplied in hydroponics solution to Cucurbita

    ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 12 2007
    Martin P. N. Gent
    Abstract Field studies show shoots of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) accumulate various hydrophobic contaminants from soil, although many other plants do not, including cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). To investigate the mechanism for this uptake, we presented p,p,-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) to these two species in hydroponics solution. A mixture of DDE bound to Tenax beads stirred with a solution of water passing through a reservoir provided a flowing solution containing DDE at approximately 2 ,g/L for many weeks duration. Approximately 90% of the DDE supplied in solution was adsorbed on the roots of both cucumber and zucchini. Less than 10% of the sorbed DDE was released subsequently when clean solution flowed past these contaminated roots for 9 d. The shoots of both species accumulated DDE, but the fraction that moved from the roots to the shoot in zucchini, ranging from 6 to 27% in various trials, was 10-fold greater than that in cucumber, 0.7 to 2%. The gradient in DDE concentration in zucchini tissues was in the order root > stem > petiole > leaf blade, indicating the movement was through the xylem in the transpiration stream. Some DDE in leaf blades might have been absorbed from the air, because the concentration in this tissue varied less with time, position in trough, or species, than did DDE in stems and petioles. The remarkable ability of zucchini to translocate DDE could not be attributed to differences in tissue composition, growth rate, distribution of weight among plant parts, or in the leaf area and rate of transpiration of water from leaves. Some other factor enables efficient translocation of hydrophobic organic contaminants in the xylem of zucchini. [source]


    Viruses of vegetable crops in Albania

    EPPO BULLETIN, Issue 3 2005
    M. Finetti-Sialer
    Field surveys were carried out in the main vegetable-growing areas of Western and Central Albania to evaluate the sanitary status of open-field and protected cultivations of capsicum, tomato, potato, watermelon, cucumber, courgette, aubergine, lettuce, cabbage, chicory, leek and celery. The following viruses were detected: Alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus (AMV), Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV), Potato Y potyvirus (PVY), Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) and Watermelon mosaic potyvirus 2 (WMV-2). The virus found most frequently was CMV and all the isolates identified were of subgroup IA. AMV was also detected in several areas and all isolates were of subgroup II, suggesting a French origin. Finally, at the time of this survey, TSWV infections appeared to be moderately relevant and absent in protected crops. This is the first documented record of AMV, CMV, PVY, TSWV and WMV-2 in Albania. No infection by Tomato yellow leaf curl begomovirus (TYLCV) or Zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (ZYMV) was detected during this survey. [source]


    Bemisia tabaci in Croatia

    EPPO BULLETIN, Issue 1 2002
    T. Masten
    Bemisia tabaci was reported for the first time in the Mediterranean part of Croatia in 2000. It was found in glasshouses in the agricultural area between the towns of Trogir and Omis, on the following crops: Euphorbia pulcherrima, Thunbergia grandiflora, Cucumis sativus (cucumber), Solanum melongena (aubergine), Phaseolus spp. (beans), Ficus carica (fig), Rubus spp. and several weeds of the families Asteraceae and Solanaceae. In 2001, monitoring for the pest was organized all over the country, in each of the 21 counties. In each county, there were several monitoring points so that all the major vegetable and flower producers were included. A special effort was made to record the spread of B. tabaci in the region where it was first found, bearing in mind that optimal conditions for outdoor spread exist along the Adriatic coast. Yellow sticky traps and visual inspection are used to monitor for B. tabaci. Eradication measures are being applied, and regulatory measures have been taken to prevent further spread of B. tabaci to continental parts of Croatia. [source]


    Genetic variation among Fusarium oxysporum isolates from cucumber

    EPPO BULLETIN, Issue 2 2000
    D. J. Vakalounakis
    Isolates of Fusarium oxysporum obtained from cucumber worldwide were classified into 3 groups by random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). All isolates of f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum fall into one group. Isolates of races 1 and 2 of f. sp. cucumerinum fall into a second group related to isolates of f. sp. melonis and niveum. Isolates of race 3 fall into a third group, related to f. sp. momordicae. Because f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum has relatively recently been introduced into Greece, where it is actively spreading and very damaging, RAPD-PCR may be valuable in monitoring populations of F. oxysporum. [source]


    Tospoviruses infecting vegetable crops in Israel

    EPPO BULLETIN, Issue 2 2000
    A. Gera
    Symptoms of vein clearing, stem necrosis, curling, necrotic spots and rings on the leaves associated with infection by tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) were documented among vegetable crops growing in commercial glasshouses and open fields in Israel. Plants exhibiting symptoms were collected, from 1994-01 to 1998-12. Among cultivated vegetable crops analysed for TSWV by ELISA, the following plants were found to be infected: tomato, capsicum, aubergine, lettuce, cabbage and cucumber. These incidences of the virus were all correlated with the occurrence in high population of Frankliniella occidentalis. Transmission of the virus from infected Datura stramonium to Petunia leaf discs, by F. occidentalis, was up to 26%. TSWV antigens were readily detected by ELISA in seeds harvested from naturally infected vegetable crops. However, we failed to show virus transmission to the progeny plants. Iris yellow spot tospovirus (IYSV) was detected in onion. High incidence of the disease was associated with large populations of Thrips tabaci. [source]


    Understanding pressures on fishery resources through trade statistics: a pilot study of four products in the Chinese dried seafood market

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 1 2004
    Shelley Clarke
    Abstract This study investigates the dried seafood trade, centred in Chinese markets, in order to better understand the pressures its demand exerts on global marine resource stocks. Using Hong Kong, the region's largest entrept, as a focal point, the trade in shark fins, abalone, bche-de-mer and dried fish is characterized in terms of product history, volume, source fisheries and species composition. Trends identified in the Hong Kong market are interpreted in the context of the larger Chinese market. Shark fin imports grew 6% per year between 1991 and 2000, most likely because of market expansion in Mainland China, posing increasingly greater pressures on global shark resources. In contrast, the quantities of dried abalone traded through Hong Kong remained steady, but inferences based on this trend are discouraged by suggestions of increasing preferences for fresh product forms and growing domestic production in Mainland China. Hong Kong's imports of dried bche-de-mer (sea cucumber) have decreased, while the percentage of imports re-exported has remained steady, suggesting that Hong Kong continues as an entrept for Mainland China despite declining domestic consumption. Few conclusions can be drawn regarding dried fish products, including whole fish and fish maws, because of a lack of product differentiation in customs data, but a market survey was conducted to provide information on species composition. Comparison of Hong Kong dried seafood trade statistics to those of other key trading partners indicates that, in general, Hong Kong's duty-free status appears to encourage more accurate reporting of traded quantities. Under-reporting biases ranged from 24 to 49% for shark fin and bche-de-mer, respectively. Comparison to United Nations (UN) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) databases indicates additional under-reporting for shark fin such that an alternative minimum estimate of world trade is at least twice the FAO estimates in 1998,2000. The results of a survey of Hong Kong traders provide insight into their attitudes toward harvest, economic and regulatory factors, and suggest that conservation efforts are unlikely to emerge from, or be actively supported by, dried seafood trade organizations. The market's apparent sensitivity to economic sentiment, however, reveals an opportunity for consumer education to play a role in shaping future market growth and resource conservation. Recommendations are provided for improving trade statistics and for developing better analytical techniques to complement traditional methods for monitoring the exploitation and management of fisheries resources. [source]


    Poor host plant quality causes omnivore to consume predator eggs

    JOURNAL OF ANIMAL ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
    Arne Janssen
    Summary 1Omnivorous arthropods are known to change their diet when host plant quality is low. Consequently, it has been suggested that decreased plant quality has a twofold negative effect on herbivore populations: (1) a decrease in growth rate of herbivores; (2) omnivores include more herbivores in their diet. We hypothesized that decreased host plant quality may also cause omnivores to feed on predators, including their own enemies. 2We tested this hypothesis, using the omnivorous western flower thrips. This species is known to feed on many plant species, but also on the eggs of another herbivore, the two-spotted spider mite. Previous research has shown that a decrease in plant quality leads to increased feeding on spider mite eggs by western flower thrips. Western flower thrips also kill the eggs of various predatory mites, including those of the specialist predator of spider mites and those of a predatory mite that attacks western flower thrips itself. 3In this paper we investigate whether thrips larvae kill predator eggs to feed on them and whether this predation depends on host plant quality. 4Larval survival as well as developmental rate increased when plant tissue of low quality (sweet pepper) was supplemented with eggs of two predatory mite species or when it was supplemented with pollen, a high-quality food type. 5Supplementing high quality leaf tissue (cucumber) with predator eggs did not lead to increased survival and developmental rate. Thrips larvae fed significantly less on predatory mite eggs when pollen was available. 6Thus, thrips larvae indeed feed on predator eggs, including those of their predator, and they feed more on predator eggs when host plants are of low quality. [source]


    Effect of temperature and host stage on performance of Aphelinus varipes Frster (Hym., Aphelinidae) parasitizing the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hom., Aphididae)

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 10 2002
    O. Rhne
    Development time, mummification, pupal mortality, host feeding and sex ratio of a Norwegian strain of Aphelinus varipes Frster parasitizing the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover were studied at 20, 25 and 30C in controlled climate cabinets. Petri dishes with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L) leaves on agar were used as experimental units. Cotton aphids in different larval instars and as adults, reared at the three different temperatures, were presented to A. varipes in a `no-choice' situation for 6 h. These presentations were done at 25C in each experiment to avoid an influence of temperature on parasitization rate. More first instar aphids were parasitized than third and fourth instars among the aphids reared at 20C. Pupal mortality of the parasitoid was not influenced by temperature. It was lower in aphids parasitized as adults than in aphids parasitized in second instar. The sex ratio of A. varipes was female-biased, and varied between 92% females developed from aphids reared at 25C and 70% from aphids reared at 20C. The sex ratio was not significantly influenced by host stage. The development time of A. varipes ranged from 17.5 days at 20C to 9.8 days at 30C. [source]


    Functional, genetic and chemical characterization of biosurfactants produced by plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida 267

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Marco Kruijt
    Abstract Aims:, Plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida strain 267, originally isolated from the rhizosphere of black pepper, produces biosurfactants that cause lysis of zoospores of the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici. The biosurfactants were characterized, the biosynthesis gene(s) partially identified, and their role in control of Phytophthora damping-off of cucumber evaluated. Methods and Results:, The biosurfactants were shown to lyse zoospores of Phy. capsici and inhibit growth of the fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani. In vitro assays further showed that the biosurfactants of strain 267 are essential in swarming motility and biofilm formation. In spite of the zoosporicidal activity, the biosurfactants did not play a significant role in control of Phytophthora damping-off of cucumber, since both wild type strain 267 and its biosurfactant-deficient mutant were equally effective, and addition of the biosurfactants did not provide control. Genetic characterization revealed that surfactant biosynthesis in strain 267 is governed by homologues of PsoA and PsoB, two nonribosomal peptide synthetases involved in production of the cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) putisolvin I and II. The structural relatedness of the biosurfactants of strain 267 to putisolvins I and II was supported by LC-MS and MS-MS analyses. Conclusions:, The biosurfactants produced by Ps. putida 267 were identified as putisolvin-like CLPs; they are essential in swarming motility and biofilm formation, and have zoosporicidal and antifungal activities. Strain 267 provides excellent biocontrol activity against Phytophthora damping-off of cucumber, but the lipopeptide surfactants are not involved in disease suppression. Significance and Impact of the Study:,Pseudomonas putida 267 suppresses Phy. capsici damping-off of cucumber and provides a potential supplementary strategy to control this economically important oomycete pathogen. The putisolvin-like biosurfactants exhibit zoosporicidal and antifungal activities, yet they do not contribute to biocontrol of Phy. capsici and colonization of cucumber roots by Ps. putida 267. These results suggest that Ps. putida 267 employs other, yet uncharacterized, mechanisms to suppress Phy. capsici. [source]


    Plant growth promotion and biological control of Pythium aphanidermatum, a pathogen of cucumber, by endophytic actinomycetes

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    K.A. El-Tarabily
    Abstract Aims:, To evaluate the potential of Actinoplanes campanulatus, Micromonospora chalcea and Streptomyces spiralis endophytic in cucumber roots, to promote plant growth and to protect seedlings and mature plants of cucumber from diseases caused by Pythium aphanidermatum, under greenhouse conditions. Methods and Results:, Three endophytic isolates, out of 29, were selected through tests aimed at understanding their mechanisms of action as biocontrol agents and plant growth promoters. When applied individually or in combination, they significantly promoted plant growth and reduced damping-off and crown and root rot of cucumber. The combination of the three isolates resulted in significantly better suppression of diseases and plant growth promotion, than where the plants were exposed to individual strains. Conclusions:, The three selected actinomycete isolates colonized cucumber roots endophytically for 8 weeks, promoted plant growth and suppressed pathogenic activities of P. aphanidermatum on seedling and mature cucumber plants. Significance and Impact of the Study:, The results clearly show that the endophytic, glucanase-producing actinomycetes used, especially as a combined treatment, could replace metalaxyl, which is the currently recommended fungicide for Pythium diseases in the United Arab Emirates. These endophytic isolates also have the potential to perform as plant growth promoters, which is a useful attribute for crop production in nutrient impoverished soils. [source]


    PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIOCIN FROM WEISSELLA PARAMESENTEROIDES DFR-8, AN ISOLATE FROM CUCUMBER (CUCUMIS SATIVUS)

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 5 2010
    AJAY PAL
    ABSTRACT Bacteriocin from Weissella paramesenteroides DFR-8 isolated from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) was purified by using only two steps, viz., pH-mediated cell adsorption,desorption method and gel permeation chromatography. A single peak observed in the purity check by analytical Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (Waters 600 analytical HPLC system, Milford, MA) and a single band (molecular weight,3.74 kDa) shown on SDS-PAGE analysis strongly indicated the homogeneity of the bacteriocin preparation. Treatment with proteolytic enzymes abolished the antimicrobial activity indicating the proteinaceous nature of bacteriocin. The purified bacteriocin exhibited a broad inhibitory spectrum against foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms, including gram-negative bacteria such as Salmonella typhimurium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria monocytogenes. Response surface methodology was employed to study the interactive effect of temperature and pH on bacteriocin activity, and a regression equation was developed. The bacteriocin retained full activity after storage at,20C for 90 days, while partial and complete activity loss was observed when stored at 4 and 37C, respectively. PRACTICAL APPLICATION In recent years, bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria have gained much attention as food biopreservatives because of their origin from generally regarded as safe organisms. In spite of various bacteriocins studied worldwide, studies on bacteriocins of Weissella paramesenteroides remain rare. The present work involves the purification of bacteriocin up to absolute homogeneity from W. paramesenteroides, an isolate first time reported from cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The purified bacteriocin (molecular weight ,3.74 kDa) was found to inhibit a large number of foodborne pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, which is resistant to commercially available bacteriocin, i.e., nisin. The application of central composite rotatable design enabled us to design a regression equation from which the residual activity of bacteriocin can be predicted at any given conditions of temperature and pH within the experimental domain. The broad inhibitory spectrum and thermostability of bacteriocin suggest its potential application in food preservation. [source]


    Reduction of Microflora of Whole Pickling Cucumbers by Blanching

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 8 2000
    F. Breidt
    ABSTRACT: There is increasing interest in developing methods to control the presence of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms on fresh fruits and vegetables. Blanching whole pickling cucumbers for 15 s at 80 C reduced microbial cell counts by 2 to 3 log cycles from an initial population of typically 106 CFU/g. Vegetative microorganisms survived this blanching process (10,fold greater in number than the spore count), presumably because they were located beneath the surface of the cucumber. The sensitivity to heat of selected populations was measured by determining D values for pooled microorganisms (termed D values) isolated from fresh cucumbers. The Enterobacteriaceae population and the total aerobic microflora had similar Dp values to each other and to the D value for a selected lactic acid bacterium. [source]


    Expression of a High Mobility Group Protein Isolated from Cucumis sativus Affects the Germination of Arabidopsis thaliana under Abiotic Stress Conditions

    JOURNAL OF INTEGRATIVE PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
    Ji Young Jang
    Abstract Although high mobility group B (HMGB) proteins have been identified from a variety of plant species, their importance and functional roles in plant responses to changing environmental conditions are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the functional roles of a CsHMGB isolated from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in plant responses to environmental stimuli. Under normal growth conditions or when subjected to cold stress, no differences in plant growth were found between the wild-type and transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing CsHMGB. By contrast, the transgenic Arabidopsis plants displayed retarded germination compared with the wild-type plants when grown under high salt or dehydration stress conditions. Germination of the transgenic plants was delayed by the addition of abscisic acid (ABA), implying that CsHMGB affects germination through an ABA-dependent way. The expression of CsHMGB had affected only the germination stage, and CsHMGB did not affect the seedling growth of the transgenic plants under the stress conditions. The transcript levels of several germination-responsive genes were modulated by the expression of CsHMGB in Arabidopsis. Taken together, these results suggest that ectopic expression of a CsHMGB in Arabidopsis modulates the expression of several germination-responsive genes, and thereby affects the germination of Arabidopsis plants under different stress conditions. [source]


    Endopeptidase Isoenzyme Characteristics in Cucumis sativus Leaves During Dark-induced Senescence

    JOURNAL OF INTEGRATIVE PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
    Peng Zhang
    Abstract The changes and characteristics of endopeptidase (EP) isoenzymes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves during dark-induced senescence were investigated by activity staining after gradient-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (G-PAGE) containing co-polymerized gelatin as substrate. The results showed that both the chlorophyll and the protein contents of leaves were decreased, and the protein degradation was correlated with the increase of proteolytic activity during the course of leaf senescence. Meanwhile, nine cucumber endopeptidases isoenzymes (CEP) with 140, 120, 106, 94, 76, 55, 46, 39 and 35 kDa molecular weights were detected. Four of these, CEP2, 3, 4 and CEP9 appeared all the time, but the changes of the activity were different during incubation. Another four CEPs (CEP5, 6, 7 and CEP8) whose activities increased with dark-induced time were only detected in senescent leaves. Furthermore, the biochemical properties of these nine CEP were also characterized. All the CEPs had high activities from 35 C to 45 C, and the optimum temperature was found to be 40 C. However, the activities of CEPs were not detected below 25 C or over 60 C. The activity bands appeared at a wide range of pH from 5.0 to 9.0, but the optimum pH was found at 7.0. No CEPs were detected at pH 4 or pH 10. By inhibition analysis we concluded that CEP2, 3, 4 and CEP9 were serine endopeptidases and CEP6 was a kind of cysteine protease. It is suggested that serine endopeptidases might play a major role in cucumber leaf senescence, and for the first time, six senescence-related endopeptidases (CEP1, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9) were found in cucumber leaves. [source]


    Identification of Botrytis spp. on Plants Grown in Iran

    JOURNAL OF PHYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    S. Mirzaei
    Abstract A total of 363 isolates were collected from all over Iran. They were isolated from apple, arum lily, briar rose, bride wort, broad bean, camellia, canola, carnation, cucumber, egg plant, feijoa, geranium, gerbera, gladiolus, grape, guilder rose, hibiscus, iris, kiwifruit, oleander, onion, orange, pear, pomegranate, primrose, quince, redbud, robinia, rose, rubber plant, sow thiste, spathe flower, strawberry, tomato, violet, wall flower and wheat. To identify the species, morphological characters such as conidiophore length, conidial and sclerotial dimensions were measured. According to morphological and cultural characters, eight Botrytis species were identified: B. aclada sensu lato, B. cinerea, B. fabae, B. convoluta, B. gladiolorum, B. paeoniae, B. pelargonii and B. porri. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of the last five species from Iran. These species were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using necrosis and ethylene-inducing protein (NEP2) and C729 primers. A 835 bp band was amplified in B. cinerea, B. fabae and B. pelargonii, using NEP2, but not in others. However, C729 primers amplified a 700 bp band in B. cinerea and B. pelargonii and a 600 bp in B. fabae. [source]


    Melatonin applied to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seeds improves germination during chilling stress

    JOURNAL OF PINEAL RESEARCH, Issue 2 2009
    gorzata M. Posmyk
    Abstract:, The relationship between germination and melatonin applied during osmo- and hydropriming was studied in cucumber seeds. The proportion of nuclei with different DNA contents, the mean ploidy and the (2C + 4C = 8C)/2C ratio in unprimed and primed, dry and imbibed at 10C seeds were established by flow cytometry. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein oxidation were also estimated. Melatonin and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentrations in the seeds were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Being sensitive to chilling stress, seeds that germinated well (99%) at 25C showed only 30% germination at 15C, and almost no germination (4%) at 10C. Hydropriming in water improved seed germination to 50,60% at 15C and the addition of melatonin (25,100 m) also increased the rate of germination. Osmopriming in polyethylene glycol increased germination at 15C to 78%, and 98% when combined with 50 m melatonin. Osmoprimed seeds germinated even at 10C and reached 43%, and 83% when 50 m melatonin was applied. None of the treatments induced DNA synthesis, although during the first 24 hr of imbibition at 10C the mean ploidy and the (2C + 4C = 8C)/2C ratio increased, which is indicative of the advanced Phase II of germination. Hydro- and osmopriming slightly decreased IAA content in the seeds in most of the cases; only hydropriming with 100 and 500 m melatonin increased it. Melatonin protected membrane structure against peroxidation during chilling, but excessive melatonin levels in cucumber seeds (,4 ,g/g fresh weight) provoked oxidative changes in proteins. There is still lack of information explained clearly the role of melatonin in plant physiology. This molecule acts multidirectionally and usually is alliged to other compounds. [source]


    Analysis and characterization of aroma-active compounds of Schizandra chinensis (omija) leaves

    JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 1 2005
    Cheng Hao Zheng
    Abstract Volatile components from leaves of Schizandra chinensis (omija), a native plant of Korea, were extracted by simultaneous distillation,extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography,mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using two types of capillary column with different polarities (DB-5MS and DB-Wax). The GC-MS analysis of volatile compounds obtained by SDE revealed that germacrene D is the most abundant compound (22.6%) in omija leaves, followed by ,-elemene (17.4%), (E)-2-hexenal (8.7%), and (E)-,-ocimene (7.2%). Aroma-active compounds were determined by gas chromatography,olfactometry (GC-O) using the aroma-extract-dilution analysis method. (E,Z)-2,6-Nonadienal (cucumber) was the most intense aroma-active compound due to its higher flavor-dilution factor (243,729) than any other compound. (Z)-3-Hexenal (green/apple), (E)-2-hexenal (green/fruity), and (E)-,-ocimene (wither green/grass) were also identified as important aroma-active compounds by GC-O. In addition, the volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and the quantitative analysis of the SPME samples gave slightly different results, depending on the type of SPME fiber, compared with those from SDE, However, the aroma-active compounds identified in SPME were similar to those in SDE. Copyright 2004 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    The Effect of Diet on the Energy Budget of the Brown Sea Cucumber, Stichopus mollis (Hutton)

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 2 2009
    Kimberley H. Maxwell
    This study investigated the ability of the brown sea cucumber, Stichopus (Australostichopus) mollis, to grow on diets made from aquaculture waste. Weight-standardized rates (ingestion, assimilation, respiration, ammonia excretion, and fecal excretion) of small (juvenile), medium (mature), and large (mature) sea cucumbers were measured and energy budgets constructed to quantify their growth rates when offered three different diets at 14, 16, and 18 C. Three types of diet were offered: uneaten abalone food (diet A) and two types of abalone feces, one where abalone were fed 50% Macrocystis pyrifera and 50% Undaria pinnatifida macroalgae (diet B) and the other where abalone were fed 25% M. pyrifera, 25% U. pinnatifida, and 50% Adam & Amos Abalone Food, where the latter is an industry standard diet (diet C). The organic contents of the diets were much higher than natural sediments and varied such that diet A (76.40%) > diet B (54.50%) > diet C (37.00%). Diet had a significant effect on S. mollis ingestion rates, assimilation efficiencies, and consequently energy budgets and growth rates. Greater quantities of organic matter (OM) from diet A and diet B were ingested and assimilated by the sea cucumbers compared with the OM in diet C. The energy budgets indicated that after taking routine metabolism into account, all sizes of sea cucumbers had energy to allocate to growth when offered diet A and diet B, but only juveniles had energy to allocate to growth when offered diet C. Fecal excretion rates when offered diet A and diet C at 14 C were greater than those at 18 C, but neither was significantly different from that at 16 C. Ammonia excretion rates increased nonlinearly with temperature for small and medium sea cucumbers but not for large sea cucumbers. Weight-standardized respiration rates increased with temperature and unexpectedly with animal size, which may have been because of the narrow weight range of test animals biasing the results. These results suggest that industry standard type abalone waste lacks sufficient energy to meet the metabolic requirements of mature sea cucumbers but that growing juveniles on these wastes appears to be feasible and warrants further investigation. [source]


    A new method for assessing foliar uptake of fungicides using Congo Red as a tracer

    PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE (FORMERLY: PESTICIDE SCIENCE), Issue 6 2001
    Ju-Hyun Yu
    Abstract In order to develop a new method for measuring foliar uptake of fungicides, Congo Red was selected as a tracer, and optimum procedures were established for washing, extracting and analyzing it and fungicides from leaf surfaces. Congo Red, a water-soluble dye, was not absorbed into cucumber or rice leaf, even in the presence of various surfactants, and was completely washable from leaf surfaces by aqueous acetonitrile solutions. Congo Red and fungicides in washings were quantified to calculate the amount of foliar uptake of the latter, by comparing the ratio to Congo Red. The optimum concentration of Congo Red in a formulation should be established in order to minimize its influence on fungicide uptake. Although Congo Red has proved to be useful with a conventional droplet application method, it will give more realistic and practical results with the spraying method used in the present study. 2001 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Photomorphogenic regulation of increases in UV-absorbing pigments in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings induced by different UV-B and UV-C wavebands

    PHYSIOLOGIA PLANTARUM, Issue 1 2010
    James R. Shinkle
    Brief (1,100 min) irradiations with three different ultraviolet-B (UV-B) and ultraviolet-C (UV-C) wave bands induced increases the UV-absorbing pigments extracted from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and Arabidopsis. Spectra of methanol/1% HCl extracts from cucumber hypocotyl segments spanning 250,400 nm showed a single defined peak at 317 nm. When seedlings were irradiated with 5 kJ m,2 UV-B radiation containing proportionally greater short wavelength UV-B (37% of UV-B between 280 and 300 nm; full-spectrum UV-B, FS-UVB), tissue extracts taken 24 h after irradiation showed an overall increase in absorption (91% increase at 317 nm) with a second defined peak at 263 nm. Irradiation with 1.1 kJ m,2 UV-C (254 nm) caused similar changes. In contrast, seedlings irradiated with 5 kJ m,2 UV-B including only wavelengths longer than 290 nm (8% of UV-B between 290 and 300 nm; long-wavelength UV-B, LW-UVB) resulted only in a general increase in absorption (80% at 317 nm). The increases in absorption were detectable as early as 3 h after irradiation with FS-UVB and UV-C, while the response to LW-UVB was first detectable at 6 h after irradiation. In extracts from whole Arabidopsis seedlings, 5 kJ m,2 LW-UVB caused only a 20% increase in total absorption. Irradiation with 5 kJ m,2 FS-UVB caused the appearance of a new peak at 270 nm and a concomitant increase in absorption of 72%. The induction of this new peak was observed in seedlings carrying the fah1 mutation which disrupts the pathway for sinapate synthesis. The results are in agreement with previously published data on stem elongation indicating the existence of two response pathways within the UV-B, one operating at longer wavelengths (>300 nm) and another specifically activated by short wavelength UV-B (<300 nm and also by UV-C). [source]