Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Kinds of Crystallinity

  • good crystallinity
  • high crystallinity
  • low crystallinity
  • lower crystallinity
  • percent crystallinity
  • relative crystallinity

  • Terms modified by Crystallinity

  • crystallinity degree
  • crystallinity index
  • crystallinity measurement
  • crystallinity profile

  • Selected Abstracts

    Enhancing the Porosity of Mesoporous Carbon-Templated ZSM-5 by Desilication

    Martin S. Holm
    Abstract A tunable desilication protocol applied on a mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite synthesized by carbon-templating is reported. The strategy enables a systematic manufacture of zeolite catalysts with moderate to very high mesoporosities. Coupling carbon-templating and desilication thus allow for more than a doubling of the original mesopore volume and mesopore surface area. The porosity effect arising from various treatment times and base amounts in the media has beenthoroughly mapped. Initially, small mesopores are created, and as desilication strength increases the average mesopore size enhances. Crystallinity of the treated samples is retained, and electron microscopy indicates solely intracrystalline mesoporosity.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) [source]

    Direct fluorination of Twaron fiber and investigation of mechanical thermal and morphological properties of high density polyethylene and Twaron fiber composites

    J. Maity
    Abstract Composites consisting of high density polyethylene (HDPE) reinforced with randomly oriented chopped Twaron fibers (both fluorinated and nonfluorinated) show a significant increase in mechanical and thermal properties. To increase the better fiber matrix adhesion, the Twaron fiber is surface fluorinated using elemental fluorine. The surface of the Twaron fiber becomes very rough and the diameter of Twaron fiber increases from , 12 to 14 ,m after fluorination. The composites were prepared using solution method to overcome the damage of the fiber. The tensile strength and the Young's modulus increases with increasing fiber content. The tensile strength and modulus of modified fiber (fluorinated Twaron fiber) composites is much higher than nonmodified fiber composites indicating that there is better mechanical interlocking between the modified fiber and the matrix. Thermal properties obtained from DSC and DTA-TG analysis of the fluorinated fiber composites are also improved. Contact angle measurements, as well as the surface energy measurements, indicate that the composites are more wettable and is maximum for fluorinated fiber composites i.e., surface energy for fluorinated fiber composites is highest. Crystallinity is also higher for fluorinated fiber composites. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 2008 [source]

    Control of Crystallinity of Hydrated Products in a Calcium Phosphate Cement

    Tao Yu
    A novel calcium phosphate cement (CPC) was prepared by dry-mechanochemical rout in this work. With the different crystallinity, the CPC showed the different degradation ratio after setting. The degradation ratio of CPC was characterized by the calcium ion-dissolving ratio in deionized water after different soaking time. With the increment of crystallinity, the setting times of CPC were prolonged, and the different mechanical property of CPC were obtained. This novel CPC was supposed to match the new bone ingrowth in vivo and have the potential application in orthopedic surgery for filling non-load-bearing bone defects. [source]

    Effect of Calcination on Crystallinity for Nanostructured Development of Wormhole-Like Mesoporous Tungsten Oxide

    Wei Hao Lai
    The effects of calcination on the crystallinity and grain growth model for microstructure development of wormhole-like mesoporous tungsten oxide are investigated in this study. We found that residual mesopores of wormhole-like tungsten oxide can be seen calcined above 500°C, as evidenced by retention of a wormhole-like mesostructure of tungsten oxide. A model was proposed to combine grain growth with wormhole-like mesoporous behavior and to investigate whether the formation of wormhole-like mesoporous tungsten oxide can retard the collapse rate of mesopores during the calcination process. [source]

    Enhanced Crystallinity of PTFE by Ion Irradiation in a Dense Plasma Focus

    Mehboob Sadiq
    Abstract Nitrogen-ion beam pulses emitted from a low-energy (1.45 kJ) Mather-type plasma focus device are used for the surface modification of PTFE polymer specimens. The specimens, placed at a fixed position, are implanted using different number of pulses. Raman spectroscopy and XRD are employed to probe the structural changes incurred during the ion implantation. Both techniques indicate that the crystalline order in the specimens increases with increasing the irradiation dose. The crystallinity degree of the irradiated specimens, as measured from the XRD data, is found to enhance monotonically from 40% to about 55%. Possible crystallinity enhancement mechanism of irradiated PTFE specimens via chain scission is discussed. [source]

    Maleated polypropylene film and wood fiber handsheet laminates,

    POLYMER COMPOSITES, Issue 12 2009
    Sangyeob Lee
    The grafting effect of maleic anhydride (MA) as an interfacial bonding agent and its influence on the tensile strength properties of thermomechanical pulp handsheet-isotactic polypropylene (iPP) film laminates was studied. For the MA treated with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an initiator, tensile strength properties increased 76% with PP film over untreated laminates. The optimal strength properties were obtained with a MA and BPO ratio of 2:1. A strong correlation was observed between the number of fibers in the web and tensile strength properties for both handsheet drying conditions. The R2 values were 0.95 for air-dry conditions and 0.94 from oven-dry conditions. Scanning electron microscopy images also showed the effectiveness of MA loading on the surface of thermomechanical pulp fibers due to increased fiber failure, which occurred without fiber being pulled out from the PP matrixes. Crystallinity and heat flow were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and increased as expected as the ratio of MA and BPO increased from 0:0 to 2:1. These results were also in accordance with the morphological observations at the fracture surface, Fourier transform infrared spectra, and thermal analysis. POLYM. COMPOS., 2009. © 2008 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]

    Vapor-induced crystallization behavior of bisphenol-A polycarbonate

    Zhongyong Fan
    The effects of exposure time and vapor pressure on the crystallization behaviors of bisphenol-A polycarbonate (BAPC) films were investigated at 25°C by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Double melting peaks were observed for various BAPC samples after vapor-induced crystallization. The low temperature melting peak shifted to higher temperature and became sharper with increasing exposure time, and could be assigned to defective crystals with smaller crystal size. Crystallinity and average crystal dimension normal to (020) were calculated from wide-angle X-ray diffraction spectra. A good agreement was obtained between crystallinity values obtained from WAXD and those from DSC. The morphology of crystallized samples after various exposure time periods was examined by means of polarized optical microscopy. Nucleation occurred at the initial stage of vapor-induced crystallization. Poor crystals become perfect through segment reorganization with increasing exposure time, and spherulites' growth was observed. The average diameter of spherulites increased from 2 ,m for 1 h, to 7 and 16 ,m after 3 and 56 h, respectively. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 46:729,734, 2006. © 2006 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]

    Crystallinity, thermal properties, morphology and conductivity of quaternary plasticized PEO-based polymer electrolytes

    Yan-Jie Wang
    Abstract Quaternary plasticized solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) films composed of poly(ethylene oxide), LiClO4, Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3, and either ethylene carbonate or propylene carbonate as plasticizer (over a range of 10,40 wt%) were prepared by a solution-cast technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicated that components such as LiClO4 and Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 and the plasticizers exerted important effects on the plasticized quaternary SPE systems. XRD analysis revealed the influence from each component on the crystalline phase. DSC results demonstrated the greater flexibility of the polymer chains, which favored ionic conduction. SEM examination revealed the smooth and homogeneous surface morphology of the plasticized polymer electrolyte films. EIS suggested that the temperature dependence of the films' ionic conductivity obeyed the Vogel,Tamman,Fulcher (VTF) relation, and that the segmental movement of the polymer chains was closely related to ionic conduction with increasing temperature. The pre-exponential factor and pseudo activation energy both increased with increasing plasticizer content and were maximized at 40 wt% plasticizer content. The charge transport in all polymer electrolyte films was predominantly reliant on lithium ions. All transference numbers were less than 0.5. Copyright © 2006 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Water-Vapor-Induced Reversible Switching of Electronic States in an MMX-Type Chain Complex with Retention of Single Crystallinity,

    ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 3 2010
    Hiroaki Iguchi
    Eine reversible Strukturänderung und Änderungen der physikalischen Eigenschaften eines zweikernigen Quasi-1D-Pt-Komplexes werden durch De- und Rehydratisierung ausgelöst. Beim Dehydratisieren geht der elektronische Zustand von einem ACP+CDW- (ACP: alternierende Ladungspolarisierung, CDW: Ladungsdichtewellen) in einen CDW-Zustand mit enger Lücke über, wobei die elektrische Leitfähigkeit und die molare Spinsuszeptibilität bei Raumtemperatur zunehmen. [source]

    The Characteristics of Polyethylene Film for Stretch and Cling Film Applications

    C.M. Small
    Part I. A range of polyethylene films were prepared from metallocene linear low density polyethylene (m-LLDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and ultra low density polyethylene (ULDPE) resins, containing 0 and 8% polyisobutylene (PIB). FTIR, DSC and mechanical analysis techniques were used to investigate the effect of co-monomer type, density and melt flow index (MFI) on the mechanical performance, orientation and crystallinity of these films. The study established that co-monomer type and MFI were the greatest factors influencing mechanical performance and crystallinity. Crystallinity was found to be the most influential factor governing PIB migration in these films and this in turn was related to polymer type, density and MFI, High MFI, octene co-monomer films exhibited the highest orientation, tear resistance and tack strength and would therefore be suitable for stretch film applications. Ultra low-density polymers gave relatively low tack strength and poor overall mechanical performance. Part II. A range of ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA)/m-LLDPE/EVA co-extruded films was manufactured, with vinyl acetate (VA) co-monomer content of 6, 12 and 18% and PIB content from 0,20%. The films were aged at 45d,C for up to 28 days, to enable tack (cling) development. The results show that film tack strength improved significantly with ageing. Increased VA concentration in the surface layer also showed significant improvement in film tack strength. The film tensile strength, elongation and tear properties in both machine direction (MD) and transverse direction (TD) were not significantly affected by increase in PIB concentration. However, increased VA content showed slight improvement in MD mechanical performance of the films, TD properties were relatively unaffected. Films with 12 to 18% VA in the surface layers produced high surface tack film and the mechanical performance of these films were comparable to mono-layer polyethylenes. These films are suitable for stretch wrap applications and have reduced the overall concentrations of tack additives, though high VA films were more difficult to process. [source]

    A Novel Approach for Chemical Vapor Synthesis of ZnO Nanocrystals: Optimization of Yield, Crystallinity,

    Moazzam Ali
    Abstract The experimental yield of ZnO nanocrystals decreases drastically with increasing reactor temperature in a typical chemical vapor synthesis (CVS) of ZnO nanocrystals from diethylzinc. A novel CVS set-up , a microwave plasma combined with a hot-wall zone , is described to minimize the loss of particles at higher reactor temperatures. The powder samples have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is observed that the synthesis set-up and reaction temperature have substantial influence not only on yield but also on crystallite size and crystallinity of the pure wurtzite-type ZnO nanocrystals. The lattice constants of ZnO nanocrystals increase with decreasing crystallite size. Defect densities (twin and stacking faults), as well as microstrain, decrease with increasing reactor temperature, whereas crystallinity increases. [source]

    Amorphous orientation and its relationship to processing stages of blended polypropylene/polyethylene fibers

    Amy M. Trottier
    Abstract Changes in the molecular orientation, melting behavior, and percent crystallinity of the individual components in a fibrous blend of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) that occur during the melt extrusion process were examined using wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The crystalline orientation of each component was found using Wilchinsky's treatment of uniaxial orientation and described by the Hermans,Stein orientation parameter. The amorphous orientation was found by resolving the X-ray diffraction pattern in steps of the azimuthal angle into its iPP and HDPE crystalline and amorphous reflections. The utility of DSC and WAXD analyses to capture the effects of small differences in processing, and the use of these results as fingerprints of a particular manufacturing process were demonstrated. Major increases in the melting temperatures, percent crystallinities, and molecular orientations of the iPP and HDPE components occurred during the main stretching stage of the melt extrusion process. The annealing stage was found to have little to no effect on the melting behavior and molecular orientation of these components. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Microcellular foaming of PE/PP blends

    Ping Zhang
    Abstract Three different polyethylene/polypropylene (PE/PP) blends were microcellular foamed and their crystallinities and melt strengths were investigated. The relationship between crystallinity, melt strength, and cellular structure was studied. Experimental results showed that the three blends had similar variation patterns in respect of crystallinity, melt strength, and cellular structure, and these variation patterns were correlative for each blend. For all blends, the melt strength and PP melting point initially heightened and then lowered, the PP crystallinity first decreased, and then increased as the PE content increased. At PE content of 30%, the melt strength and PP melting point were highest and the PP crystallinity was least. The blend with lower PP crystallinity and higher melt strength had better cellular structure and broader microcellular foaming temperature range. So, three blends had best cellular structure at PE content of 30%. Furthermore, when compared with PE/homopolymer (hPP) blend, the PE/copolymer PP (cPP) blend had higher melt strength, better cellular structure, and wider microcellular foaming temperature range, so it was more suited to be microcellular foamed. Whereas LDPE/cPP blend had the broadest microcellular foaming temperature range because of its highest melt strength within three blends. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 104: 4149,4159, 2007 [source]

    Relevance of Osteoinductive Biomaterials in Critical-Sized Orthotopic Defect

    Pamela Habibovic
    Abstract Several publications have shown the phenomenon of osteoinduction by biomaterials to be real. However, whether the ability of a biomaterial to initiate bone formation in ectopic implantation sites improves the performance of such osteoinductive biomaterial in clinically relevant orthotopic sites remains unclear. No studies have been published in which osteoinductive potential of a biomaterial is directly related to its performance orthotopically. In this study, we compared osteoinductive and nonosteoinductive biphasic calcium,phosphate (BCP) ceramics ectopically and in a clinically relevant critical-sized orthotopic defect in goats. The two materials, BCP1150 and BCP1300, had similar chemical compositions, crystallinities, and macrostructures, but their microstructures differed significantly. BCP1150, sintered at a lower temperature, had a large amount of micropores, small average crystal size, and hence a high specific surface area. In contrast, BCP1300, with few micropores, had a significantly lower specific surface area as compared to BCP1150. Twelve-week intramuscular implantation in goats (n,=,10) showed that bone was induced in all BCP1150 implants, while no signs of bone formation were found in any of the BCP1300 implants. After 12 weeks of implantation in a bilateral critical-sized iliac wing defect in the same goats, BCP1150 showed significantly more bone than BCP1300. In addition, the analysis of fluorochrome markers, which were administered to the animals 4, 6, and 8 weeks after implantation to follow the bone growth dynamics, showed an earlier start of bone formation in BCP1150 as compared to BCP1300. Significantly better performance of an osteoinductive ceramic in a critical-sized orthotopic defect in a large animal model in comparison to a nonosteoinductive ceramic suggests osteoinduction to be clinically relevant. Further improvement of material osteoinductive properties is thus a significant step forward in the search for alternatives for autologous bone graft. © 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res [source]

    High-molar-mass polypropene with tunable elastic properties by hafnocene/borate catalysts

    Tanja Seraidaris
    Abstract Elastic polypropene has gained growing industrial and academic interest as a thermoplastic elastomer. In this study, "rac"- and "meso"-dimethylsilyl(3-benzylindenyl)(2-methylindenyl)hafnium dichloride complexes (Hfr and Hfm, respectively), activated with [NHMe2Ph][B(C6F5)4]/triisobutyl aluminum, were used in propene polymerization. Using these catalyst systems, we obtained polymers with high molar masses, up to 550 kg/mol, and moderate isotacticities between 34 and 52%. By varying the polymerization conditions, we could modify the polymer microstructure and molar mass. 13C NMR was used to calculate the polymer pentad sequence distributions. The crystalline parts of the polymers were analyzed with the differential scanning calorimetry successive self-nucleation and annealing (SSA) technique. The SSA thermograms revealed that Hfr produced polypropene with a more uniform lamellar structure than Hfm. The mechanical properties were tested with dynamic mechanical analysis creep-recovery tests. In the series, the polymers with the lowest isotacticities and therefore lowest crystallinities showed the best elastic properties. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 44: 4743,4751, 2006 [source]

    Synthesis, crystallization, and morphology of star-shaped poly(,-caprolactone)

    Jing-Liang Wang
    Abstract Six-arm star-shaped poly(,-caprolactone) (sPCL) was successfully synthesized via the ring-opening polymerization of ,-caprolactone with a commercial dipentaerythritol as the initiator and stannous octoate (SnOct2) as the catalyst in bulk at 120 °C. The effects of the molar ratios of both the monomer to the initiator and the monomer to the catalyst on the molecular weight of the polymer were investigated in detail. The molecular weight of the polymer linearly increased with the molar ratio of the monomer to the initiator, and the molecular weight distribution was very low (weight-average molecular weight/number-average molecular weight = 1.05,1.24). However, the molar ratio of the monomer to the catalyst had no apparent influence on the molecular weight of the polymer. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated that the maximal melting point, cold crystallization temperature, and degree of crystallinity of the sPCL polymers increased with increasing molecular weight, and crystallinities of different sizes and imperfect crystallization possibly did not exist in the sPCL polymers. Furthermore, polarized optical microscopy analysis indicated that the crystallization rate of the polymers was in the order of linear poly(,-caprolactone) (LPCL) > sPCL5 > sPCL1 (sPCL5 had a higher molecular weight than both sPCL1 and LPCL, which had similar molecular weights). Both LPCL and sPCL5 exhibited a good spherulitic morphology with apparent Maltese cross patterns, whereas sPCL1 showed a poor spherulitic morphology. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 43: 5449,5457, 2005 [source]

    Crystallization of Lead Niobate Glass by Mechanical Activation

    Junmin Xue
    Mechanical activation-triggered crystallization in PbNb2O6 -based glass was dependent on the initial presence of nuclei. The crystallization cannot be initiated by mechanical activation in a highly amorphous glass composition quenched from 1350°C where PbNb2O6 nuclei did not exist. The steady growth of nanocrystallites of PbNb2O6 was observed with an increasing degree of mechanical activation in the glass quenched from 1300°C, where a density of PbNb2O6 nuclei existed before mechanical activation. The inability to nucleate in the highly amorphous oxide glass by mechanical activation is consistent with the much higher structural stability as compared with that of metallic glasses, such as Fe-Si-B. The mechanical activation-grown PbNb2O6 nanocrystals were 10,15 nm in size as observed using HRTEM and their crystallinities were further improved by thermal aging at an elevated temperature in the range of 550° to 650°C. [source]

    Synchrotron X-ray and DSC Studies of the Phase Behaviour of Poly(diethylene glycol p,p,-bibenzoate)

    Ernesto Pérez
    Abstract Time-resolved synchrotron X-ray and DSC experiments were applied to investigate the phase behaviour of poly(diethylene glycol p,p,-bibenzoate), PDEB. The DSC results are indicative of the formation of a smectic mesophase, previously identified as a SmCA type, which can be easily quenched down to room temperature. However, the synchrotron results show that the SmCA phase undergoes some kind of ordering or transformation at temperatures below 110,°C. Moreover, the annealing of PDEB at temperatures above Tg for sufficiently long times leads to the formation of a highly ordered structure, although very thin crystals and low crystallinities are obtained. Scattering profiles corresponding to sample PDEB85 in a melting experiment. [source]

    Strain-Controlled Tensile Deformation Behavior and Relaxation Properties of Isotactic Poly(1-butene) and Its Ethylene Copolymers

    Mahmoud Al-Hussein
    Abstract The tensile deformation behaviour of poly(1-butene) and two of its ethylene copoloymers was studied at room temperature. This was done by investigating true stress-strain curves at constant strain rates, elastic recovery and stress relaxation properties and in-situ WAXS patterns during the deformation process. As for a series of semicrystalline polymers in previous studies, a strain-controlled deformation behaviour was found. The differential compliance, the recovery properties and the stress relaxation curves changed simultaneously at well-defined points. The strains at which these points occurred along the true stress-strain remained constant for the different samples despite their different percentage crystallinities. The well-defined way in which the different samples respond to external stresses complies with the granular substructure of the crystalline lamellae in a semicrystalline polymer. [source]

    Stress,strain behavior as related to surface topography and thickness uniformity in uni- and biaxially stretched PVDF/PMMA blends

    Xixian Zhou
    The influence of blend composition and processing conditions on the surface roughness and thickness uniformity of PVDF/PMMA blends were investigated in uniaxial and biaxial deformation mode for PVDV and PVDF/PMMA blends 70/30, 55/45, and 40/60 wt%. The addition of PMMA retards the thermal crystallizability of the blends and this allows rapid solidification into films with little or no crystallinities. Such precursors with lowered crystallinity were found to be easily uni- and biaxially stretched into uniform and transparent films in the temperature range between the glass transition temperature and cold crystallization temperature where they exhibit strain hardening. Thus, these blends are suitable for processes such as tenter frame biaxial stretching, double bubble film blowing, and stretch blow molding where they will exhibit good transparency and thickness uniformity. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 47:2110,2117, 2007. © 2007 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]

    Thermal properties, structure and morphology of PEEK/thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer blends

    Mohammed Naffakh
    Abstract The dynamic crystallization and subsequent melting behaviour of poly(aryl ether ether ketone), PEEK, and its blends with a thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer, Vectra®, have been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscopy and wide-angle and small-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXS and SAXS) techniques in a wide compositional range. Differences in crystallization rates and crystallinities were related to the structural and morphological characteristics of the blends measured by simultaneous real-time WAXS and SAXS experiments using synchrotron radiation and optical microscopy. The crystallization process of PEEK in the blends takes place in the presence of the nematic phase of Vectra and leads to the formation of two different crystalline families. The addition of Vectra reduces the crystallization rate of PEEK, depending on composition, and more perfect crystals are formed. An increase in the long period of PEEK during heating was generally observed in the blends at all cooling rates. Copyright © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Novel Segmented Thermoplastic Polyurethanes Elastomers Based on Tetrahydrofuran Ethylene Oxide Copolyethers as High Energetic Propellant Binders

    Fu-Tai Chen
    Abstract Novel thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) elastomers based on copolyether (tetrahydrofuran ethylene oxide) as soft segments, isophorone diisocyanate and 1,4-butanediol as hard segments were synthesized for the purpose of using as propellant binders. In order to increase the miscibility of thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers with nitrate ester, polyethylene glycol (PEG) is incorporated in the co-polyether (tetrahydrofuran ethylene oxide) as soft segment. When the molecular weight and content of polyethylene glycol are controlled to 4000 and 6% of soft segments, respectively, the properties of thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers are most perfect. If plasticizing ratio of nitrate ester to thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers exceeds 4 no crystallinities are determined at room temperature. The propellant samples were prepared by a conventional absorption-rolling extrusion process and the mechanical and combustion properties evaluated afterwards. The maximum impulse reaches up to 265,270 s which is a little bit higher than that of a HTPB propellant. The measured results reveal a promising TPE propellant candidate which shows good processing temperature (<393,K) and excellent mechanical properties. An attracting feature which can be pointed out is that the burning rate pressure exponent reaches as low as 0.36 without the addition of burning rate catalysts. This enables an easy control of propellant combustion. [source]

    Catalytic Ethylene Polymerisation in Carbon Dioxide as a Reaction Medium with Soluble Nickel(II) Catalysts

    Amaia Bastero Dr.
    Abstract A series of neutral NiII,salicylaldiminato complexes substituted with perfluorooctyl- and trifluoromethyl groups, [Ni{,2 - N,O -6-C(H)NAr-2,4-R,2C6H2O}(Me)(pyridine)] (6,a: Ar=2,6-{4-(F17C8)C6H4}2C6H3, R,=I; 6,b: Ar=2,6-{4-(F3C)C6H4}2C6H3, R,=I; 6,c: Ar=2,6-{3,5-(F3C)2C6H3}2C6H3, R,=3,5-(F3C)2C6H3; 6,d: Ar=2,6-{4-(F17C8)C6H4}2C6H3, R,=3,5-(F3C)2C6H3; 6,e: Ar=2,6-{3,5-(F3C)2C6H3}2C6H3, R,=I) were studied as catalyst precursors for ethylene polymerisation in supercritical CO2. Catalyst precursors 6,a and 6,c, which are soluble in scCO2, afford the highest polymer yields, corresponding to 2×103 turnovers. Semicrystalline polyethylene (Mn typically 104 g,mol,1) is obtained with variable degrees of branching (11 to 24 branches per 1000 carbon atoms, predominantly Me branches) and crystallinities (54 to 21,%), depending on the substitution pattern of the catalyst. [source]

    In vivo evaluation of the trabecular bone behavior to porous electrostatic spray deposition-derived calcium phosphate coatings

    Marijke C. Siebers
    Abstract Objectives: Electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) is a new technique to deposit calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bone behavior of ESD CaP-coated implants with various degrees of crystallinities in the trabecular bone of the femoral condyle of goats. Material and methods: Using the ESD technique, thin porous CaP coatings were deposited on tapered, conical, screw-shaped titanium implants. Three different heat-treatments were applied, resulting in amorphous CaP (400°C, ESD1), crystalline carbonate apatite (500°C, ESD2), and crystalline carbonated hydroxyapatite (700°C, ESD3). Implants were inserted into the trabecular bone of the femoral condyles of goats for 12 weeks, and titanium (Ti) implants served as controls. Results: The results showed that ESD-derived coatings are osteocompatible. Histomorphometrical analysis showed that the application of a CaP coating resulted in more bone contact along the press-fit area of the implant compared with the Ti implants. Moreover, the percentage bone contact of the ESD3-coated implants was increased, compared with the Ti control group. Regarding the other coatings, no differences were found compared with the control group. Conclusion: Crystalline carbonated hydroxyapatite ESD-coated implants positively influenced the biological performance compared with Ti control implants. [source]

    Influence of substrate temperature on the properties of electron beam evaporated ZnSe films

    M. G. Syed Basheer Ahamed
    Abstract ZnSe films were deposited on glass substrates keeping the substrate temperatures, at room temperature (RT), 75, 150 and 250 °C. The films have exhibited cubic structure oriented along the (111) direction. Both the crystallinity and the grain size increased with increasing deposition temperature. A very high value of absorption co-efficient (104 cm -1) is observed. The band gap values decrease from a value of 2.94 eV to 2.69 eV with increasing substrate temperature. The average refractive index value is in the range of 2.39 , 2.41 for the films deposited at different substrate temperatures. The conductivity values increases continuously with temperature. Laser Raman spectra showed peaks at 140.8 cm -1, 246.7 cm -1and 204.5 cm -1which are attributable to 2TA LO phonon and TO phonon respectively. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Nanocrystalline transparent SnO2 -ZnO films fabricated at lower substrate temperature using a low-cost and simplified spray technique

    K. Ravichandran
    Abstract Nanocrystalline and transparent conducting SnO2 - ZnO films were fabricated by employing an inexpensive, simplified spray technique using a perfume atomizer at relatively low substrate temperature (360±5 °C) compared with conventional spray method. The structural studies reveal that the SnO2 -ZnO films are polycrystalline in nature with preferential orientation along the (101) plane. The dislocation density is very low (1.48×1015lines/m2), indicating the good crystallinity of the films. The crystallite size of the films was found to be in the range of 26,34 nm. The optical transmittance in the visible range and the optical band gap are 85% and 3.6 eV respectively. The sheet resistance increases from 8.74 k,/, to 32.4 k,/, as the zinc concentration increases from 0 to 40 at.%. The films were found to have desirable figure of merit (1.63×10,2 (,/,),1), low temperature coefficient of resistance (,1.191/K) and good thermal stability. This simplified spray technique may be considered as a promising alternative to conventional spray for the massive production of economic SnO2 - ZnO films for solar cells, sensors and opto-electronic applications. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Effect of AlN doping on the growth morphology of SiC

    N. B. Singh
    Abstract AlN doped SiC films were deposited on on-axis Si-face 4H-SiC (0001) substrates by the physical vapor transport (PVT) method. Thick film in the range of 20 ,m range was grown and morphology was characterized. Films were grown by physical vapor deposition (PVD) in a vertical geometry in the nitrogen atmosphere. We observed that nucleation occurred in the form of discs and growth occurred in hexagonal geometry. The X-ray studies showed (001) orientation and full width of half maxima (FWHM) was less than 0.1° indicating good crystallinity. We also observed that film deposited on the carbon crucible had long needles with anisotropic growth very similar to that of pure AlN. Some of the needles grew up to sizes of 200 ,m in length and 40 to 50 ,m in width. It is clear that annealing of SiC-AlN powder or high temperature physical vapor deposition produces similar crystal structure for producing AlN-SiC solid solution. SEM studies indicated that facetted hexagons grew on the top of each other and coarsened and merged to form cm size grains on the substrate. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Synthesis of rhombohedral strontium carbonate aggregates at the water/hexamethylene interface with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    Long Chen
    Abstract Unusual rhombohedral strontium carbonate (SrCO3) aggregates have been synthesized in situ from strontium nitrate by the slow release of carbon dioxide by alkaline hydrolysis of diethyl carbonate at the water/hexamethylene interface in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry were used to characterize the products. The results indicate that rhombohedral SrCO3 aggregates are obtained with weaker crystallinity and sizes of several micrometers. The possible formation mechanism of the SrCO3 aggregates at the interface is discussed, which can be interpreted by particle-aggregation based non-classical crystallization laws. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Electrospun Silk Fibroin Mats for Tissue Engineering

    A. Alessandrino
    Abstract Processing Silk Fibroin (SF) with electrospinning (ES) offers a very attractive opportunity for producing a variety of 2D and 3D matrices with great potential for tissue regeneration and repair due to the superior biocompatibility and mechanical properties of SF. Different combinations of ES parameters were explored to investigate the best experimental set-up related to the dimension and uniformity of the fibers in the electrospun silk fibroin (ES-SF) mats. Using SEM it was found that the ES-SF mats contain uniform fibers with a diameter in the nanometric range obtained by electrospinning a 7.5,% w/v SF solution in formic acid, with an electric field of 2.4,kV/cm and a spinneret-collector distance of 10,cm. FT-IR and DSC analyses were performed to investigate the structure of the ES-SF mats before and after immersion in methanol for different times (5, 10, and 15,min). The methanol treatment was able to promote the crystallization of SF by conformational transition of random coil and other poorly ordered conformations (turns and bends) to the ,-sheet structure. The degree of crystallinity was enhanced as shown by the trend of both the FT-IR crystallinity index and the melting/decomposition peak temperature (from DSC). To study the cytocompatibility of ES-SF mats, tests with L929 murine fibroblasts were carried out. Samples were seeded with the cells and incubated for 1, 3, and 7,days at 37,°C. At each time point, SEM investigations and Alamar blue tests were performed. The SEM images showed cell adhesion and proliferation just after 1,day and cell confluence at 7,days. Alamar blue test demonstrated that there were very low differences between cell viability on ES-SF mats and the tissue culture plastic control. [source]

    Highly Crystalline, Idiomorphic Na2Ti6O13 Whiskers Grown from a NaCl Flux at a Relatively Low Temperature

    Katsuya Teshima
    Abstract Well-developed, highly crystalline Na2Ti6O13 whiskers were successfully grown by cooling a NaCl flux at a relatively low temperature of 700 °C. The obtained Na2Ti6O13 whiskers were colorless and transparent. The whiskers grown at 700 °C were single phase and exhibit the lowest sizes of up to about 3.5 ,m,×,0.1 ,m. From the results of SEM, XRD, and TEM, it was confirmed that the Na2Ti6O13 whiskers have very good crystallinity and elongated in the [lang]010[rang] directions. Furthermore, the whiskers exhibited good photocatalytic activity under ultraviolet light irradiation. It is reasonable to suppose that NaCl can be adequately used to synthesize high quality and well-developed titanate whiskers in an environmentally friendly process of crystal growth. [source]