Cranial Nerve Deficits (cranial + nerve_deficit)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Computed Tomography of Temporal Bone Fractures and Temporal Region Anatomy in Horses

S. Pownder
Background: In people, specific classifications of temporal bone fractures are associated with clinical signs and prognosis. In horses, similar classifications have not been evaluated and might be useful establishing prognosis or understanding pathogenesis of certain types of trauma. Hypothesis/Objectives: We hypothesized associations between temporal bone fracture location and orientation in horses detected during computed tomography (CT) and frequency of facial nerve (CN7) deficit, vestibulocochlear nerve (CN8) deficit, or temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO). Complex temporal region anatomy may confound fracture identification, and consequently a description of normal anatomy was included. Animals: All horses undergoing temporal region CT at our hospital between July 1998 and May 2008. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively, examiners were blinded, and relationships were investigated among temporal bone fractures, ipsilateral THO, ipsilateral CN7, or ipsilateral CN8 deficits by Chi-square or Fischer's exact tests. Seventy-nine horses had CT examinations of the temporal region (158 temporal bones). Results: Sixteen temporal bone fractures were detected in 14 horses. Cranial nerve deficits were seen with fractures in all parts of the temporal bone (petrosal, squamous, and temporal) and, temporal bone fractures were associated with CN7 and CN8 deficits and THO. No investigated fracture classification scheme, however, was associated with specific cranial nerve deficits. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Without knowledge of the regional anatomy, normal structures may be mistaken for a temporal bone fracture or vice versa. Although no fracture classification scheme was associated with the assessed clinical signs, simple descriptive terminology (location and orientation) is recommended for reporting and facilitating future comparisons. [source]

Chondrosarcomas of the Jugular Foramen

Mario Sanna MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: Chondrosarcomas of the jugular foramen are extremely rare tumors. Our review of the literature revealed eleven previously reported cases. The aim of this study is to describe the presenting symptoms, radiographic findings, operative procedures, and postoperative outcome of five histologically confirmed cases of chondrosarcomas arising from the jugular foramen. A review of the literature is also presented. Study Design: Retrospective study of an quaternary referral otology and skull base private center. Methods: Five cases of surgically treated and pathologically confirmed jugular foramen chondrosarcomas were identified. The follow-up of the series ranged from 23 to 42 months (mean, 32.8 7.7 months). Results: A single stage procedure was adopted in all the cases. Two patients underwent type A infratemporal approaches, one patient underwent a transotic approach extending to the neck with ligature of the internal jugular vein, one patient underwent a petro-occipital transigmoid approach, and one patient underwent a combined petro-occipital transigmoid,transotic approach. Gross total tumor removal was achieved in all patients. The most common complications were lower cranial nerve deficits. To date, no recurrence or residual tumors have been observed at radiological controls. Conclusions: We believe that the primary treatment for chondrosarcomas of the jugular foramen is gross total surgical resection of the tumor. It is our philosophy to reserve postoperative radiotherapy for patients with histologically aggressive tumors, as well as in cases with subtotal resection and recurrent tumors. [source]

Surgical Management of Jugular Foramen Meningiomas: A Series of 13 Cases and Review of the Literature,

Mario Sanna MD
Abstract Objective: Primary meningiomas occurring within the jugular foramen are exceedingly rare lesions presumed to originate from arachnoid-lining cells situated within the jugular foramen. The objective of this study is to analyze the management and outcome in a series of 13 primary jugular foramen meningiomas collected at a single center. Study Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Quaternary referral otology and skull base private center. Methods: Charts belonging to 13 consecutive patients with pathologically confirmed jugular foramen meningioma surgically treated between September 1991 and May 2005 were examined retrospectively. The follow-up of the series ranged from 12 to 120 (mean, 42.8 27.5) months. Results: Four (28.5%) patients underwent single-stage tumor removal through the petro-occipital transigmoid (POTS) approach. In two patients with preoperative unserviceable hearing, a combined POTS-translabyrinthine approach was adopted. Two patients underwent a combined POTS-transotic approach because of massive erosion of the carotid canal. A modified transcochlear approach type D with posterior rerouting of the facial nerve and transection of the sigmoid sinus and jugular bulb was performed in two patients with a huge cerebellopontine angle tumor component with extension to the prepontine cistern together with massive involvement of the petrous bone and middle ear and encasement of the vertical and horizontal segments of the intrapetrous carotid artery. In one patient with evidence of a dominant sinus on the site of the tumor, a subtotal tumor removal via an enlarged translabyrinthine approach (ETLA) was planned to resect the intradural component of the tumor. Two patients in our series underwent a planned staged procedure on account of a huge tumor component in the neck. One of these patients underwent a first-stage infratemporal fossa approach type A to remove the tumor component in the neck; the second-stage intradural removal of the tumor was accomplished via an ETLA. The last patient underwent a first-stage modified transcochlear type D approach to remove the intradural tumor component followed by a second-stage transcervical procedure for removal of the extracranial component. Gross total tumor removal (Simpson grade I,II) was achieved in 11 (84.6%) cases. Subtotal removal of the tumor was accomplished in two patients. Good facial nerve function (grades I and II) was achieved in 46.1% of cases, whereas acceptable function (grade III) was achieved in the remaining cases 1 year after tumor removal. Hearing was preserved at the preoperative level in all four patients who underwent surgery via the POTS approach. After surgery, no patient recovered function of the preoperatively paralyzed lower cranial nerves. A new deficit of one or more of the lower cranial nerves was recorded in 61.5% of cases. Conclusions: Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for jugular foramen meningiomas. Among the various surgical techniques proposed for dealing with these lesions, we prefer the POTS approach alone or combined with the translabyrinthine or transotic approaches. Despite the advances in skull base surgery, new postoperative lower cranial nerve deficits still represent a challenge. [source]

Radiosurgical treatment of vestibular schwannomas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2

CANCER, Issue 2 2009
Tumor control, hearing preservation
Abstract BACKGROUND: The radiosurgical treatment of vestibular schwannomas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is controversial. The authors investigated the radiologically proven tumor control rate after gamma knife radiosurgery. The factors that affect tumor control and serviceable hearing preservation were analyzed. METHODS: Thirty-six lesions in 30 patients were included. The median lengths of the clinical and radiologic follow-ups were 48.5 months and 36.5 months, respectively. The median tumor volume was 3.2 cm3. The mean marginal dose was 12.1 grays (Gy) (range, 8,14 Gy) at an isodose line of 50%0.6%. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model were used for the statistical analyses. RESULTS: The actuarial tumor control rate was 81%, 74%, and 66%, respectively, in the first, second, and fifth years. Five tumors required a salvage surgery because of tumor control failure. A low marginal dose and a young age at radiosurgery were associated with poor tumor control. Of the 16 tumors with which ipsilateral hearing was serviceable, the actuarial serviceable hearing preservation rates were 50%, 45%, and 33%, respectively, in the first, second, and fifth years. Better ipsilateral hearing (Gardner-Robertson grade 1, compared with grade 2) at the time of radiosurgery was associated with significantly greater serviceable hearing preservation. CONCLUSIONS: Gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas in NF2 patients provided 5-year tumor control in approximately two-thirds of patients and preserved serviceable hearing in approximately one-third. The rates of other cranial nerve deficits were low, and no secondary malignancy was observed. Radiosurgery should be included in treatment options for NF2 patients. Cancer 2009. 2009 American Cancer Society. [source]