Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Adv

  • index adv
  • subject index adv

  • Selected Abstracts

    ADV measurements of velocity distributions in a gravel-bed flume

    Vito Ferro
    Abstract Velocity measurements carried out by an acoustic doppler velocimeter (ADV) in a rectangular laboratory ,ume having a gravel bed are presented. The velocity pro,les are measured in six verticals of the channel cross-section having an increasing distance (from 4 to 38·5 cm) from the ,ume wall. The experimental runs are carried out for ,ve different bed arrangements, characterized by different concentrations of coarser elements, and for the two conditions of small- and large-scale roughness. For both hydraulic conditions, the velocity measurements are ,rst used to test the applicability of the Dean pro,le and of the logarithmic pro,le corrected by a divergence function proposed in this paper. Then, for each value of the depth sediment ratio h/d84, the non-dimensional friction factor parameter is calculated by integration of the measured velocity distributions in the different verticals of the cross-section. Finally a semi-logarithmic ,ow resistance equation is empirically deduced. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Systemic IFN-, drives kidney nephritis in B6.Sle123 mice

    Anna-Marie Fairhurst
    Abstract The impact of IFN-, secretion on disease progression was assessed by comparing phenotypic changes in the lupus-prone B6.Sle1Sle2Sle3 (B6.Sle123) strain and the parental C57BL/6 (B6) congenic partner using an adenovirus (ADV) expression vector containing a recombinant IFN-, gene cassette (IFN-ADV). A comprehensive comparison of cell lineage composition and activation in young B6 and B6.Sle123 mice revealed a variety of cellular alterations in the presence and absence of systemic IFN-,. Most IFN-,-induced phenotypes were similar in B6 and B6.Sle123 mice; however, B6.Sle123 mice uniquely exhibited increased B1 and plasma cells after IFN-, exposure, although both strains had an overall loss of mature B cells in the bone marrow, spleen and periphery. Although most of the cellular effects of IFN-, were identical in both strains, severe glomerulonephritis occurred only in B6.Sle123 mice. Mice injected with IFN-ADV showed an increase in immune complex deposition in the kidney, together with an unexpected decrease in serum anti-nuclear antibody levels. In summary, the predominant impact of systemic IFN-, in this murine model is an exacerbation of mechanisms mediating end organ damage. [source]

    Long-term efficacy and safety of adefovir dipivoxil for the treatment of hepatitis B e antigen,positive chronic hepatitis B,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Patrick Marcellin
    Treatment of 171 patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) 10 mg over 48 weeks resulted in significant histological, virological, serological, and biochemical improvement compared with placebo. The long-term efficacy and safety of ADV in a subset of these patients was investigated for up to 5 years. Sixty-five patients given ADV 10 mg in year 1 elected to continue in a long-term safety and efficacy study (LTSES). At enrollment, the 65 LTSES patients were a median 34 years old, 83% male, 74% Asian, 23% Caucasian, median baseline serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA 8.45 log10 copies/mL, and median baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 2.0 × upper limit of normal. At 5 years on study, the median changes from baseline in serum HBV DNA and ALT for the 41 patients still on ADV were 4.05 log10 copies/mL and ,50 U/L, respectively. HBeAg loss and seroconversion were observed in 58% and 48% of patients by end of study, respectively. Fifteen patients had baseline and end of follow-up liver biopsies; improvements in necroinflammation and fibrosis were seen in 67% and 60% of these patients, respectively. Adefovir resistance mutations A181V or N236T developed in 13 LTSES patients; the first observation was at study week 195. There were no serious adverse events related to ADV. Conclusion: Treatment with ADV beyond 48 weeks was well tolerated and produced long-term virological, biochemical, serological, and histological improvement. (HEPATOLOGY 2008;48:750,758.) [source]

    Suspended sediment concentration and the ripple,dune transition

    Robert J. Schindler
    Abstract Flume experiments were conducted in order to monitor changes in flow turbulence intensity and suspended sediment concentration at seven stages across the ripple,dune transition and at three different positions above the bed surface. Three-dimensional velocity measurements were obtained using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV). Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) was monitored indirectly using ADV signal amplitude. Although limited to time-averaged parameters, the analysis reveals that SSC varies significantly with stage across the transition and with sampling height. The statistical analysis also reveals an apparent uniformity of suspended sediment concentration with height above the bed in the lower half of the flow depth at the critical stage in the transition from ripples to dunes. This is also the stage at which turbulence intensity is maximized. Statistically significant correlations were also observed between suspended sediment concentrations and root-mean-square values of vertical velocity fluctuations. These correlations reflect the various levels of shear-layer activity and the distinct turbulent flow regions across the transition. Conversely, time-averaged values of Reynolds shear stress exhibit a very weak relationship with suspended sediment concentrations. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Ripening of traditional Örgü cheese manufactured with raw or pasteurized milk: Composition and biochemical properties

    The changes in composition and some biochemical properties of Örgü cheeses made from raw (RMC) and pasteurized (PMC) cow milk were investigated during a 90-day ripening period. The average contents of total solids (TS), protein, water soluble nitrogen (WSN), trichloro-acetic acid soluble nitrogen (TCA-SN) and acid degree value (ADV) were lower, while salt and salt in TS were found to be statistically higher in PMC than RMC (P < 0.05). In addition, in both RMC and PMC, the TS and protein contents were decreased as compared to an increase in salt, salt in TS, WSN and TCA-SN contents, and ADV, during ripening (P < 0.05). The evaluation of WSN, TCA-SN and ADV shows that these two experimental Örgü cheese types undergo little proteolysis and lipolysis. On the other hand, acidity development was observed to be high in both before curdling and in cheese made from raw milk during ripening. [source]

    Adefovir plus lamivudine are more effective than adefovir alone in lamivudine-resistant HBeAg - chronic hepatitis B patients: A 4-year study

    Themistoklis G Vassiliadis
    Abstract Background and Aim:, Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) is effective in lamivudine (LAM)-resistant hepatitis B e antigen-negative (HBeAg - ) chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, it is unclear whether LAM treatment should be continued in these patients. We aimed to compare the long-term efficacy of adding ADV to ongoing LAM treatment versus switching to ADV monotherapy in LAM-resistant HBeAg - CHB. Methods:, Sixty LAM-resistant patients with HBeAg - CHB were randomly assigned (3:1) to combination therapy (10 mg ADV once daily plus ongoing LAM at 100 mg once daily [n = 45]) or 10 mg ADV monotherapy once daily (n = 15). Virological and biochemical responses were defined as hepatitis B virus (HBV),DNA <400 copies/mL and as normalization of alanine aminotransferase levels, respectively. Results:, The median follow-up time was 53 months (range 20,60 months). A virological response was observed in 38/45 (84.4%) and 11/15 (73.3%) patients in the ADV/LAM and ADV monotherapy groups, respectively (P = 0.56). Biochemical response rates were higher in the ADV/LAM group than in the ADV monotherapy group (90.9% vs 57.1%, respectively; P = 0.01). In the ADV/LAM group, serum HBV,DNA remained undetectable in all patients who achieved a virological response (n = 38). In the ADV monotherapy group, virological breakthrough occurred in four of the 11 patients who achieved a virological response (36.4%; P < 0.001 vs the ADV/LAM group, log,rank test). In addition, two patients in each group who did not achieve a virological response eventually developed ADV resistance. Conclusions:, Adding ADV to LAM is more effective than switching to ADV monotherapy in LAM-resistant patients with HBeAg - CHB. [source]

    Synthesis and antiviral activity of new benzothiadiazine dioxide derivatives

    Annalisa Tait
    A series of 2,1,3- and 1,2,4-benzothiadiazine derivatives were synthesized by alkylation via Mitsunobu reaction and evaluated for their antiviral activity against ADV, HHV-6, Cox-B5 and H-CMV. Most of them were active at micromolar level against one or more viral strains. All the molecules studied are poorly cytotoxic (maximum non toxic concentrations were >25,M), except one compound that presents a higher cytotoxicity (maximum non toxic concentration was 6 ,M). [source]

    Question of ALT flare during switch to adefovir from lamivudine: A single center open-label, randomized, safety study (June 17, 2005 to February 5, 2009),

    Hie-Won L. Hann
    Abstract Earlier clinical studies have reported an ALT flare greater than 10 times the upper limit of normal in some patients with chronic hepatitis B when their lamivudine (LAM) treatment was switched to adefovir (ADV) therapy. The current study compared the safety of switching directly to ADV versus overlapping LAM and ADV for 3 months followed by ADV monotherapy. Patients with chronic hepatitis B receiving LAM therapy for ,6 months were eligible for the study regardless of the presence of LAM resistance, HBeAg status or serum ALT levels. Eighteen patients (13 males) were randomized to direct switch to ADV and 17 patients (10 males) to overlap. HBV-DNA, ALT, albumin, and total bilirubin were assayed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Study drugs were discontinued at the end of 12 months with the follow up at 3 and 6 months. The decision to continue antiviral therapy was made at the discretion of the investigator. Baseline ALT levels were similar between the direct switch and overlap group: median ALT (U/L) was 44.0 (16,266) and 33.0 (19,367) for direct switch for overlap group, respectively (P,=,0.42). No ALT flare was noted at 3 months in either group: median ALT decreased from 44.0 to 34.5,U/L in the direct switch group, and from 33.0 to 23.0 in the overlap group. Furthermore, no patient in either group exhibited ALT flare throughout the 12 months. This study did not show an ALT flare during switch to ADV at 3 months or at any time later. J. Med. Virol. 82:1489,1493, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Impact of Age at First Drink on Stress-Reactive Drinking

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2007
    Deborah A. Dawson
    Background: Although recent data from animal models indicate that adolescent ethanol exposure increases self-administered ethanol intake in adult rats, the impact of age at first drink on the association between stress and drinking has not been studied in humans. Methods: Data collected in the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were used to estimate the extent to which age at first drink modified the association between stress and average daily volume (ADV) of ethanol intake in a sample of 26,946 past-year drinkers. Successive models estimated the magnitude and significance of the interaction between age at first drink (ages 14 or younger, 15,17, and 18 or older) and number of stressors (out of 12 past-year negative life events) after (1) adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, (2) additionally adjusting for family history of alcoholism, comorbid psychopathology, adolescent, and past-year tobacco and illicit drug use, and (3) additionally adjusting for all other significant interactions with number of stressors. Results: Even after adjusting for a wide range of confounders and their interactions with stress, initiation of drinking at ages 14 and younger increased the association between the number of stressors and ADV of ethanol consumption by 8% (p=0.014), when considering the full range of 12 potential stressors. In fact, the positive association between stress and consumption was significant only for this group of drinkers with early adolescent exposure to ethanol. Within this group, ADV of consumption increased by an average of 7% with each additional stressor experienced, although the exact percentage increase varied as a function of other covariates that had significant interactions with stress. When a reduced set of 4 stressors was considered, the magnitudes of the associations were mostly unchanged, but the modifying effect of age at first drink fell short of statistical significance (p=0.309) in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions: The findings of this study are consistent with the argument that early-onset drinking may increase stress-reactive ethanol consumption; however, these findings need to be replicated in an experimental human study in order to control fully the direction of the relationship between stress and consumption. [source]

    Tenofovir plus lamivudine as rescue therapy for adefovir-resistant chronic hepatitis B in hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients with liver cirrhosis

    Won Hyeok Choe
    Abstract Background/Aims: There is no consensus on the management of patients with adefovir (ADV)-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate whether tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) combined with lamivudine (LMV) is effective and safe in patients with resistance to or non-response to ADV. Methods: Six patients with HBV-related cirrhosis, viral breakthrough during LMV therapy and viral breakthrough or non-response during ADV therapy were treated daily with TDF plus LMV for at least 6 months. The HBV DNA level, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), the Child,Pugh score and serum creatinine were monitored. Genotypic LMV- or ADV-resistant mutations were measured in stored samples. Results: In five of six patients, ADV-resistant mutations at rt181 or rt236 were detected during ADV therapy. At 6 months of starting TDF/LMV combination, HBV DNA levels became undetectable (detection limit, 400 copies/ml) in four of six patients. Within 12 months, HBV DNA levels became undetectable in all patients, and ALT levels were normalized in four of six patients. These responses persisted up to the end of the observation period (median duration 16.5 months, range 6,21 months). The Child,Pugh scores improved in two of three patients with hepatic decompensation. No significant changes in serum creatinine were observed. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that TDF plus LMV safely and markedly suppressed HBV replication in patients with resistance to or non-response to ADV. This study suggests that this combination may be a promising rescue therapy for these patients, particularly those with liver cirrhosis or pre-existing LMV resistance. [source]

    High-risk adenovirus-infected pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell transplant recipients and preemptive cidofovir therapy

    Evan J. Anderson
    Abstract:, ADV has emerged as an important pathogen in children undergoing allogeneic HPCT. A prospective study of the epidemiology of ADV infection and preemptive therapy of high risk ADV infections in children undergoing HPCT was undertaken. Cultures of throat, urine, and stool for viral pathogens and plasma for ADV PCR were obtained prior to transplantation, weekly for the first 100 days, and then monthly for one yr. Children developing high-risk ADV infections were treated preemptively with cidofovir 1 mg/kg/day given three times weekly for three wk. A case-controlled study was performed to identify risk factors for high-risk ADV infections. Seven (18%) of the 38 subjects developed high-risk ADV infections usually within 100 days of HPCT and were preemptively treated with i.v. cidofovir at a dose of 1 mg/kg/dose three times weekly for nine doses. High-risk ADV infections resolved in all seven patients without renal toxicity. CMV viremia occurred in two of seven patients during or shortly after therapy with cidofovir. A case,control study did not identify any risk factors that achieved statistical significance. Treatment with a modified dosing regimen of cidofovir was well-tolerated and high-risk ADV infections resolved in all patients. [source]

    Adenovirus Infection in Pediatric Liver and Intestinal Transplant Recipients: Utility of DNA Detection by PCR

    Gwenn E. McLaughlin
    To evaluate the incidence of adenovirus (AdV) infection in pediatric liver and intestinal transplant recipients, the records of patients with possible AdV infection were reviewed for demographic data, symptomatology, methods of diagnosis, treatment and outcome. To evaluate the impact of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and identification of AdV DNA as a diagnostic test, the incidence and outcome of AdV before and after the introduction of PCR were compared. Adenovirus infection was identified in 4.1% of liver recipients and 20.8% of intestinal transplant recipients. The overall incidence of AdV did not increase over time, even following the introduction of PCR for virus detection. The higher incidence of AdV in the pediatric intestinal transplant recipients may be attributed to the frequent application of PCR methodology to intestinal biopsy material. Detection of AdV by PCR was associated with reduced mortality compared with detection by culture, either because of earlier detection of invasive disease or because PCR detects the presence of latent as well as active AdV. [source]

    293 cell cycle synchronisation adenovirus vector production

    Tiago B. Ferreira
    Abstract As the market requirements for adenovirus vectors (AdV) increase, the maximisation of the virus titer per culture volume per unit time is a key requirement. However, despite the fact that 293 cells can grow up to 8 × 106 cell/mL in simple batch mode operations, for optimal AdV infection a maximum cell density of 1 × 106 cell/mL at infection time has usually been utilized due to the so called "cell density effect". In addition, AdV titer appears to be dependent upon cell cycle phase at the time of infection. To evaluate the dependence of AdV production upon cell cycle phase, 293 cells were chemically synchronised at each phase of the cell cycle; a 2.6-fold increase on AdV cell specific titer was obtained when the percentage of cells at the S phase of the cell cycle was increased from 36 to 47%; a mathematical equation was used to relate AdV cell specific productivities with cell synchronisation at the S phase using this data. To avoid the use of chemical inhibitors, a temperature shift strategy was also used for synchronisation at the S phase. S phase synchronisation was obtained by decreasing the culture temperature to 31°C during 67 h and restoring it to 37°C during 72 h. By using this strategy we were able to synchronise 57% of the population in the S phase of the cell cycle obtaining an increase of 7.3-fold on AdV cell specific titer after infection. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009 [source]

    Thermal Conductivity of Cellular Metals Measured by the Transient Plane Source Method,

    E. Solórzano
    The thermal conductivity of a collection of cellular metals has been measured by the Transient Plane Source (TPS) method. Using this method, it has been possible to cover different volumes of selected samples and to study their in-homogeneities from their surface to their inner part. Additionally, these samples have been characterized by tomography. With the TPS method, in combination with tomography, it has been possible to analyse the in-homogeneity of the samples as well as to characterize the thermal conductivity of a single in-homogeneous sample as a complete collection of different porosity specimens. This is the corrected version of the paper by Solórzano et al., Adv. Eng. Mater.2008, 10, 371, which was unfortunately published in an uncorrected version. [source]

    Enhanced Strength and Ductility in Ultrafine-Grained Aluminium Produced by Accumulative Roll Bonding,

    H.W. Höppel
    Due to a printing error in the Adv. Eng. Mater. 2004, 6, issue 4, this article, originally published on pages 219,222, had to be reprinted. Now the correct references are given to allow all readers the correct access to the literature. The editorial team apologizes for any inconveniences this may have caused. [source]

    Bone Implants: (Osteoconductive and Osteoinductive Properties of Zeolite MFI Coatings on Titanium Alloys) Adv.

    Biocompatible zeolite anti-corrosion coatings have potential for success as bone scaffolding materials. In this work, reported by Y. Yan and co-workers, titanium-based dental implants are covered with zeolite MFI coatings to prevent against corrosion within the dental cavity. Zeolite coatings are non-toxic, and prevent the release of toxic ions from metals into tissue. The 3D micro-topology of the zeolites also enhances cell proliferation, differentiation, and surface adhesion. [source]

    Carbon Nanotubes: (Thermal and Structural Characterizations of Individual Single-, Double-, and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes) Adv.

    Here, M. T. Pettes and L. Shi report for the first time the thermal conductance, diameter, and chiral angle for a single single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT). A scanning electron micrograph of the suspended micro-thermometer device and transmission electron microscopy images used to determine the SWCNT's (22, 12) chirality are shown in this frontispiece image, along with the rendered unit cell. [source]

    Cell Imaging: (Generic Strategy of Preparing Fluorescent Conjugated-Polymer-Loaded Poly(DL -lactide- co -Glycolide) Nanoparticles for Targeted Cell Imaging) Adv.

    A generic strategy for the fabrication of highly fluorescent poly(DL -lactide- co -glycolide) nanoparticles loaded with conjugated polymers is reported by B. Liu et al. This method may serve to produce a new generation of biocompatible, surface-functionalizable probes for targeted cancer cell imaging and diagnostics, as described on page 3535. [source]

    Hydrogel Patterning: (Swelling-Induced Surface Patterns in Hydrogels with Gradient Crosslinking Density) Adv.

    In this paper by M. Guvendiren et al, a simple and robust method is used to generate a range of osmotically-driven surface patterns in hydrogels, including random, lamellar, peanut, and hexagonal structures. The patterns are fabricated by exposing a photocurable formulation to light while open to air and then swelling, using oxygen inhibition of the radical polymerization at the surface to create a gradient of crosslinking with depth. [source]

    Immunosensors: (Ionic-Liquid-Doped Polyaniline Inverse Opals: Preparation, Characterization, and Application for the Electrochemical Impedance Immunoassay of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen) Adv.

    Xing-Hua Li et al. describe the preparation of ionic liquid-doped polyaniline (IL-PANI) inverse opaline film with surface assemblies of gold nanoparticles. The resulting AuNP/IL-PANI film is conjugated with Hepatitis B surface antibody molecules to fabricate a immunosensor with a low detection limit for Hepatitis B surface antigen. [source]

    Surface Patterning: Spatiotemporal Control over Molecular Delivery and Cellular Encapsulation from Electropolymerized Micro- and Nanopatterned Surfaces(Adv.

    This frontispiece image shows a multicomponent chip inspired by a vaccine node for specific T-cell stimulation, as described by Stern et al. on page 2888. The chip is functionalized with two different polymers (silver and black) as shown in the clockwise fabrication steps in the corners, each of which presents and releases different molecules necessary for stimulation. T-cells are stained red and dendritic cells are stained green. The inset image shows the reverse polymer pattern. [source]

    Solid-State Lasers: (Materials for a Reliable Solid-State Dye Laser at the Red Spectral Edge) Adv.

    New photosensitive materials based on dye-doped polymeric matrices as active media in solid-state dye lasers allow highly efficient, stable, laser action, with fine tuning of the emitting wavelength from visible to NIR spectral region (575,750 nm) possible. These particular characteristics impelled the building of a prototype SSDL, which was compact, hazardless, versatile, and easy to handle. [source]

    Electroluminescence: (Highly Emitting Neutral Dinuclear Rhenium Complexes as Phosphorescent Dopants for Electroluminescent Devices) Adv.

    Neutral, dinuclear, highly luminescent rhenium(I) complexes are prepared and their photophysical and electrochemical properties investigated by Professor Luisa De Cola and co-workers. For the first time, electroluminescent devices, using a rhenium complex as dopant, obtained by sublimation and by solution processing are described. [source]

    Author Index and Subject Index Adv.

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Author Index and Subject Index Adv.

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Author Index and Subject Index Adv.

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Author Index and Subject Index Adv.

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Author Index and Subject Index Adv.

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Author Index and Subject Index Adv.

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Author Index and Subject Index Adv.

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]