Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells (adult + mesenchymal_stem_cell)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Treatment of experimental arthritis by inducing immune tolerance with human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells

Manuel A. González
Objective Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease caused by loss of immunologic self tolerance and characterized by chronic joint inflammation. Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were recently found to suppress effector T cell responses and to have beneficial effects in various immune disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine a new therapeutic strategy for RA based on the administration of human adipose-derived MSCs (AD-MSCs). Methods DBA/1 mice with collagen-induced arthritis were treated with human AD-MSCs after disease onset, and clinical scores were determined. Inflammatory response was determined by measuring the levels of different mediators of inflammation in the joints and serum. The Th1-mediated autoreactive response was evaluated by determining the proliferative response and cytokine profile of draining lymph node cells stimulated with the autoantigen. The number of Treg cells and the suppressive capacity on self-reactive Th1 cells were also determined. Results Systemic infusion of human AD-MSCs significantly reduced the incidence and severity of experimental arthritis. This therapeutic effect was mediated by down-regulating the 2 deleterious disease components: the Th1-driven autoimmune and inflammatory responses. Human AD-MSCs decreased the production of various inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, decreased antigen-specific Th1/Th17 cell expansion, and induced the production of antiinflammatory interleukin-10 in lymph nodes and joints. Human AD-MSCs also induced de novo generation of antigen-specific CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg cells with the capacity to suppress self-reactive T effector responses. Conclusion Human AD-MSCs emerge as key regulators of immune tolerance by inducing the generation/activation of Treg cells and are thus attractive candidates for a cell-based therapy for RA. [source]

Evaluation of the effect of autologous mesenchymal stem cell injection in a large-animal model of bilateral kidney ischaemia reperfusion injury

L. Behr
Objectives: Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been proven to be of benefit to the kidney in different experimental models of renal injuries. All studies have been performed in valuable rodent models, but the relevance of these results to large mammals and ultimately, to humans remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of MSC transplantation in an alternative ovine large-animal model of bilateral kidney ischaemia reperfusion injury. Material and methods: Sheep were divided into three groups: one sham-operated group and two groups submitted to renal bilateral ischaemia for 60 min. Animals with ischaemia reperfusion injury were treated with injection of autologous MSCs or with vehicle medium. Results: The model sheep presented with renal histological manefestations that closely resembled lesions seen in patients. Transplanted MSCs were found in glomeruli but not in tubules and did not express glomerular cell markers (podocin, von Willebrand factor), but functional evaluation showed no beneficial effect of MSC infusion. Morphological and molecular analyses corroborated the functional results. MSCs did not repair kidney parenchyma and failed to modulate cell death and proliferation or cytokine release (tumour necrosis factor-alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor alpha (VEGF-,), Bcl-2, caspase). Conclusion: In this unique autologous large-animal model, MSCs did not exhibit reparative or paracrine protective properties. [source]

Molecular characterization of regenerated cardiomyocytes derived from adult mesenchymal stem cells

Keiichi Fukuda
ABSTRACT, We recently isolated a cardiomyogenic (CMG) cell line from murine bone marrow stroma, and in this paper characterize regenerated cardiomyocytes derived from adult mesenchymal stem cells at the molecular level. Stromal cells were immortalized, exposed to 5-azacytidine, and repeatedly screened for spontaneously beating cells. CMG cells began to beat spontaneously after 2 weeks, and beat synchronously after 3 weeks. They exhibited sinus-node-like or ventricular-cell-like action potentials. Analysis of the isoforms of contractile protein genes, such as of myosin and ,-actin, indicated that their phenotype was similar to that of fetal ventricular cardiomyocytes. The cells expressed Nkx2.5, GATA4, TEF-1, and MEF2-C mRNA before 5-azacytidine exposure, and MEF2-A and MEF2-D after exposure. CMG cells expressed ,1A, ,1B, and ,1D -adrenergic receptor mRNA prior to differentiation, and ,1, ,2 -adrenergic and M1, M2 -muscarinic receptors after acquiring the cardiomyocyte phenotype. Phenylephrine induced phosphorylation of ERK1/ 2, and the phosphorylation was inhibited by prazosin. Isoproterenol increased the cAMP level 38-fold and beating rate, cell motion, % shortening, and contractile velocity by 48%, 38%, 27%, and 51%, respectively, and the increases were blocked by CGP20712A (,1 -selective blocker). Car-bachol increased IP3 32-fold, and the increase was inhibited by AFDX116 (M2 -selective blocker). These findings demonstrated that the regenerated cardiomyocytes were capable of responding to adrenergic and muscarinic stimulation. This new cell line provides a model for the study of cardiomyocyte transplantation. [source]

Investigating the role of heparin sulfate proteoglycans in hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) tumourigenesis

Z.M. Scholefield
Introduction Heparin sulfate (HS) has long been implicated in the bone deformity hereditary multiple exostoses (HME), and it is now clear that HME is associated with mutations in the HS biosynthetic genes EXT1 and EXT2. Interestingly, HME is also associated with an increased risk of chondro- and osteo-sarcomas. Methods and results Preliminary analysis of GAG samples purified from fibroblasts of both HME and isolated non-HME exostoses patients reveal a dramatic shift in the ratio of CS : HS, with the HME and isolated cases having a much higher proportion of CS relative to normal controls. This is true in the case of both shed and cell surface material but is far more extreme in the latter, with the HS reducing from approximately 45% in the controls to less than 10% in HME patients. Initial analysis also reveals shortened chain length within these samples; indeed they often have two populations of chains present. Simple analysis of the total disaccharide composition of these samples demonstrates no significant differences against controls. However, detailed analysis of the subpopulations of chains (as determined by chain length) within these samples as well as cartilaginous samples from exostoses patients may provide further insight into the changes that occur within the biosynthetic pathway following disrupted EXT function. We are also carrying out immunocytochemistry with a variety of HS-specific antibodies with the aim to further investigate normal HS structure and localization. This is being carried out on human primary chondrocytes isolated from normal patients and also adult mesenchymal stem cells as they undergo differentiation into chondrocytes. HS has been identified in both these cell types, and it is hoped that the manipulation of these cells through RNAi of different enzymes of the HS biosynthetic pathway will provide a suitable model for studying what changes may occur in cellular HS structures over the initial differentiation process in the growth plate. Discussion Together, these investigations should provide a good model to allow us to determine the role of HS in chondrocyte differentiation and maturation in both normal and diseased states. [source]

Morphological characterization of GFP stably transfected adult mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells

Stefania Raimondo
Abstract Increasing attention is being given to the use of adult rather than embryonic stem cells, both for research and for the development of transplantation treatments for human disease. In particular, mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells have been studied extensively because of their ability to self-renew and to give rise to various differentiated cell types, and because of the relative ease with which they can be obtained and cultured. In addition, the possibility of labelling stem cells with green fluorescent protein before transplantation has opened new and promising perspectives for their use in basic research. Because no structural or ultrastructural description of adult mesenchymal stem cells is available in the literature, this paper describes their morphology as revealed by light, confocal and electron microscopy, focusing on cells that are particularly suitable for transplantation studies, i.e. those derived from rat bone marrow transfected with green fluorescent protein. The results provide a basis for experimental studies of the differentiation of these cells in normal and pathological tissues. [source]

Early homing of adult mesenchymal stem cells in normal and infarcted isolated beating hearts

Claudia Penna
Abstract Little is known on the early homing features of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We used the isolated rat heart model to study the homing of MSCs injected in the ventricular wall of a beating heart. In this model all types of cells and matrix elements with their interactions are represented, while external interferences by endothelial/neutrophil interaction and neurohormonal factors are excluded. We studied the morphology and marker expression of MSCs implanted in normal hearts and in the border-zone of infarcted myocardium. Early morphological adaptation of MSC homing differs between normal and infarcted hearts over the first 6 hrs after transplantation. In normal hearts, MSCs migrate very early through the interstitial milieu and begin to show morphological changes. Yet, in infarcted hearts MSCs remain in the site of injection forming clusters of round-shaped cells in the border-zone of the infarcted area. Both in normal and infarcted hearts, immuno-histochemistry and confocal imaging showed that, besides the proliferative marker proliferating cell nuclear agent (PCNA), some transplanted cells early express myoblastic maker GATA-4, and some of them show a VWF immunopositivity. Moreover, a few hours after injection connexin-43 is well evident between cardiomy-ocytes and injected cells. This study indicates for the first time that the isolated beating heart is a good model to study early features of MSC homing without external interferences. The results show (i) that MSCs start to change marker expression few hours after injection into a beating heart and (ii) that infarcted myocardium influences transplanted MSC morphology and mobility within the heart. [source]

Wnt 3a promotes proliferation and suppresses osteogenic differentiation of adult human mesenchymal stem cells,

Genevieve M. Boland
Abstract Multipotential adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are able to differentiate along several known lineages, and lineage commitment is tightly regulated through specific cellular mediators and interactions. Recent observations of a low/high bone-mass phenotype in patients expressing a loss-/gain-of-function mutation in LRP5, a coreceptor of the Wnt family of signaling molecules, suggest the importance of Wnt signaling in bone formation, possibly involving MSCs. To analyze the role of Wnt signaling in mesenchymal osteogenesis, we have profiled the expression of WNTs and their receptors, FRIZZLEDs (FZDs), and several secreted Wnt inhibitors, such as SFRPs, and examined the effect of Wnt 3a, as a representative canonical Wnt member, during MSC osteogenesis in vitro. WNT11, FZD6, SFRP2, and SFRP3 are upregulated during MSC osteogenesis, while WNT9A and FZD7 are downregulated. MSCs also respond to exogenous Wnt 3a, based on increased ,-catenin nuclearization and activation of a Wnt-responsive promoter, and the magnitude of this response depends on the MSC differentiation state. Wnt 3a exposure inhibits MSC osteogenic differentiation, with decreased matrix mineralization and reduced alkaline phosphatase mRNA and activity. Wnt 3a treatment of fully osteogenically differentiated MSCs also suppresses osteoblastic marker gene expression. The Wnt 3a effect is accompanied by increased cell number, resulting from both increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis, particularly during expansion of undifferentiated MSCs. The osteo-suppressive effects of Wnt 3a are fully reversible, i.e., treatment prior to osteogenic induction does not compromise subsequent MSC osteogenesis. The results also showed that sFRP3 treatment attenuates some of the observed Wnt 3a effects on MSCs, and that inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling using a dominant negative TCF1 enhances MSC osteogenesis. Interestingly, expression of Wnt 5a, a non-canonical Wnt member, appeared to promote osteogenesis. Taken together, these findings suggest that canonical Wnt signaling functions in maintaining an undifferentiated, proliferating progenitor MSC population, whereas non-canonical Wnts facilitate osteogenic differentiation. Release from canonical Wnt regulation is a prerequisite for MSC differentiation. Thus, loss-/gain-of-function mutations of LRP5 would perturb Wnt signaling and depress/promote bone formation by affecting the progenitor cell pool. Elucidating Wnt regulation of MSC differentiation is important for their potential application in tissue regeneration. Published 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Genetic modification of mesenchymal stem cells to express a single-chain antibody against EGFRvIII on the cell surface

Irina V. Balyasnikova
Abstract Human adult mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are under active investigation as cellular carriers for gene therapy. hMSCs possess natural tropism toward tumours; however, the targeting of hMSCs to specific cell populations within tumours is unexplored. In the case of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), at least half of the tumours express EGFRvIII on the cell surface, an ideal target for antibody-mediated gene/drug delivery. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of genetically modifying hMSCs to express a single-chain antibody (scFv) to EGFRvIII on their surfaces. Nucleofection was used to transfect hMSCs with cDNA encoding scFv EGFRvIII fused with PDGFR or human B7-1 transmembrane domains. The expression of scFv EGFRvIII on the cell surface was assessed by FACS. A stable population of scFv EGFRvIII-expressing hMSCs was selected, based on antibiotic resistance, and enriched using FACS. We found that nucleofection allows the efficient expression of scFv EGFRvIII on the cell surface of hMSCs. hMSCs transfected with the construct encoding scFv EGFRvIII as a fusion with PDGFRtm showed scFv EGFRvIII expression in up to 86% of cells. Most importantly, human MSCs expressing scFv against EGFRvIII demonstrated enhanced binding to U87-EGFRvIII cells in vitro and significantly increased retention in human U87-EGFRvIII-expressing tumours in vivo. In summary, we provide the first conclusive evidence of genetic modification of hMSCs with a single-chain antibody against an antigen expressed on the surface of tumour cells, thereby opening up a new venue for enhanced delivery of gene therapy applications in the context of malignant brain cancer. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Extent of cell differentiation and capacity for cartilage synthesis in human adult adipose-derived stem cells: Comparison with fetal chondrocytes

Nastaran Mahmoudifar
Abstract This study evaluated the extent of differentiation and cartilage biosynthetic capacity of human adult adipose-derived stem cells relative to human fetal chondrocytes. Both types of cell were seeded into nonwoven-mesh polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds and cultured under dynamic conditions with and without addition of TGF-,1 and insulin. Gene expression for aggrecan and collagen type II was upregulated in the stem cells in the presence of growth factors, and key components of articular cartilage such as glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen type II were synthesized in cultured tissue constructs. However, on a per cell basis and in the presence of growth factors, accumulation of GAG and collagen type II were, respectively, 3.4- and 6.1-fold lower in the stem cell cultures than in the chondrocyte cultures. Although the stem cells synthesized significantly higher levels of total collagen than the chondrocytes, only about 2.4% of this collagen was collagen type II. Relative to cultures without added growth factors, treatment of the stem cells with TGF-,1 and insulin resulted in a 59% increase in GAG synthesis, but there was no significant change in collagen production even though collagen type II gene expression was upregulated 530-fold. In contrast, in the chondrocyte cultures, synthesis of collagen type II and levels of collagen type II as a percentage of total collagen more than doubled after growth factors were applied. Although considerable progress has been achieved to develop differentiation strategies and scaffold-based culture techniques for adult mesenchymal stem cells, the extent of differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells in this study and their capacity for cartilage synthesis fell considerably short of those of fetal chondrocytes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2010;107: 393,401. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]