Crust

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Kinds of Crust

  • biological soil crust
  • continental crust
  • deep crust
  • earth crust
  • gypsum crust
  • lower continental crust
  • lower crust
  • middle crust
  • oceanic crust
  • soil crust
  • the earth crust
  • upper continental crust
  • upper crust

  • Terms modified by Crust

  • crust formation
  • crust structure

  • Selected Abstracts


    MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF A FRIED CRUST,

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 1 2001
    ISABEL LIMA
    A restructured potato model system was fried in canola oil for 5, 10, or 15 min at 170, 180, or 190C and tested in a Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer. Selected mechanical properties were measured using puncture and three-point bending cells. Forces involved in puncture were a combination of tension, compression, and shear, while the three-point bend test studied the crust flexural properties. Crust deformability seemed to be governed by internal structural yielding. Maximum force at rupture increased significantly with both frying time and temperature. Failure criteria identified and standardized types of failure observed during bending tests. [source]


    CRISPY/CRUNCHY CRUSTS OF CELLULAR SOLID FOODS: A LITERATURE REVIEW WITH DISCUSSION

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 5 2004
    HANNEMIEKE LUYTEN
    ABSTRACT Literature on the crispy/crunchy behavior of cellular solid foods with a crust is discussed. The emphasis is on products with a dry crispy or crunchy crust as bread and various snacks and especially on mesoscopic and macroscopic aspects. Successively, the sensory sensations involved, the mechanical and fracture behavior of crispy/crunchy products, morphological aspects, and the relation between crispy and crunchy behavior and mobility of the macromolecules and plasticizer (primarily water) involved, are discussed. Finally, some ideas for an integrated approach of crispy/crunchy behavior of cellular solid foods with a dry crust will be discussed. [source]


    Contribution of gravitational potential energy differences to the global stress field

    GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, Issue 2 2009
    Attreyee Ghosh
    SUMMARY Modelling the lithospheric stress field has proved to be an efficient means of determining the role of lithospheric versus sublithospheric buoyancies and also of constraining the driving forces behind plate tectonics. Both these sources of buoyancies are important in generating the lithospheric stress field. However, these sources and the contribution that they make are dependent on a number of variables, such as the role of lateral strength variation in the lithosphere, the reference level for computing the gravitational potential energy per unit area (GPE) of the lithosphere, and even the definition of deviatoric stress. For the mantle contribution, much depends on the mantle convection model, including the role of lateral and radial viscosity variations, the spatial distribution of density buoyancies, and the resolution of the convection model. GPE differences are influenced by both lithosphere density buoyancies and by radial basal tractions that produce dynamic topography. The global lithospheric stress field can thus be divided into (1) stresses associated with GPE differences (including the contribution from radial basal tractions) and (2) stresses associated with the contribution of horizontal basal tractions. In this paper, we investigate only the contribution of GPE differences, both with and without the inferred contribution of radial basal tractions. We use the Crust 2.0 model to compute GPE values and show that these GPE differences are not sufficient alone to match all the directions and relative magnitudes of principal strain rate axes, as inferred from the comparison of our depth integrated deviatoric stress tensor field with the velocity gradient tensor field within the Earth's plate boundary zones. We argue that GPE differences calibrate the absolute magnitudes of depth integrated deviatoric stresses within the lithosphere; shortcomings of this contribution in matching the stress indicators within the plate boundary zones can be corrected by considering the contribution from horizontal tractions associated with density buoyancy driven mantle convection. Deviatoric stress magnitudes arising from GPE differences are in the range of 1,4 TN m,1, a part of which is contributed by dynamic topography. The EGM96 geoid data set is also used as a rough proxy for GPE values in the lithosphere. However, GPE differences from the geoid fail to yield depth integrated deviatoric stresses that can provide a good match to the deformation indicators. GPE values inferred from the geoid have significant shortcomings when used on a global scale due to the role of dynamically support of topography. Another important factor in estimating the depth integrated deviatoric stresses is the use of the correct level of reference in calculating GPE. We also elucidate the importance of understanding the reference pressure for calculating deviatoric stress and show that overestimates of deviatoric stress may result from either simplified 2-D approximations of the thin sheet equations or the assumption that the mean stress is equal to the vertical stress. [source]


    Petrochemistry of Volcanic Rocks in the Hishikari Mining Area of Southern Japan, with Implications for the Relative Contribution of Lower Crust and Mantle-derived Basalt

    RESOURCE GEOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    Takahiro Hosono
    Abstract. This study presents the petrographical, mineralogical, and geochemical characteristics of Late Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic rocks distributed in the Hishikari gold mining area of southern Kyushu, Japan, and discusses their origin and evolution. The Hishikari volcanic rocks (HVR), on the basis of age and chemical compositions, are divided into the Kurosonsan (2.4,1.0 Ma) and Shishimano (1.7,0.5 Ma) Groups, which occur in the northern and southern part of the area, respectively. Each group is composed of three andesites and one rhyodacite. HVR are characterized by high concentrations of incompatible elements compared with other volcanic rocks in southern Kyushu, and have low Sr/Nd and high Th/U, Th/Pb, and U/Pb ratios compared with typical subduction-related arc volcanic rocks. Modal and whole-rock compositions of the HVR change systematically with the age of the rocks. Mafic mineral and augite/hypersthene ratios of the andesites decrease with decreasing age in the Kurosonsan Group, whereas in the Shishimano Group, these ratios are higher in the youngest andesite. Similarly, major and trace element compositions of the younger andesites in the former group are enriched in felsic components, whereas in the latter group the youngest andesite is more mafic than older andesites. Moreover, the crystallization temperature of phenocryst minerals decreases with younger age in the former group, whereas the opposite trend is seen in the latter group. Another significant feature is that rhyodacite in the Shishimano Group is enriched in felsic minerals and incompatible elements, and exhibits higher crystallization temperatures of phenocryst minerals than the rhyodacite of the Kurosonsan Group. Geochemical attributes of the HVR and other volcanic rocks in southern Kyushu indicate that a lower subcontinental crust, characterized by so-called EMI-type Sr-Nd and DUPAL anomaly-like Pb isotopic compositions, is distributed beneath the upper to middle crust of the Shimanto Supergroup. The HVR would be more enriched in felsic materials derived from the lower crust by high-alumina basaltic magma from the mantle than volcanic rocks in other areas of southern Kyushu. The Kurosonsan Group advanced the degree of the lower crust contribution with decreasing age from 51 %, through 61 and 66 % to 77 %. In the Shishimano Group, the younger rhyodacite and andesite are derived from hotter magmas with smaller amounts of lower crust component (58 and 57 %) than the older two andesites (65 % and 68 %). We suggest that the Shishimano rhyodacite, which is considered to be responsible for gold mineralization, was formed by large degree of fractional crystallization of hot basaltic andesite magma with less lower crustal component. [source]


    High Pressure Response of Rutile Polymorphs and Its Significance for Indicating the Subduction Depth of Continental Crust

    ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 2 2008
    MENG Dawei
    Abstract: ,-PbO2 -type TiO2 (TiO2 -II) is an important index mineral for ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism. After the discovery of a natural high-pressure phase of titanium oxide with ,-PbO2 -structure in omphacite from coesite-bearing eclogite at Shima in the Dabie Mountains, China, a nano-scale (<2 nm) ,-PbO2 -type TiO2 has been identified through electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy in coesite-bearing jadeite quartzite at Shuanghe in the Dabie Mountains. The crystal structure is orthorhombic with lattice parameters a = 4.58times10,1 nm, b = 5.42times10,1 nm, c = 4.96times10,1 nm and space group Pbcn. The analysis results reveal that rutile {011}R twin interface is a basic structural unit of ,-PbO2 -type TiO2. Nucleation of ,-PbO2 -type TiO2 lamellae is caused by the displacement of one half of the titanium cations within the {011}R twin slab. This displacement reduces the Ti-O-Ti distance and is favored by high pressure. The identification of ,-PbO2 -type TiO2 in coesite-bearing jadeite quartzite from Shuanghe, Dabie Mountains, provides a new and powerful evidence of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism at 4,7 GPa, 850C-900C, and implies a burial of continental crustal rocks to 130,200 kilometers depth or deeper. The ,-PbO2 -type TiO2 may be a useful indicator of the pressure and temperature in the diamond stability field. [source]


    The role of mineralogy, geochemistry and grain size in badland development in Pisticci (Basilicata, southern Italy)

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 7 2007
    V. Summa
    Abstract Mineralogical, geochemical and grain-size composition of soil and pore-water chemistry parameters were characterized on both eroded (south-facing) and non-eroded (north-facing) clayey-silt slopes in the Basilicata region (southern Italy). Only a few grain-size parameters and clay mineralogy discriminate eroded from non-eroded substrates. Compared with the latter, the former have fractions of over 63 m and 1,4 m lower and fractions 4,63 m higher. Grain-size characters of crusts did not discriminate with respect to substrate. Bulk rock mineralogy was not distinctive, but the clay mineral assemblage shows that the eroded slope is enriched in kaolinite, mixed layers (illite,smectite) and chlorite, whereas illite decreases, although overlaps are common. Chemical data enable discrimination between eroded and non-eroded slopes. pH, SAR (sodium adsorption ratio), TDS (total dissolved salts) and PS (percentage of sodium) are distinctive parameters for both eroded and non-eroded slopes. TDS increases in depth in the non-eroded slope, whereas the maximum TDS is just below the crust in the eroded one. On average, eroded substrates are higher in pH, SAR and PS than non-eroded ones. The ESP (exchangeable sodium percentage) of the eroded slope has a higher value than the non-eroded one. Crusts are less dispersive than eroded substrates, and non-eroded substrates behave as crusts. This suggests that the portion of the slope most severely exposed to weathering tends to stabilize, due to strong decreases in SAR, PS and ESP. Several diagrams reported in the literature show similarly anomalous crust samples on eroded slopes, compared with other samples coming from greater depths on eroded slopes. In the present case study, the exchangeable form of Na characterizes crusts more than the soluble form. This study describes the erosional mechanism, which involves morphological and geographic exposure and climatic elements, as well as grain size, mineralogy, chemistry and exchangeable processes of soils. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Understanding Dryland Landscape Dynamics: Do Biological Crusts Hold the Key?

    GEOGRAPHY COMPASS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 3 2008
    Heather A. Viles
    Understanding landscape dynamics in arid and semi-arid areas is becoming increasingly important, as global change threatens to upset linked ecological and geomorphological systems with potentially serous impacts on livelihoods and environments. Biological crusts (composed of lichens, algae, fungi and bacteria) cover many rock, soil and sediment surfaces in arid and semi-arid areas and provide a key to understanding future dryland landscape dynamics. Such crusts have been found to play a number of key geomorphic and ecological roles, and are identified as important ecosystem engineers and biogeomorphological agents that could be used in environmental restoration. However, they have also been reported to be highly fragile and susceptible to disturbance, and damage to them may result in non-linear consequences for linked dryland geomorphological and ecological systems. This paper outlines the current state of knowledge on biological crusts in arid and semi-arid areas and calls for increased collaboration between geomorphologists and ecologists and better links between studies of biological crusts on rock and soil surfaces. [source]


    Structure of biological soil crust communities in Callitris glaucophylla woodlands of New South Wales, Australia

    JOURNAL OF VEGETATION SCIENCE, Issue 3 2006
    Wendy A. Thompson
    Abstract: Question: What is the nature of the relationships between cover, diversity and abundance of biological soil crusts, cover and diversity of vascular plants, and annual rainfall, soil texture and forestry practices in Callitris glaucophylla woodlands? Location: Arid and semi-arid Callitris glaucophylla -domi-nated woodlands of eastern Australia. Methods: We documented soil crust-forming mosses, lichens and liverworts at 83 woodland sites along a gradient of declining rainfall. Linear and non-linear regression were used to examine relationships between soil crust species and attributes of vascular plant communities, and a similarity matrix (species abundance X sites) was subjected to Non-metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS), and Analysis of Similarities (ANOSIM) to show the degree of association between groups of taxa, and soil texture, rainfall classes and forestry practices. Results: We collected 86 taxa. Mosses were dominated by the family Pottiaceae, and lichens were dominated by squamulose forms. Average annual rainfall was highly correlated with soil crust community composition, and loamy soils supported a greater cover and diversity of taxa compared with sandy soils. Increases in tree cover were associated with significant, though weak, increases in abundance, but not diversity, of crusts. Crusts tended to be more diverse in areas that (1) had a sparse cover of ground-storey plants; (2) were relatively stable - as indicated by the proportion of perennial and/or native plants; (3) had more stable soil surfaces; and (4) were unlogged. Litter cover, overstorey thinning, and livestock grazing had no appreciable effect on crust diversity or cover. Conclusions: Callitris glaucophylla woodlands provide substantial habitat for soil crust organisms, and the dense tree cover and closed canopies of Callitris do not appear to have a major influence on the structure of biological crust communities. Unlike other woodland systems, relatively few patches would be required to reserve a high diversity of crust species. [source]


    Transplant Survivorship of Bryophyte Soil Crusts in the Mojave Desert

    RESTORATION ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Christina Cole
    Patches of the dominant biological soil crust moss (Syntrichia caninervis) in the Mojave Desert were subjected to transplant experiments to test the survivability of crustal transplantation due to source or destination microhabitat. After a period of 27 months, all the reciprocally transplanted and replanted sections had survived. However, percent cover of the reciprocally transplanted patches declined 20,50% relative to initial cover compared to a decline in cover of 36,52% for the replanted patches. Similarly, shoot density declined an average of 26% in the transplants and replants. Shoot mortality was essentially negligible through the first 21 months of the study and then declining across all treatments to approximately 5,10 dead shoots/cm2. However, this shoot death was also observed in equivalent densities in the host patches, indicative of a community-wide decline in plant health that was probably related to a regional rainfall deficit over this period. A tendency existed for plants moved from a shaded site to have reduced shoot density in the new site, and plants moved into exposed sites lost significantly more cover than plants moved into shaded sites. These seemingly conflicting trends result from one of the transplant treatments, the shaded to exposed, exhibiting a greater loss in shoot density and decline in cover than its reciprocal transplant, exposed to shaded. For soil restoration of disturbed bryophyte crusts, we recommend using as source material both the exposed and the shaded portions of the crust but avoiding moving Syntrichia from a shaded site into an exposed site. [source]


    Effects of Altered Temperature and Precipitation on Desert Protozoa Associated with Biological Soil Crusts

    THE JOURNAL OF EUKARYOTIC MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
    BRIAN J. DARBY
    ABSTRACT. Biological soil crusts are diverse assemblages of bacteria, cyanobacteria, algae, fungi, lichens, and mosses that cover much of arid land soils. The objective of this study was to quantify protozoa associated with biological soil crusts and test the response of protozoa to increased temperature and precipitation as is predicted by some global climate models. Protozoa were more abundant when associated with cyanobacteria/lichen crusts than with cyanobacteria crusts alone. Amoebae, flagellates, and ciliates originating from the Colorado Plateau desert (cool desert, primarily winter precipitation) declined 50-, 10-, and 100-fold, respectively, when moved in field mesocosms to the Chihuahuan Desert (hot desert, primarily summer rain). However, this was not observed in protozoa collected from the Chihuahuan Desert and moved to the Sonoran desert (hot desert, also summer rain, but warmer than Chihuahuan Desert). Protozoa in culture began to encyst at 37C. Cysts survived the upper end of daily temperatures (37,55C), and could be stimulated to excyst if temperatures were reduced to 15C or lower. Results from this study suggest that cool desert protozoa are influenced negatively by increased summer precipitation during excessive summer temperatures, and that desert protozoa may be adapted to a specific desert's temperature and precipitation regime. [source]


    Treatment of Inflammatory Facial Acne Vulgaris with Intense Pulsed Light and Short Contact of Topical 5-Aminolevulinic Acid: A Pilot Study

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 8 2006
    JINDA ROJANAMATIN MD
    BACKGROUND Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and red light (550,700 nm) has been introduced for effective treatment of facial acne. Untoward side effects are common, however. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the short contact of topical ALA and intense pulsed light (IPL) in treatment of inflammatory facial acne. METHODS Fourteen patients with inflammatory facial acne were treated with IPL on the left side and combination of IPL and topical ALA on the right side at 3- to 4-week intervals for three sessions. Clinical photographs and lesion counts were obtained for evaluation. RESULTS All patients revealed a reduction in number of acne lesions on both sides. On the ALA-pretreated side, lesion counts decreased 87.7% at 12 weeks after the last treatment (p<.01). Meanwhile, lesion counts on the nonpretreated side decreased 66.8% (p<.01). In addition, a number of lesion counts on the ALA-pretreated side decreased. Mild edema and minimal crust developed on the combined-treatment side. CONCLUSION Short contact of topical ALA and IPL or IPL alone showed some beneficial effect in treatment of inflammatory facial acne; however, degree of improvement was better and remained longer with the combined regimen. Side effects were mild and reversible. [source]


    Pigmentary Changes After Alexandrite Laser Hair Removal

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 4 2003
    Noah Kawika Weisberg MD
    Background Postinflammatory pigmentary changes are a frequently encountered problem with numerous dermatologic procedures. Limited literature is available that documents this complication with laser hair removal. Objective It is important for all physicians performing laser hair removal to be aware of this potential complication. We present our experience with postinflammatory pigmentary change and discuss some potential etiologic factors. Methods Seven patients who experienced postinflammatory complications after alexandrite laser hair removal are presented. These are all the patients who developed this complication in our office over the past 2.5 years. Results The patients who we describe in this article all developed a similar pattern of initial hyperpigmented rings, later developing into a thin wafer-like crust followed by hypopigmentation with gradual return to their normal skin color. Conclusion In general, the alexandrite laser is both safe and effective for hair removal in patients of varying skin types. Complication rates will increase as skin pigment increases and as the power used increases. However, even in light-skinned individuals without recent pretreatment or posttreatment sun exposure, with proper treatment parameters, complications, and side effects can arise. We have found this to be especially true when treating areas other than the face. [source]


    Microbiotic crusts as biomarkers for surface stability and wetness duration in the Negev Desert

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 12 2009
    Giora J. Kidron
    Abstract Microbiotic crusts play an important role in arid and semi-arid regions. Yet, very little information exists regarding the factors that impact their development. In an attempt to assess the main factors that may determine their growth, measurements of the amount of fines (silt and clay), rain, moisture content, wetness duration and wind erosion and deposition were carried out along a 12 station transect within a partially crusted dune field in the western Negev Desert and compared to the crust cover and chlorophyll content. Surface stability was the only variable that exhibited significant relationship with crust cover while daylight wetness duration exhibited strong positive relationship (r2 = 092,099) with the crust's chlorophyll content. The data point out that microbiotic crusts may serve as a useful biomarker for surface stability. While wetness duration and wind will control crust cover and the crust chlorophyll content in semi-stable habitats (with absolute annual change in sand level of 2,3 mm), stable habitats (absolute change <1 mm) will be controlled primarily by moisture, while habitats with low surface stability (absolute change of tens and hundreds of millimeters) will be primarily controlled by wind. Furthermore, owing to the strong positive relationship between daylight wetness duration and the crust's chlorophyll content, the crust may serve as a useful biomarker for the quantification of surface wetness duration. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Windblown dust influenced by conventional and undercutter tillage within the Columbia Plateau, USA,

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 10 2009
    B. S. Sharratt
    Abstract Exceedance of the US Environmental Protection Agency national ambient air quality standard for PM10 (particulate matter ,10 m in aerodynamic diameter) within the Columbia Plateau region of the Pacific Northwest US is largely caused by wind erosion of agricultural lands managed in a winter wheat,summer fallow rotation. Land management practices, therefore, are sought that will reduce erosion and PM10 emissions during the summer fallow phase of the rotation. Horizontal soil flux and PM10 concentrations above adjacent field plots (>2 ha), with plots subject to conventional or undercutter tillage during summer fallow, were measured using creep and saltation/suspension collectors and PM10 samplers installed at various heights above the soil surface. After wheat harvest in 2004 and 2005, the plots were either disked (conventional) or undercut with wide sweeps (undercutter) the following spring and then periodically rodweeded prior to sowing wheat in late summer. Soil erosion from the fallow plots was measured during six sampling periods over two years; erosion or PM10 loss was not observed during two periods due to the presence of a crust on the soil surface. For the remaining sampling periods, total surface soil loss from conventional and undercutter tillage ranged from 3 to 40 g m,2 and 1 to 27 g m,2 while PM10 loss from conventional and undercutter tillage ranged from 02 to 50 g m,2 and 01 to 33 g m,2, respectively. Undercutter tillage resulted in a 15% to 65% reduction in soil loss and 30% to 70% reduction in PM10 loss as compared with conventional tillage at our field sites. Therefore, based on our results at two sites over two years, undercutter tillage appears to be an effective management practice to reduce dust emissions from agricultural land subject to a winter wheat,summer fallow rotation within the Columbia Plateau. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The role of mineralogy, geochemistry and grain size in badland development in Pisticci (Basilicata, southern Italy)

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 7 2007
    V. Summa
    Abstract Mineralogical, geochemical and grain-size composition of soil and pore-water chemistry parameters were characterized on both eroded (south-facing) and non-eroded (north-facing) clayey-silt slopes in the Basilicata region (southern Italy). Only a few grain-size parameters and clay mineralogy discriminate eroded from non-eroded substrates. Compared with the latter, the former have fractions of over 63 m and 1,4 m lower and fractions 4,63 m higher. Grain-size characters of crusts did not discriminate with respect to substrate. Bulk rock mineralogy was not distinctive, but the clay mineral assemblage shows that the eroded slope is enriched in kaolinite, mixed layers (illite,smectite) and chlorite, whereas illite decreases, although overlaps are common. Chemical data enable discrimination between eroded and non-eroded slopes. pH, SAR (sodium adsorption ratio), TDS (total dissolved salts) and PS (percentage of sodium) are distinctive parameters for both eroded and non-eroded slopes. TDS increases in depth in the non-eroded slope, whereas the maximum TDS is just below the crust in the eroded one. On average, eroded substrates are higher in pH, SAR and PS than non-eroded ones. The ESP (exchangeable sodium percentage) of the eroded slope has a higher value than the non-eroded one. Crusts are less dispersive than eroded substrates, and non-eroded substrates behave as crusts. This suggests that the portion of the slope most severely exposed to weathering tends to stabilize, due to strong decreases in SAR, PS and ESP. Several diagrams reported in the literature show similarly anomalous crust samples on eroded slopes, compared with other samples coming from greater depths on eroded slopes. In the present case study, the exchangeable form of Na characterizes crusts more than the soluble form. This study describes the erosional mechanism, which involves morphological and geographic exposure and climatic elements, as well as grain size, mineralogy, chemistry and exchangeable processes of soils. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Investigation of coupling between surface processes and induced flow in the lower continental crust as a cause of intraplate seismicity

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 12 2006
    Rob Westaway
    Abstract Many studies have highlighted the role of coupling between surface processes and flow in the lower continental crust in deforming the crust and creating topographic relief over Quaternary timescales. On the basis of the rheological knowledge gained, it is suggested that intraplate seismicity can also be caused by coupling between surface processes and flow in the lower continental crust. This view is shown to be a natural consequence of the modern idea that isostatic equilibrium is maintained by flow in the weak lower crust in response to erosion and sedimentation. It is supported by a general correlation between the vigour of surface processes and rates of intraplate seismicity, and by instances of seasonal seismicity that correlates with seasonal climate. Human interference in the environment can affect surface loading: for instance, deforestation for agriculture or urban development can cause increased erosion rates; global warming is expected to cause increased storminess (and thus increased erosion rates) and/or global sea-level rise. The possibility of increased rates of seismicity resulting from these processes should thus be considered in future hazard assessment. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Soil detachment and transport on field- and laboratory-scale interrill areas: erosion processes and the size-selectivity of eroded sediment

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 8 2006
    O. Malam Issa
    Abstract Field- and laboratory-scale rainfall simulation experiments were carried out in an investigation of the temporal variability of erosion processes on interrill areas, and the effects of such variation upon sediment size characteristics. Poorly aggregated sandy soils from the semi-arid environment of Senegal, West Africa, were used on both a 40 m2 field plot and a 025 m2 laboratory plot; rainfall intensity for all experiments was 70 mm h,1 with a duration of 1 to 2 hours. Time-series measurements were made of the quantity and the size distribution of eroded material: these permitted an estimate of the changing temporal balance between the main erosion processes (splash and wash). Results from both spatial scales showed a similar temporal pattern of runoff generation and sediment concentration. For both spatial scales, the dominant erosional process was detachment by raindrops; this resulted in a dynamic evolution of the soil surface under raindrop impact, with the rapid formation of a sieving crust followed by an erosion crust. However, a clear difference was observed between the two scales regarding the size of particles detached by both splash and wash. While all measured values were lower than the mean weight diameter (MWD) value of the original soil (mean 032 mm), demonstrating the size-selective nature of wash and splash processes, the MWD values of washed and splashed particles at the field scale ranged from 008 to 016 mm and from 012 to 030 mm respectively, whereas the MWD values of washed and splashed particles at the laboratory scale ranged from 013 to 029 mm and from 021 to 032 mm respectively. Thus only at the field scale were the soil particles detached by splash notably coarser than those transported by wash. This suggests a transport-limited erosion process at the field scale. Differences were also observed between the dynamics of the soil loss by wash at the two scales, since results showed wider scatter in the field compared to the laboratory experiments. This scatter is probably related to the change in soil surface characteristics due to the size-selectivity of the erosion processes at this spatial scale. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Mineral soil surface crusts and wind and water erosion

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 9 2004
    Michael J. Singer
    Abstract The ,rst few millimetres of soil largely control the soil's response to the eroding forces of wind and water. The tendency of soils to form surface seals and crusts in,uences the processes of wind and water erosion differently. For wind, dry particle size distribution and particle organization determine the shear strength and threshold wind velocity necessary to initiate particle movement. In loams and clay loams, seals and crusts decrease roughness but increase surface soil strength, generally decreasing wind erosion. Conversely, in sand and sandy loams, loose erodible sandy material may either deposit on the crust and is subject to erosion or it may disrupt the crust, accelerating the erosion process. For water erosion, particle size distribution and structure determine in,ltration rate, time to ponding, and energy required for soil particle detachment. Seals and crusts tend to decrease in,ltration rate and time to ponding thus increasing overland ,ow and soil erosion. This paper brie,y reviews how permanent and time-dependent soil properties in,uence surface seals and crusts and how these affect soil erosion by wind and water. The tendency of a soil to form a seal and crust depends to some degree on the time-dependent property of soil structural stability, which tends to increase with increasing clay content and smectitic mineralogy which are permanent properties. These permanent properties and their effect on structure are variable depending on dynamic properties of exchangeable sodium percentage and soil solution electrical conductivity. Antecedent water content prior to irrigation or rainfall, rate of wetting before an erosive event and aging, the time between wetting and an erosive event, greatly in,uence the response of soil structure to raindrop impact. The effect of these dynamic processes is further in,uenced by the static and dynamic properties of the soil. Weak structure will be less in,uenced by wetting rate than will a soil with strong structure. Process-based models of wind and water erosion need to consider the details of the interactions between soil static and dynamic properties and the dynamic processes that occur prior to erosive events. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The factors influencing the abrasion efficiency of saltating grains on a clay-crusted playa

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 5 2001
    Christopher A. Houser
    Abstract The entrainment and subsequent transport of PM10 (particulate matter <10,m) has become an important and challenging focus of research for both scientific and practical applications. Arid and semi-arid environments are important sources for the atmospheric loading of PM10, although the emission of this material is often limited by surface crusts. It has been suggested that the primary mechanisms through which PM10 is released from a crusted surface are abrasion by saltating grains or disturbance by agricultural and recreational activities. To examine the importance of saltation abrasion in the emission of PM10, a series of field wind tunnel tests were conducted on a clay-crusted surface near Desert Wells, Arizona. In a previous part of this study it was found that the emission rate varies linearly with the saltation transport rate, although there can be considerable variation in this relationship. This paper more closely examines the source of the variability in the abrasion efficiency, the amount of PM10 emitted by a given quantity of saltating grains. The abrasion efficiency was found to vary with the susceptibility of the surface to abrasion, the ability of the sand to abrade that surface and the availability of material with a caliper size <10,m within the crust. Specifically, the results of the study show that the abrasion efficiency is related to the crust strength, the amount of surface disturbance and the velocity of the saltating grains. It is concluded that the spatial and temporal variability of these controls on the abrasion efficiency imposes severe contextual limitations on experimentally derived models, and can make theoretical models too complex and impractical to be of use. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    In situ measurement of methane fluxes and analysis of transcribed particulate methane monooxygenase in desert soils

    ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 10 2009
    Roey Angel
    Summary Aerated soils are a biological sink for atmospheric methane. However, the activity of desert soils and the presence of methanotrophs in these soils have hardly been studied. We studied on-site atmospheric methane consumption rates as well as the diversity and expression of the pmoA gene, coding for a subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase, in arid and hyperarid soils in the Negev Desert, Israel. Methane uptake was only detected in undisturbed soils in the arid region (,90 mm year,1) and vertical methane profiles in soil showed the active layer to be at 0,20 cm depth. No methane uptake was detected in the hyperarid soils (,20 mm year,1) as well as in disturbed soils in the arid region (i.e. agricultural field and a mini-catchment). Molecular analysis of the methanotrophic community using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and cloning/sequencing of the pmoA gene detected methanotrophs in the active soils, whereas the inactive ones were dominated by sequences of the homologous gene amoA, coding for a subunit of the ammonia monooxygenase. Even in the active soils, methanotrophs (as well as in situ activity) could not be detected in the soil crust, which is the biologically most important layer in desert soils. All pmoA sequences belonged to yet uncultured strains. Transcript analysis showed dominance of sequences clustering within the JR3, formerly identified in Californian grassland soils. Our results show that although active methanotrophs are prevalent in arid soils they seem to be absent or inactive in hyperarid and disturbed arid soils. Furthermore, we postulate that methanotrophs of the yet uncultured JR3 cluster are the dominant atmospheric methane oxidizers in this ecosystem. [source]


    Limits of life in MgCl2 -containing environments: chaotropicity defines the window

    ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    John E. Hallsworth
    Summary The biosphere of planet Earth is delineated by physico-chemical conditions that are too harsh for, or inconsistent with, life processes and maintenance of the structure and function of biomolecules. To define the window of life on Earth (and perhaps gain insights into the limits that life could tolerate elsewhere), and hence understand some of the most unusual biological activities that operate at such extremes, it is necessary to understand the causes and cellular basis of systems failure beyond these windows. Because water plays such a central role in biomolecules and bioprocesses, its availability, properties and behaviour are among the key life-limiting parameters. Saline waters dominate the Earth, with the oceans holding 96.5% of the planet's water. Saline groundwater, inland seas or saltwater lakes hold another 1%, a quantity that exceeds the world's available freshwater. About one quarter of Earth's land mass is underlain by salt, often more than 100 m thick. Evaporite deposits contain hypersaline waters within and between their salt crystals, and even contain large subterranean salt lakes, and therefore represent significant microbial habitats. Salts have a major impact on the nature and extent of the biosphere, because solutes radically influence water's availability (water activity) and exert other activities that also affect biological systems (e.g. ionic, kosmotropic, chaotropic and those that affect cell turgor), and as a consequence can be major stressors of cellular systems. Despite the stressor effects of salts, hypersaline environments can be heavily populated with salt-tolerant or -dependent microbes, the halophiles. The most common salt in hypersaline environments is NaCl, but many evaporite deposits and brines are also rich in other salts, including MgCl2 (several hundred million tonnes of bischofite, MgCl26H2O, occur in one formation alone). Magnesium (Mg) is the third most abundant element dissolved in seawater and is ubiquitous in the Earth's crust, and throughout the Solar System, where it exists in association with a variety of anions. Magnesium chloride is exceptionally soluble in water, so can achieve high concentrations (> 5 M) in brines. However, while NaCl-dominated hypersaline environments are habitats for a rich variety of salt-adapted microbes, there are contradictory indications of life in MgCl2 -rich environments. In this work, we have sought to obtain new insights into how MgCl2 affects cellular systems, to assess whether MgCl2 can determine the window of life, and, if so, to derive a value for this window. We have dissected two relevant cellular stress-related activities of MgCl2 solutions, namely water activity reduction and chaotropicity, and analysed signatures of life at different concentrations of MgCl2 in a natural environment, namely the 0.05,5.05 M MgCl2 gradient of the seawater : hypersaline brine interface of Discovery Basin , a large, stable brine lake almost saturated with MgCl2, located on the Mediterranean Sea floor. We document here the exceptional chaotropicity of MgCl2, and show that this property, rather than water activity reduction, inhibits life by denaturing biological macromolecules. In vitro, a test enzyme was totally inhibited by MgCl2 at concentrations below 1 M; and culture medium with MgCl2 concentrations above 1.26 M inhibited the growth of microbes in samples taken from all parts of the Discovery interface. Although DNA and rRNA from key microbial groups (sulfate reducers and methanogens) were detected along the entire MgCl2 gradient of the seawater : Discovery brine interface, mRNA, a highly labile indicator of active microbes, was recovered only from the upper part of the chemocline at MgCl2 concentrations of less than 2.3 M. We also show that the extreme chaotropicity of MgCl2 at high concentrations not only denatures macromolecules, but also preserves the more stable ones: such indicator molecules, hitherto regarded as evidence of life, may thus be misleading signatures in chaotropic environments. Thus, the chaotropicity of MgCl2 would appear to be a window-of-life-determining parameter, and the results obtained here suggest that the upper MgCl2 concentration for life, in the absence of compensating (e.g. kosmotropic) solutes, is about 2.3 M. [source]


    Screening the Hanford tanks for trapped gas

    ENVIRONMETRICS, Issue 5-6 2002
    Paul Whitney
    Abstract The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. This article describes a screening study carried out in the mid 1990s that used the tank waste level measurements to assess the tanks for potential flammable gas hazards. At the time of the study, 25 of the 177 tanks were on the flammable gas watch list. The use of this monitoring data provided additional insight, resulting in operational changes on the Hanford site. The waste level measurements used in this study were made primarily to monitor the tanks for leaks and intrusions. Four measurement devices are widely used in these tanks. Three of these measure the level of the waste surface. The remaining device measures from within a well embedded in the waste, thereby monitoring the liquid level even if the liquid level is below a dry waste crust. The data from each of the four measurement devices were utilized in this investigation. The analytic method used for this screening was to look for an inverse correlation between waste level measurements and ambient atmospheric pressure. If the waste level in a tank decreases with an increase in ambient atmospheric pressure, then the compressibility may be attributed to gas trapped within the waste. In this article, this methodology is not used to estimate the volume of gas trapped in the waste. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Trace element distributions in soils developed in loess deposits from northern France

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE, Issue 3 2006
    T. Sterckeman
    Summary A pedo-geochemical survey was carried out in the Nord-Pas de Calais region (France) on soils developed in loess deposits. Total concentrations of Al, Fe and 18 trace elements, as well as common soil characteristics, were determined in samples from 52 surface and 97 deep horizons developed in these loess deposits. The Pb isotopic composition was determined in two sola. The composition of deep horizons, compared with that of the upper continental crust, with that of horizons developed from 21 other sedimentary rocks from the region and with that of loess from various parts of the world, confirms that loess from the Nord-Pas de Calais region derives from multi-recycled and well-mixed ancient sedimentary rocks. Correlation analysis shows that least mobile (i.e. ionic potential (Z/r) is between 3 and 7) geogenic elements (Bi, Co, Cr, Cu, In, Ni, Pb, Sn, Tl, V, Zn) are associated with the fraction <2 m (which we define as ,lutum'). More mobile elements (As, Cd, Hg, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se) are less associated with this fraction. Cadmium is particularly linked to Mn. The distribution of [trace element]/([Al] or [Fe]) in the French loess gives the background content for soils developed from most sedimentary materials in northwestern Europe. Topsoils are enriched with all the trace elements examined, except Co, Cr and Ni. Enrichments with Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn are greater in cultivated soils than in forest soils. Enrichments with Pb and with Cu, Hg, Mo, Sb, Se and Sn are mainly due to human contamination through atmospheric fallout. Organic matter seems to act as a sink for all the exogenous trace elements. [source]


    Effect of Cream of Tartar Level and Egg White Temperature on Angel Food Cake Quality

    FAMILY & CONSUMER SCIENCES RESEARCH JOURNAL, Issue 2 2000
    Anne M. Oldham
    The effects of amount of cream of tartar, time of cream of tartar addition, and egg white temperature were evaluated with angel food cakes. Two replications of each of 12 treatments were used: factorial combinations of three levels of cream of tartar (representing 1/12, 1/8, or 1/4 tsp per egg white), two times of cream of tartar addition (before beating or at foamy stage), and two egg white temperatures (2 or 22C). Increased cream of tartar decreased pH; increased specific gravity, cake slice area, and tenderness; and caused whiter interior crumb and darker exterior crust. Cakes made with 22C (vs. 2C) egg whites had increased exterior yellow color, decreased specific gravity after flour addition, and decreased preference. Cold egg whites did not decrease cake quality, eliminating the need to warm eggs with attending bacterial risk and decreasing preproduction time. [source]


    N2 -fixation and complementary chromatic adaptation in non-heterocystous cyanobacteria from Lake Constance

    FEMS MICROBIOLOGY ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
    Christine Postius
    Abstract Non-heterocystous, mostly filamentous cyanobacteria were isolated from the crust of stones, from the periphyton of two macrophytes from the littoral zone and from the pelagic environment of Lake Constance. All isolates were cultivated as unialgal strains. DNA analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism with the psbA gene probe revealed high genetic diversity among the strains from the littoral zone. For all genotypes, the occurrence of the nifH gene encoding a nitrogenase subunit and of genes encoding subunits of phycoerythrin and phycocyanin were tested by Southern blot hybridization. In addition, the isolates were investigated for their ability for complementary chromatic adaptation (CCA) and for anaerobic N2 -fixation. With respect to these characteristics, all cyanobacteria included in this study were assigned to four different types: (1) strains without the capability to fix N2 or to perform CCA of the group III type (CCA III); (2) strains which show both features; (3) strains with the ability to fix nitrogen, but that do not show any CCA III; and (4) strains that produce phycoerythrin, but without the capacity for CCA III or N2 -fixation. By examining the frequency distribution of isolates, these types were shown to prefer different habitats. While cyanobacterial strains capable of N2 -fixation, but without CCA III, were mainly obtained from stone crusts in the supralittoral zone, those with the potential for N2 -fixation as well as for CCA III were largely isolated from submersed macrophytes. Cyanobacteria that produce phycoerythrin, but do not perform CCA III or N2 -fixation, were found in the pelagic zone only. [source]


    Biogeochemical modelling of the rise in atmospheric oxygen

    GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    M. W. CLAIRE
    ABSTRACT Understanding the evolution of atmospheric molecular oxygen levels is a fundamental unsolved problem in Earth's history. We develop a quantitative biogeochemical model that simulates the Palaeoproterozoic transition of the Earth's atmosphere from a weakly reducing state to an O2 -rich state. The purpose is to gain an insight into factors that plausibly control the timing and rapidity of the oxic transition. The model uses a simplified atmospheric chemistry (parameterized from complex photochemical models) and evolving redox fluxes in the Earth system. We consider time-dependent fluxes that include organic carbon burial and associated oxygen production, reducing gases from metamorphic and volcanic sources, oxidative weathering, and the escape of hydrogen to space. We find that the oxic transition occurs in a geologically short time when the O2 -consuming flux of reducing gases falls below the flux of organic carbon burial that produces O2. A short timescale for the oxic transition is enhanced by a positive feedback due to decreasing destruction of O2 as stratospheric ozone forms, which is captured in our atmospheric chemistry parameterization. We show that one numerically self-consistent solution for the rise of O2 involves a decline in flux of reducing gases driven by irreversible secular oxidation of the crust caused by time-integrated hydrogen escape to space in the preoxic atmosphere, and that this is compatible with constraints from the geological record. In this model, the timing of the oxic transition is strongly affected by buffers of reduced materials, particularly iron, in the continental crust. An alternative version of the model, where greater fluxes of reduced hydrothermal cations from the Archean seafloor consume O2, produces a similar history of O2 and CH4. When climate and biosphere feedbacks are included in our model of the oxic transition, we find that multiple ,Snowball Earth' events are simulated under certain circumstances, as methane collapses and rises repeatedly before reaching a new steady-state. [source]


    Biogeochemistry of a gypsum-encrusted microbial ecosystem

    GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
    D. E. CANFIELD
    ABSTRACT Gypsum crusts containing multicolored stratified microbial populations grow in the evaporation ponds of a commercial saltern in Eilat, Israel. These crusts contain two prominent cyanobacterial layers, a bright purple layer of anoxygenic phototrophs, and a lower black layer with active sulphate reduction. We explored the diel dynamics of oxygen and sulphide within the crust using specially constructed microelectrodes, and further explored the crust biogeochemistry by measuring rates of sulphate reduction, stable sulphur isotope composition, and oxygen exchange rates across the crust,brine interface. We explored crusts from ponds with two different salinities, and found that the crust in the highest salinity was the less active. Overall, these crusts exhibited much lower rates of oxygen production than typical organic-rich microbial mats. However, this was mainly due to much lower cell densities within the crusts. Surprisingly, on a per cell-volume basis, rates of photosynthesis were similar to organic-rich microbial mats. Due to relatively low rates of oxygen production and deep photic zones extending from 1.5 to 3 cm depth, a large percentage of the oxygen produced during the day accumulated into the crusts. Indeed, only between 16% to 34% of the O2 produced in the crust escaped, and the remainder was internally recycled, used mainly in O2 respiration. We view these crusts as potential homologs to ancient salt-encrusted microbial ecosystems, and we compared them to the 3.45 billion-year-old quartz barite deposits from North Pole, Australia, which originally precipitated gypsum. [source]


    Microbial diversity of a sulphide spire located in the Edmond deep-sea hydrothermal vent field on the Central Indian Ridge

    GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
    Joost Hoek
    ABSTRACT A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic survey was carried out for a bacterial and archaeal community of a mineralized crust coating a sulphide spire, which was collected from the Edmond vent field (23 S, 69 E, 3300 m depth) on the Central Indian Ridge. Small-subunit rRNA genes (16S rDNA) were amplified from environmental DNA by PCR utilizing Bacteria-specific, and Archaea-specific 16S rDNA primers. PCR products were cloned and 26 bacterial and nine archaeal unique sequence types (phylotypes) were identified from 150 clones analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism, representing eight and four distinct lineages, respectively. The majority (>90%) of the bacterial phylotypes group with the ,-Proteobacteria and confirms the global prevalence of ,-Proteobacteria in deep-sea hydrothermal environments. Among the ,-Proteobacteria, >40% of the phylotypes were closely related to the recently isolated deep-sea vent thermophilic chemolithoautotrophic sulphur-reducer, Nautilia lithotrophica. A single bacterial sequence was nearly identical (99% similarity) to the thermophilic hydrogen-oxidizing Hydrogenobacter thermolithotrophum, and is the first report of Hydrogenobacter at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. A majority (97%) of the archaeal phylotypes grouped with the ,Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Euryarchaeotal Group', a phylogenetic lineage of uncultured Archaea that have only been reported from other deep-sea hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, East Pacific Rise, Juan de Fuca Ridge, Isu,Ogasawara Arc, Okinawa Trough and the Manus Basin. A single sequence was closely related to the hyperthermophilic sulphur-reducing Thermococcales frequently found in diverse deep-sea vent environments. Scanning electron micrographs of the mineralized crust reveal abundant filamentous, rod and coccoidal forms encased in sulphur and sulphide mineral precipitate, suggesting that the thermophilic chemolithoautorophs and sulphide-producing heterotrophs may influence the architecture and sulphur cycling of the sulphide spire. [source]


    Aqueous fluids at elevated pressure and temperature

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1-2 2010
    A. LIEBSCHER
    Abstract The general major component composition of aqueous fluids at elevated pressure and temperature conditions can be represented by H2O, different non-polar gases like CO2 and different dissolved metal halides like NaCl or CaCl2. At high pressure, the mutual solubility of H2O and silicate melts increases and also silicates may form essential components of aqueous fluids. Given the huge range of P,T,x regimes in crust and mantle, aqueous fluids at elevated pressure and temperature are highly variable in composition and exhibit specific physicochemical properties. This paper reviews principal phase relations in one- and two-component fluid systems, phase relations and properties of binary and ternary fluid systems, properties of pure H2O at elevated P,T conditions, and aqueous fluids in H2O,silicate systems at high pressure and temperature. At metamorphic conditions, even the physicochemical properties of pure water substantially differ from those at ambient conditions. Under typical mid- to lower-crustal metamorphic conditions, the density of pure H2O is , the ion product Kw = 10,7.5 to approximately 10,12.5, the dielectric constant , = 8,25, and the viscosity , = 0.0001,0.0002 Pa sec compared to , Kw = 10,14, , = 78 and , = 0.001 Pa sec at ambient conditions. Adding dissolved metal halides and non-polar gases to H2O significantly enlarges the pressure,temperature range, where different aqueous fluids may co-exist and leads to potential two-phase fluid conditions under must mid- to lower-crustal P,T conditions. As a result of the increased mutual solubility between aqueous fluids and silicate melts at high pressure, the differences between fluid and melt vanishes and the distinction between fluid and melt becomes obsolete. Both are completely miscible at pressures above the respective critical curve giving rise to so-called supercritical fluids. These supercritical fluids combine comparably low viscosity with high solute contents and are very effective metasomatising agents within the mantle wedge above subduction zones. [source]


    Permeability of the continental crust: dynamic variations inferred from seismicity and metamorphism

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1-2 2010
    S. E. INGEBRITSEN
    Geofluids (2010) 10, 193,205 Abstract The variation of permeability with depth can be probed indirectly by various means, including hydrologic models that use geothermal data as constraints and the progress of metamorphic reactions driven by fluid flow. Geothermal and metamorphic data combine to indicate that mean permeability (k) of tectonically active continental crust decreases with depth (z) according to log k , ,14,3.2 log z, where k is in m2 and z in km. Other independently derived, crustal-scale k,z relations are generally similar to this power-law curve. Yet there is also substantial evidence for local-to-regional-scale, transient, permeability-generation events that entail permeabilities much higher than these mean k,z relations would suggest. Compilation of such data yields a fit to these elevated, transient values of log k , ,11.5,3.2 log z, suggesting a functional form similar to that of tectonically active crust, but shifted to higher permeability at a given depth. In addition, it seems possible that, in the absence of active prograde metamorphism, permeability in the deeper crust will decay toward values below the mean k,z curves. Several lines of evidence suggest geologically rapid (years to 103 years) decay of high-permeability transients toward background values. Crustal-scale k,z curves may reflect a dynamic competition between permeability creation by processes such as fluid sourcing and rock failure, and permeability destruction by processes such as compaction, hydrothermal alteration, and retrograde metamorphism. [source]