Adult Men (adult + man)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Adult Men

  • young adult man

  • Selected Abstracts

    Media Influences on Attitudes and Perceptions Toward the Body Among Adult Men and Women

    Marita P. McCabe
    The current study investigated media influences on men's and women's body perception. Participants were 60 men and 60 women. Men overestimated their chest, waist, and thighs and underestimated their hips. Women overestimated the size of all body parts. Men's and women's perception of their body was not predicted by media exposure or attitudes to the media. Both men's and women's ideal body was different from their current bodies. Attitudes and exposure to the media predicted men's (but not women's) perceptions of the ideal body held by the media, as well as both men's and women's ideal chest and waist. These findings suggest that the media has an impact on the ideal body size of both men and women. [source]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,ENDOCRINOLOGY: Evaluation of the Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Testosterone Levels in Adult Men

    Graziele Halmenschlager MS
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent among men. Many studies have evaluated the effect of cigarette smoking on levels of male reproductive hormones; however, the findings still remain controversial. Aim., To evaluate the influence of cigarette smoking on serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), bioavailable testosterone (BT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Methods., A total of 255 men (90 smokers and 165 nonsmokers), aged 30 to 70 years, were investigated. Weight and height were obtained and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Also, waist circumference and hip circumference were measured and waist-to-hip ratio was obtained. Fasting blood samples were drawn for determination of plasmatic glucose levels and serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides, albumin, prolactin, TT, SHBG, LH, and FSH. The values of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) were determined by Friedwald equation and the values of FT and BT were calculated from TT, SHBG, and albumin. Statistical significance was set at P , 0.05. Main Outcome Measures., The influence of smoking on levels of TT, FT, and BT. Results., No significant difference was observed in the mean values of TT (P = 0.580), FT (P = 0.869), BT (P = 0.933), SHBG (P = 0.279), LH (P = 0.573), and FSH (P = 0.693) in the different levels of pack-years when compared to nonsmokers. Moreover, after multivariate logistic regression, no association between increased pack-years of smoking and increased odds ratio for occurrence of low hormones and SHBG levels was observed. Conclusion., In this study, smokers and nonsmokers had similar mean values of androgens, gonadotropins and SHBG. However, it is necessary to standardize pack-years of smoking in order to elucidate the influence of cigarette smoking on sex hormone levels, as well as to minimize differences among studies and to confirm our results. Halmenschlager G, Rossetto S, Lara GM, and Rhoden EL. Evaluation of the effects of cigarette smoking on testosterone levels in adult men. J Sex Med 2009;6:1763,1772. [source]

    Successful treatment of lichen amyloidosus associated with atopic dermatitis using a combination of narrowband ultraviolet B phototherapy, topical corticosteroids and an antihistamine

    N. Oiso
    Summary Lichen amyloidosus (LA) is a type of primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis characterized by multiple pruritic discrete hyperkeratotic papules with amyloid deposition in the papillary dermis. Clinical regression is usually difficult to achieve, even after treatment. In this study, we report a case of an adult man with LA associated with atopic dermatitis (AD) which was successfully treated with narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) phototherapy, topical corticosteroids and an oral antihistamine. This case suggests that NB-UVB phototherapy may be a useful adjuvant for LA associated with AD. [source]

    Iron balance and iron nutrition in infancy

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 2003
    G Faldella
    At birth, the total body iron content is approximately 75 mg/kg, twice that of an adult man in relation to weight. During the first 6 mo of life, total iron body content increases slightly and exclusive breastfeeding is sufficient to maintain an optimal iron balance. Thereafter, iron body content substantially increases and the infant becomes critically dependent on dietary iron, provided by complementary foods. Numerous factors may contribute to nutritional iron deficiency in infancy, the most important being low body iron content at birth, blood loss, high postnatal growth rate, and a low amount and/or bioavailability of dietary iron. We have documented that the prevalence of iron deficiency declined in Italy as iron nutrition improved and that early feeding on fresh cow's milk is the single most important determinant of iron deficiency in infancy. Healthy full-term infants should maintain optimal iron balance by consuming a good diet, which can be summarized as follows: breastfeeding should be continued exclusively for at least 5 mo and then together with complementary foods containing highly bioavailable iron; infants who are not breastfed or are partially breastfed should receive an iron-fortified formula, containing between 4.0 and 8.0mg/L iron, from birth to 12 mo of age; fresh cow's milk should be avoided before 12 mo of age. [source]

    Developing an attitude towards bullying scale for prisoners: structural analyses across adult men, young adults and women prisoners

    Jane L. Ireland
    Background,Few studies have attempted to explore attitudes towards bullying among prisoners, despite acknowledgement that attitudes may play an important role. Aim,To evaluate the structure of a new attitudinal scale, the Prison Bullying Scale (PBS), with adult men and women in prison and with young male prisoners. Hypotheses,That attitudes would be represented as a multidimensional construct and that the PBS structure would be replicated across confirmatory samples. Method,The PBS was developed and confirmed across four independent studies using item parceling and confirmatory factor analysis: Study I comprised 412 adult male prisoners; Study II, 306 adult male prisoners; Study III, 171 male young offenders; and Study IV, 148 adult women prisoners. Results,Attitudes were represented as a multidimensional construct comprising seven core factors. The exploratory analysis was confirmed in adult male samples, with some confirmation among young offenders and adult women. The fit for young offenders was adequate and improved by factor covariance. The fit for women was the poorest overall. Conclusion,The study notes the importance of developing ecologically valid measures and statistically testing these measures prior to their clinical or research use. Implications,The development of the PBS holds value both as an assessment and as a research measure and remains the only ecologically validated measure in existence to assess prisoner attitudes towards bullying. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Prioritizing migraine biomarkers research

    David Gurwitz
    Abstract Migraine is among the most common chronic disorders in the developed countries, affecting up to 17% of adult women and 6% of adult men. It is also among the chronic disorders most commonly associated with recurring absence from work. It has been estimated that in the United States the indirect annual societal cost of migraine, mostly as lost work, is US$12 billion. Migraine diagnosis and treatment is hindered by the lack of reliable serum or genetic biomarkers that could potentially improve treatment choices. Research programs focused on identifying and developing migraine biomarkers for both prevention and treatment must be included in the national biomedical research agenda. Drug Dev Res 68:267,269, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection as a complement to gonadotrophin treatment in infertile men with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism

    Summary In this study we sought to determine whether intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) could improve the efficacy of treatment with gonadotrophins in gonadotrophin-deficient men in terms of pregnancy. A series of six adult men (aged 26,47 years) with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (HH) is reported: four men with prepubertal isolated idiopathic HH (IIHH) and two adult-onset HH, as part of hypopituitarism secondary to surgical treatment of a pituitary tumour. All were azoospermic. To restore spermatogenesis, all received hormonal treatment with intramuscular human menopausal gonadotrophins (HMG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) for 2 to 23 months. High basal serum inhibin B was predictive of rapid and complete recovery of spermatogenesis. In the two adult-onset HH, a natural pregnancy was achieved within 3 months. The four men with IIHH underwent ICSI because of poor sperm quality. ICSI using fresh or frozen-thawed ejaculated spermatozoa was performed after 6,23 months of gonadotrophin treatment. ICSI provided good clinical results in terms of fertilization and embryo quality, and resulted in three pregnancies that ended in three term deliveries. In men with oligozoospermia related to prepubertal IIHH, ICSI shortens the hormonal treatment and enhances the chances of pregnancy. [source]

    Gene response elements, genetic polymorphisms and epigenetics influence the human dietary requirement for choline

    IUBMB LIFE, Issue 6 2007
    Steven H. Zeisel
    Abstract Recent progress in the understanding of the human dietary requirement for choline highlights the importance of genetic variation and epigenetics in human nutrient requirements. Choline is a major dietary source of methyl-groups (one of choline's metabolites, betaine, participates in the methylation of homocysteine to form methionine); also choline is needed for the biosynthesis of cell membranes, bioactive phospholipids and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. A recommended dietary intake for choline in humans was set in 1998, and a portion of the choline requirement can be met via endogenous de novo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine catalyzed by phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) in the liver. Though many foods contain choline, many humans do not get enough in their diets. When deprived of dietary choline, most adult men and postmenopausal women developed signs of organ dysfunction (fatty liver, liver or muscle cell damage, and reduces the capacity to handle a methionine load, resulting in elevated homocysteine). However, only a portion of premenopausal women developed such problems. The difference in requirement occurs because estrogen induces expression of the PEMT gene and allows premenopausal women to make more of their needed choline endogenously. In addition, there is significant variation in the dietary requirement for choline that can be explained by common polymorphisms in genes of choline and folate metabolism. Choline is critical during fetal development, when it alters DNA methylation and thereby influences neural precursor cell proliferation and apoptosis. This results in long term alterations in brain structure and function, specifically memory function. IUBMB Life, 59: 380 - 387, 2007 [source]

    Intra- and intermuscular variation in human quadriceps femoris architecture assessed in vivo

    JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Issue 3 2006
    Anthony J. Blazevich
    Abstract Despite the functional importance of the human quadriceps femoris in movements such as running, jumping, lifting and climbing, and the known effects of muscle architecture on muscle function, no research has fully described the complex architecture of this muscle group. We used ultrasound imaging techniques to measure muscle thickness, fascicle angle and fascicle length at multiple regions of the four quadriceps muscles in vivo in 31 recreationally active, but non-strength-trained adult men and women. Our analyses revealed a reasonable similarity in the superficial quadriceps muscles, which is suggestive of functional similarity (at least during the uni-joint knee extension task) given that they act via a common tendon. The deep vastus intermedius (VI) is architecturally dissimilar and therefore probably serves a different function(s). Architecture varies significantly along the length of the superficial muscles, which has implications for the accuracy of models that assume a constant intramuscular architecture. It might also have consequences for the efficiency of intra- and intermuscular force transmission. Our results provide some evidence that subjects with a given architecture of one superficial muscle, relative to the rest of the subject sample, also have a similar architecture in other superficial muscles. However, this is not necessarily true for vastus lateralis (VL), and was not the case for VI. Therefore, the relative architecture of one muscle cannot confidently be used to estimate the relative architecture of another. To confirm this, we calculated a value of whole quadriceps architecture by four different methods. Regardless of the method used, we found that the absolute or relative architecture of one muscle could not be used as an indicator of whole quadriceps architecture, although vastus medialis, possibly in concert with VL and the anterior portion of VI, could be used to provide a useful snapshot. Importantly, our estimates of whole quadriceps architecture show a gender difference in whole quadriceps muscle thickness, and that muscle thickness is positively correlated with fascicle angle whereas fascicle length is negatively, although weakly, correlated with fascicle angle. These results are supportive of the validity of estimates of whole quadriceps architecture. These data are interpreted with respect to their implications for neural control strategies, region-specific adaptations in muscle size in response to training, and gender-dependent differences in the response to exercise training. [source]

    The COMT val158met Polymorphism Is Associated With Peak BMD in Men,

    Mattias Lorentzon
    Abstract The associations between the functional val158met polymorphism of the estrogen-degrading COMT enzyme and skeletal properties in young men were investigated. BMD was associated with COMT genotype. Introduction: Peak BMD is an important predictor of future risk of osteoporosis, and it is to a large extent determined by genetic factors. Estrogens are involved in the accretion of bone mass during puberty. Catechol- O -methyltransferase (COMT) is involved in the degradation of estrogens. There is a functional polymorphism in the COMT gene (val158met), resulting in a 60,75% difference in enzyme activity between the val (high activity [H]) and met (low activity [L]) variants. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the associations between this polymorphism and peak BMD in young men. Materials and Methods: A total of 458 healthy men (mean age, 19 ± 0.6 years) were genotyped and classified as COMTLL, COMTHL, or COMTHH. Areal BMD (aBMD) was measured by DXA. Cortical and trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) were measured by pQCT. The associations between COMT genotype and skeletal phenotypes were determined. Results and Conclusions: Regression models using physical activity, height, weight, age, and COMT genotype as covariates showed that COMT genotype was an independent predictor of aBMD in the total body and in all femur locations investigated, but not in the spine. The values for COMTHL and COMTHH were very similar, and therefore, they were pooled into one group. aBMD at Ward's triangle, trochanter, and total femur were 4.9%, 4.5%, and 3.7% lower, respectively, in the COMTLL than in the COMTHL/HH group (p < 0.01). pQCT analyses showed that COMT genotype was an independent predictor of trabecular vBMD of the tibia, radius, and fibula. Trabecular vBMD of the radius and fibula in COMTLL was 5.3% and 7.4% lower, respectively, than that of the combined COMTHL/HH group. COMT genotype was associated with cortical vBMD but not with cortical cross-sectional area in the tibia. These findings show that the COMT polymorphism is associated with BMD in young adult men. [source]

    Characteristics of male and female prisoners involved in bullying behavior

    Jane L. Ireland
    This study explores bullying behavior in a larger and more representative sample than previous prison-based research. It has two core aims, first to explore the nature of bullying in relation to indirect and direct aggression and, second, to explore the predictors of bully-category membership with particular reference to behavioral characteristics. Participants were adult men (n=728) and women (n=525) prisoners. All completed a behavioral measure of behavior indicative of bullying (Direct and Indirect Prisoner behavior Checklist, DIPC) that also explored prison-based behavior such as negative acts towards staff or prison rules, positive acts and drug-related behavior. Indirect aggression was, as predicted, reported more frequently than direct aggression, although this only held for perpetration. Bully-victims, as predicted, showed more negative behavior. Pure bullies and pure victims also showed more negative behavior than the other categories. The findings are discussed in relation to the environment in which bullying behavior is being assessed and with attention to the possible motivations underlying both bullying and negative behavior. Directions for future research are suggested. Aggr. Behav. 33:1,10, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Differences in the quantitative and qualitative performance of a calcium-specific food frequency questionnaire across age and sex

    F. Magkos
    Abstract Objective, To examine putative differences in the quantitative and qualitative performance of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for assessing dietary calcium intake across age and sex in the Greek population. Materials and methods, A total of 351 children (189 girls and 162 boys, aged 11.9 ± 1.2 years), 260 adults (192 women and 68 men, aged 29.6 ± 2.7 years) and 390 elderly individuals (317 women and 73 men, aged 68.6 ± 4.6 years) were recruited. Estimates of calcium intake from the 30-item FFQ were compared with those from a multi-pass 24-h recall. Results, The FFQ significantly underestimated mean calcium intake in all age groups and both sexes (P < 0.05). The magnitude of underestimation, however, was greater in adults (,207 ± 344 mg day,1), less in the elderly (,137 ± 310 mg day,1) and even less in children (,74 ± 340 mg day,1; P < 0.025), with no differences between sexes. Calcium intakes by the two methods were positively and significantly correlated in all study groups (r = 0.536,0.739, P < 0.001). Cohen's weighted kappa statistic ranged from 0.39 to 0.57, indicating moderate agreement between the two methods. The 95% limits of agreement were comparably wide across age and sex (boys: ,762, 585 mg day,1; girls: ,747, 624 mg day,1; adult men: ,972, 505 mg day,1; adult women: ,867, 412 mg day,1; elderly men: ,858, 486 mg day,1; elderly women: ,732, 480 mg day,1). A significant association between age, sex and the classification of individuals as true/false positive/negative was detected (P < 0.001), implying that sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the FFQ were not independent of the age and sex of the participants. Gross misclassification by the FFQ ranged from 0% to 4.2%, whereas 75.3,87.3% of the subjects were correctly classified. In this respect, the FFQ performed similarly across the study groups (P = 0.065). Without controlling for age, however, gross misclassification appeared to be higher in females than in males (3.2% versus 0.7%, respectively, P = 0.048). Conclusions, There may be several significant differences in the quantitative and qualitative performance of a calcium-specific FFQ across age and sex. This should be taken into account when attempting to evaluate dietary calcium intake in men and women or in different age groups, as some of the differences between study groups may actually be due to the different response of these groups to the FFQ. [source]

    Electromyographic analysis of a modified maneuver for quadriceps femoris muscle setting with co-contraction of the hamstrings

    Masaaki Nakajima
    Abstract A ,quadriceps femoris muscle setting" is isometric quadriceps femoris exercise which can be widely used in early knee rehabilitation. However this exercise cannot obtain enough co-contraction of the hamstrings. Isolated quadriceps femoris contraction in knee extension imposes severe strain to anterior cruciate ligament. We succeeded in developing a simple training maneuver that is effective in obtaining co-contraction of the hamstrings,a modified maneuver for the quadriceps femoris muscle setting with the contralateral lower limb raised (MQS). In this study, we analyzed the effect of this maneuver by EMG quantification. Twenty-eight healthy young adult men performed sequential trials consisting of normal quadriceps femoris muscle setting (NQS) and MQS. Electromyographic activity was recorded from surface electrodes on the gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, semitendinosus and biceps femoris (long head), and normalized to values derived from maximal isometric trials. The % maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and rectus femoris did not vary in the each maneuver. However, the %MVIC of the hamstrings varied significantly in the MQS. This study suggests that effective co-contraction of the hamstrings can be obtained in MQS by adjusting the load to the raised lower limb. © 2002 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

    A novel option for dosing of proton pump inhibitors: dispersion of lansoprazole orally disintegrating tablet in water via oral syringe

    D. A. Gremse
    Summary Background :,A new formulation of lansoprazole, the lansoprazole orally disintegrating tablet, rapidly disintegrates in water eliminating the need for swallowing whole pills. Aim :,To assess the effect that dispersing the lansoprazole orally disintegrating tablet in water would have on lansoprazole pharmacokinetics. Methods :,Forty healthy adult men and women (18,43 years) received two single 15 mg lansoprazole orally disintegrating tablet doses separated by 3 days (one administered directly onto the tongue without water and one dispersed in water and administered orally via syringe) in a randomized, crossover fashion. Serial plasma samples were determined from 0 to 12 h for each dose. Ratios of central values for peak plasma exposure (Cmax) and mean overall extent of exposure (area under the plasma concentration) were used to compare the bioavailability. Results :,The two dosing regimens were bioequivalent, with the point estimate for area under the plasma concentration equalling 1.080 (confidence interval 1.012,1.152) and the point estimate for Cmax equalling 1.082 (confidence interval 0.961,1.218). Conclusions :,Dispersing the 15 mg lansoprazole orally disintegrating tablet in water and administering the dose orally via syringe is bioequivalent to the 15 mg intact lansoprazole orally disintegrating tablet with respect to lansoprazole area under the plasma concentration and Cmax. This dosing route provides an additional, convenient dosing option for lansoprazole. [source]

    Detection of muscarinic receptor subtypes in human urinary bladder mucosa: Age and gender-dependent modifications,,§

    Nicola Arrighi
    Abstract Aims Muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in the human urinary bladder mucosa were characterized, investigating whether there were gender-dependent differences and if aging could induce changes in their expression. Methods The study was carried out on 34 subjects, 22 men and 12 women, divided in four groups, based on gender and age. Gene expression was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. The Western blot was performed using the 4,12% NuPAGE Bis,Tris Gel System. Results The molecular expression of each subtype of the M1 receptor family was observed and it was not influenced either by gender or age. M2 receptor family transcripts revealed that both M2 and M4 were detected and that the M2 transcripts were modified by both gender and age. Indeed, M2 mRNA was lower in old rather than adult men (P,<,0.05), but higher in rather old than adult women (P,<,0.05). Further, adult men expressed more M2 mRNA than adult women (P,<,0.05), while the opposite was detected in old age (P,<,0.05). The Western blot followed by quantification confirmed that the mRNAs were translated into proteins, and that the M2 subtype showed similar modifications found at molecular level. Discussion The selective modification of M2 receptors observed at the urinary bladder mucosa levels indicates that this anatomical structure could play an active role in the pathophysiology of micturition and supports evidence suggesting an effect of antimuscarinic drugs at this level. Whether these results may influence the age-dependent development of micturition disorders remains to be determined. Neurourol. Urodynam. 27:421,428, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A review of the effectiveness of aspartame in helping with weight control

    NUTRITION BULLETIN, Issue 2 2006
    A. De La Hunty
    Summary, Strategies to reverse the upward trend in obesity rates need to focus on both reducing energy intake and increasing energy expenditure. The provision of low- or reduced-energy-dense foods is one way of helping people to reduce their energy intake and so enable weight maintenance or weight loss to occur. The use of intense sweeteners as a substitute for sucrose potentially offers one way of helping people to reduce the energy density of their diet without any loss of palatability. This report reviews the evidence for the effect of aspartame on weight loss, weight maintenance and energy intakes in adults and addresses the question of how much energy is compensated for and whether the use of aspartame-sweetened foods and drinks is an effective way to lose weight. All studies which examined the effect of substituting sugar with either aspartame alone or aspartame in combination with other intense sweeteners on energy intake or bodyweight were identified. Studies which were not randomised controlled trials in healthy adults and which did not measure energy intakes for at least 24 h (for those with energy intakes as an outcome measure) were excluded from the analysis. A minimum of 24-h energy intake data was set as the cut-off to ensure that the full extent of any compensatory effects was seen. A total of 16 studies were included in the analysis. Of these 16 studies, 15 had energy intake as an outcome measure. The studies which used soft drinks as the vehicle for aspartame used between 500 and about 2000 ml which is equivalent to about two to six cans or bottles of soft drinks every day. A significant reduction in energy intakes was seen with aspartame compared with all types of control except when aspartame was compared with non-sucrose controls such as water. The most relevant comparisons are the parallel design studies which compare the effects of aspartame with sucrose. These had an overall effect size of 0.4 standardised difference (SD). This corresponds to a mean reduction of about 10% of energy intake. At an average energy intake of 9.3 MJ/day (average of adult men and women aged 19,50 years) this is a deficit of 0.93 MJ/day (222 kcal/day or 1560 kcal/week), which would be predicted (using an energy value for obese tissue of 7500 kcal/kg) to result in a weight loss of around 0.2 kg/week with a confidence interval 50% either side of this estimate. Information on the extent of compensation was available for 12 of the 15 studies. The weighted average of these figures was 32%. Compensation is likely to vary with a number of factors such as the size of the caloric deficit, the type of food or drink manipulated, and timescale. An estimate of the amount of compensation with soft drinks was calculated from the four studies which used soft drinks only as the vehicle. A weighted average of these figures was 15.5%. A significant reduction in weight was seen. The combined effect figure of 0.2 SD is a conservative figure as it excludes comparisons where the controls gained weight because of their high-sucrose diet and the long-term follow-up data in which the aspartame groups regained less weight than the control group. An effect of 0.2 SD corresponds to about a 3% reduction in bodyweight (2.3 kg for an adult weighing 75 kg). Given the weighted average study length was 12 weeks, this gives an estimated rate of weight loss of around 0.2 kg/week for a 75-kg adult. The meta-analyses demonstrate that using foods and drinks sweetened with aspartame instead of sucrose results in a significant reduction in both energy intakes and bodyweight. Meta-analyses both of energy intake and of weight loss produced an estimated rate of weight loss of about 0.2 kg/week. This close agreement between the figure calculated from reductions in energy intake and actual measures of weight loss gives confidence that this is a true effect. The two meta-analyses used different sets of studies with widely differing designs and controls. Although this makes comparisons between them difficult, it suggests that the final figure of around 0.2 kg/week is robust and is applicable to the variety of ways aspartame-containing foods are used by consumers. This review has shown that using foods and drinks sweetened with aspartame instead of those sweetened with sucrose is an effective way to maintain and lose weight without reducing the palatability of the diet. The decrease in energy intakes and the rate of weight loss that can reasonably be achieved is low but meaningful and, on a population basis, more than sufficient to counteract the current average rate of weight gain of around 0.007 kg/week. On an individual basis, it provides a useful adjunct to other weight loss regimes. Some compensation for the substituted energy does occur but this is only about one-third of the energy replaced and is probably less when using soft drinks sweetened with aspartame. Nevertheless, these compensation values are derived from short-term studies. More data are needed over the longer term to determine whether a tolerance to the effects is acquired. To achieve the average rate of weight loss seen in these studies of 0.2 kg/week will require around a 220-kcal (0.93 MJ) deficit per day based on an energy value for obese tissue of 7500 kcal/kg. Assuming the higher rate of compensation (32%), this would require the substitution of around 330 kcal/day (1.4 MJ/day) from sucrose with aspartame (which is equivalent to around 88 g of sucrose). Using the lower estimated rate of compensation for soft drinks alone (15.5%) would require the substitution of about 260 kcal/day (1.1 MJ/day) from sucrose with aspartame. This is equivalent to 70 g of sucrose or about two cans of soft drinks every day. [source]

    Skull thickness in patients with clefts

    T Arntsen
    To cite this article: Arntsen T, Kjær I, Sonnesen L, Mølsted K: Skull thickness in patients with clefts Orthod Craniofac Res 2010;13:75,81 Structured Abstract Authors,,, Arntsen T, Kjær I, Sonnesen L, Mølsted K Objectives,,, The purpose was to analyze skull thickness in incomplete cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and combined cleft lip and palate (UCLP). Setting and Sample Population,,, Copenhagen School of Dentistry and Copenhagen Cleft Lip and Palate Centre. Patients with cleft lip, cleft palate, and combined cleft lip and palate and normal adult men. Material and Methods,,, Four groups of patients comprised the study. One group of patients with CL (24 patients; 7 women, mean age 6; 17 men, mean age 7.1), one group of patients with UCLP (28 patients; 11 women, mean age 6.6; 17 men, mean age 6.7), one group of patients with CP (57 male patients aged 18,33), and one normal adult male control group. The CL and UCLP groups were compared. The CP group was compared with the normal adult male control group. Results,,, CL women had a significantly thinner occipital bone compared with CL men (p = 0.027). Women with UCLP had significantly thicker occipital bone than the control women (incomplete CL) (p = 0.014). The study showed gender differences in skull thickness in different cleft types. It also demonstrated that particularly the occipital bone deviated in patients with UCLP, which may explain the considerable deviations in jaw shape and position, previously registered in patients with UCLP. [source]

    Sex influence on myocardial function with exercise in adolescents

    Thomas Rowland
    Objectives: Ventricular systolic functional response to exercise has been reported to be superior in adult men compared to women. This study explored myocardial responses to maximal upright progressive exercise in late pubertal males and females. Methods: Doppler echocardiographic techniques were utilized to estimate myocardial function response to a bout of progressive cycle exercise. Results: Systolic functional capacity, as indicated by ejection rate (12.5 ± 2.8 and 13.1 ± 1.0 [×10,2] ml s,1 cm,2 for boys and girls, respectively) and peak aortic velocity (208 ± 45 and 196 ± 12 cm s,1, respectively) at maximal exercise, did not differ between the two groups. Similarly, peak values as well as increases in transmitral pressure gradient (mitral E flow velocity), ventricular relaxation (tissue Doppler imaging E,), and left ventricular filling pressure (E/E, ratio) as estimates of diastolic function were similar in males and females. Conclusions: This study failed to reveal qualitative or quantitative differences between adolescent boys and girls in ventricular systolic or diastolic functional responses to maximal cycle exercise. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 22:680,682, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Toward quantifying the usage costs of human immunity: Altered metabolic rates and hormone levels during acute immune activation in men

    Michael P. Muehlenbein
    There is a paucity of data on the energetic demands of human immune functions, despite the fact that both clinical medicine and evolutionary biology would benefit from further clarification of these costs. To better understand the energetic requirements of mounting a mild immune response, as well as some of the major hormonal changes underlying these metabolic changes, we examined changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR) and hormones during and after respiratory tract infection in young adult men. An epidemiologic passive detection design was used to recruit 25 nonfebrile subjects naturally infected with respiratory tract pathogens. Symptomology, percent body fat, RMR, salivary testosterone and cortisol, and other information were collected at a minimum of three time points during and after convalescence. Comparisons of the differences in RMR, testosterone, and cortisol between sampling days within individual cases were made using paired t -tests. Participants experienced 8% higher RMR during illness, and a subset of these men experienced a mean increase greater than 14%. The participants also experienced 10% lower testosterone levels during illness, and a subset of these participants experienced a mean decrease of 30%, although cortisol levels did not change significantly. These results document elevated RMR following natural pathogen exposure in adult humans, demonstrating that even mild immune reactions can elicit significant increases in energy expenditure. Understanding the costs of immunity and the immunomodulatory actions of hormones are central to understanding the role of immunity in human life history evolution. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Seasonal and circadian variation in salivary testosterone in rural Bolivian men

    Virginia J. Vitzthum
    Testosterone (T) plays a key role in the increase and maintenance of muscle mass and bone density in adult men. Life history theory predicts that environmental stress may prompt a reallocation of such investments to those functions critical to survival. We tested this hypothesis in two studies of rural Bolivian adult men by comparing free T levels and circadian rhythms during late winter, which is especially severe, to those in less arduous seasons. For each pair of salivary TAM/TPM samples (collected in a , 12-h period), circadian rhythm was considered classic (CCLASSIC) if TAM > 110%TPM, reverse (CREVERSE) if TPM > 110%TAM, and flat (CFLAT) otherwise. We tested the hypotheses that mean TAM > mean TPM and that mean TLW < mean TOTHER (LW = late winter, OTHER = other seasons). In Study A, of 115 TPM,TAM pairs, 51% = CCLASSIC, 39% = CREVERSE, 10% = CFLAT; in Study B, of 184 TAM,TPM pairs, 55% = CCLASSIC, 33% = CREVERSE, 12% = CFLAT. Based on fitting linear mixed models, in both studies TOTHER-AM > TOTHER-PM (A: P = 0.035, B: P = 0.0005) and TOTHER-AM > TLW-AM (A: P = 0.054, B: P = 0.007); TPM did not vary seasonally, and T diurnality was not significant during late winter. T diurnality varied substantially between days within an individual, between individuals and between seasons, but neither T levels nor diurnality varied with age. These patterns may reflect the seasonally varying but unscheduled, life-long, strenuous physical labor that typifies many non-industrialized economies. These results also suggest that single morning samples may substantially underestimate peak circulating T for an individual and, most importantly, that exogenous signals may moderate diurnality and the trajectory of age-related change in the male gonadal axis. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Systematic review of post-treatment psychosocial and behaviour change interventions for men with cancer

    PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Hannah L. Dale
    Abstract Objectives: The psychosocial impacts of a cancer diagnosis include reduced quality of life, poorer inter-personal relationships, hopelessness and mental illness. Worse outcomes, including mortality rates have been found for single men with cancer compared with women and partnered men. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of post-treatment psychosocial and behaviour change interventions for adult men with cancer, in order to inform the development of an intervention. A focus on single men was intended. Methods: Ten databases were searched via Ovid and Web of Science. Papers were systematically extracted by title, abstract and full paper according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Full papers were assessed by two authors. Inclusion criteria: participants at any stage of a cancer diagnosis, ,50% male and aged 18+; psychosocial and/or behavioural post-treatment interventions, using any format; a one,three level of evidence. Couple/carer/family interventions were excluded. Results: From 9948 studies initially identified, 11 were finally included in the review. They implemented cognitive behaviour therapy, hypnosis or psychoeducational interventions. All studies had some positive results, however, lack of reporting of intervention content and methodological issues limit the findings. No studies intervened with single men, and none provided comparative outcomes for marital status. Conclusions: Effectiveness of interventions was difficult to assess as, while all had benefits, their generalisability was limited due to methodological and reporting limitations. Improved reporting procedures are required to allow for replication. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Behavioural functioning of retinoblastoma survivors

    PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    J. van Dijk
    Abstract Objective: To assess behavioural problems in retinoblastoma (RB) survivors. Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study included 148 RB survivors (8,35 years), registered in the Dutch national RB register. Survivors and parents were asked to fill in behavioural questionnaires. Prevalence rates were computed, based on both self-reports and proxy reports. One-sample T -tests were applied to analyse differences compared with healthy reference samples. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify predictors for behavioural problems within the RB sample. Results: Between-group differences varied across informants and across age groups. Parents reported significantly elevated total problem behaviour in 30% of their offspring (aged 8,17 years); this against 9% in adolescents (12,17 years) and 12% in adults (18,35 years) based on self-report. Parental reports showed significantly elevated rates of (1) internalising problems in boys and (2) somatic complaints in both girls and boys. Self-reports indicate significantly lowered levels of (1) externalising problems in adolescent and adult women and (2) thought problems in female adolescents and in adult men. Especially survivors who suffered hereditary RB, who had undergone more intensive treatment, and who came from a single-parent family were identified to be at most behavioural risk. Conclusion: Perception of severity and the nature of behavioural problems seem to differ between beholder, and to vary between age groups, if not between life stages. Health professionals should be aware that especially those who are confronted with hereditary RB and who subsequently undergo intensive treatment, and who grow up in broken families, run the risk of developing behavioural difficulties. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Reductions in basal limb blood flow and vascular conductance with human ageing: role for augmented ,-adrenergic vasoconstriction

    Frank A. Dinenno
    1Basal whole-limb blood flow and vascular conductance decrease with age in men. We determined whether these age-associated changes in limb haemodynamics are mediated by tonically augmented sympathetic ,-adrenergic vasoconstriction. 2Seven young (28 ± 2 years; mean ±s.e.m.) and eight older (64 ± 2 years) healthy, normotensive adult men were studied. Baseline femoral artery blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) and calculated vascular conductance were 29 and 31 % lower, respectively, and vascular resistance was 53 % higher in the older men (all P < 0.001). 3Local (intra-femoral artery) ,-adrenergic receptor blockade with phentolamine evoked greater increases in femoral blood flow (105 ± 11 vs. 60 ± 6 %) and vascular conductance (125 ± 13 vs. 66 ± 7 %), and reductions in vascular resistance (55 ± 2 vs. 39 ± 3 %) in the experimental limb of the older compared with the young men (all P < 0.001). As a result, ,-adrenergic receptor blockade eliminated the significance of the age-associated differences in absolute levels of femoral blood flow (500 ± 51 vs. 551 ± 35 ml min,1), vascular conductance (6.02 ± 0.73 vs. 6.33 ± 0.26 U), and vascular resistance (0.17 ± 0.03 vs. 0.16 ± 0.01 U; P= 0.4,0.8, n.s.). Femoral haemodynamics in the control limb were unaffected by phentolamine administration in the contralateral (experimental) limb. Complete ,-adrenergic receptor blockade was demonstrated by the absence of vasoconstriction in the experimental limb in response to the cold pressor test. Local propranolol was administered to control for any ,-adrenergic effects of phentolamine. Propranolol did not affect haemodynamics in the experimental or control limbs. 4Our results indicate that the age-related reductions in basal limb blood flow and vascular conductance are mediated largely by chronically elevated sympathetic ,-adrenergic vasoconstriction. This may have important physiological and pathophysiological implications for the ageing human. [source]

    Sexual Health Among U.S. Black and Hispanic Men and Women: A Nationally Representative Study

    Brian Dodge PhD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Little is known about the prevalence of sexual behaviors among the black and Hispanic populations in the United States outside the context of sexual risk and disease transmission in "high-risk" samples. Aim., This study sought to establish current rates of sexual behaviors, sexual health care practices (i.e., experiences with testing and diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections [STIs]), and condom use in a probability sample of black and Hispanic adult men and women in the United States. Main Outcome Measures., Sexual behaviors including solo masturbation, partnered masturbation, receiving oral sex and giving oral sex, vaginal intercourse, and anal intercourse were assessed. Self-reported rates of HIV and other STI testing, and self-reported history of STI diagnosis were examined. Also assessed were rates of condom use during most recent and past 10 vaginal intercourse events. Methods., Data from a probability sample of 1246 black and Hispanic adults were analyzed to explore sexual behaviors, condom use, and STI testing and diagnosis trends. Results., Masturbation, oral sex, and vaginal intercourse were prevalent among black and Hispanic men and women throughout the life course. Anal intercourse and same-gender sexual activities were less common. Self-reported rates of HIV testing were relatively high but varied by gender across age groups. Similarly, rates of testing for other STI were high and differed by gender across age groups. Overall rates of condom use among black and Hispanic men and women were relatively high and did not appear to be related to a variety of situational factors including location of sexual encounter, relationship status, other contraceptive use, and substance use during sexual activity. Conclusion., These data provide a foundation for understanding diverse sexual behaviors, sexual health-care practices, and condom use among the general population of black and Hispanic men and women in the United States. Dodge B, Reece M, Herbenick D, Schick V, Sanders SA, and Fortenberry JD. Sexual health among U.S. black and Hispanic men and women: a nationally representative study. J Sex Med 2010;7(suppl 5):330,345. [source]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,ENDOCRINOLOGY: Evaluation of the Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Testosterone Levels in Adult Men

    Graziele Halmenschlager MS
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent among men. Many studies have evaluated the effect of cigarette smoking on levels of male reproductive hormones; however, the findings still remain controversial. Aim., To evaluate the influence of cigarette smoking on serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), bioavailable testosterone (BT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Methods., A total of 255 men (90 smokers and 165 nonsmokers), aged 30 to 70 years, were investigated. Weight and height were obtained and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Also, waist circumference and hip circumference were measured and waist-to-hip ratio was obtained. Fasting blood samples were drawn for determination of plasmatic glucose levels and serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides, albumin, prolactin, TT, SHBG, LH, and FSH. The values of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) were determined by Friedwald equation and the values of FT and BT were calculated from TT, SHBG, and albumin. Statistical significance was set at P , 0.05. Main Outcome Measures., The influence of smoking on levels of TT, FT, and BT. Results., No significant difference was observed in the mean values of TT (P = 0.580), FT (P = 0.869), BT (P = 0.933), SHBG (P = 0.279), LH (P = 0.573), and FSH (P = 0.693) in the different levels of pack-years when compared to nonsmokers. Moreover, after multivariate logistic regression, no association between increased pack-years of smoking and increased odds ratio for occurrence of low hormones and SHBG levels was observed. Conclusion., In this study, smokers and nonsmokers had similar mean values of androgens, gonadotropins and SHBG. However, it is necessary to standardize pack-years of smoking in order to elucidate the influence of cigarette smoking on sex hormone levels, as well as to minimize differences among studies and to confirm our results. Halmenschlager G, Rossetto S, Lara GM, and Rhoden EL. Evaluation of the effects of cigarette smoking on testosterone levels in adult men. J Sex Med 2009;6:1763,1772. [source]

    The effects of lamotrigine on the pharmacokinetics of lithium

    Chao Chen
    Aims The treatment of bipolar disorder often includes use of multiple drug therapies. Lithium is one of the most commonly used treatments, but has a narrow therapeutic window. Lamotrigine, an established antiepileptic drug, is emerging as a potentially important new therapy in the treatment of bipolar disorder. The objective of this two-treatment crossover study was to determine whether lamotrigine affects lithium pharmacokinetics. Methods Twenty healthy adult men completed the study. Subjects took 2 g lithium gluconate anhydrous every 12 h in the morning and evening for 5 days and in the morning of day 6, with or without 100 mg lamotrigine once daily in the morning for 6 days. Blood and urine samples were collected on day 6 of both treatments to characterize the pharmacokinetics of lithium using noncompartmental methods. Results The geometric least-square mean ratio for renal clearance of lithium between the combination treatment and lithium alone treatment was 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.85,1.02). Both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusions Lamotrigine does not cause significant change in the pharmacokinetics of lithium. [source]

    Synthetic small interfering RNA targeting heat shock protein 105 induces apoptosis of various cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 7 2006
    Seiji Hosaka
    We previously reported that heat shock protein 105 (HSP105), identified by serological analysis of a recombinant cDNA expression library (SEREX) using serum from a pancreatic cancer patient, was overexpressed in various human tumors and in the testis of adult men by immunohistochemical analysis. In the present study, to elucidate the biological function of the HSP105 protein in cancer cells, we first established NIH3T3 cells overexpressing murine HSP105 (NIH3T3-HSP105). The NIH3T3-HSP105 cells acquired resistance to apoptosis induced by heat shock or doxorubicin. The small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated suppression of HSP105 protein expression induced apoptosis in human cancer cells but not in fibroblasts. By a combination of siRNA introduction and doxorubicin or heat shock treatment, apoptosis was induced synergistically in a human colon cancer cell line, HCT116. In vivo, siRNA inoculation into the human gastric cancer cell line KATO-3 established in the flank of an NOD SCID mouse suppressed the tumor growth. This siRNA-induced apoptosis was mediated through caspases, but not the p53 tumor suppressor protein, even though the HSP105 protein was bound to wild-type p53 protein in HCT116 cells. These findings suggest that the constitutive overexpression of HSP105 in cancer cells is involved in malignant transformation by protecting tumor cells from apoptosis. HSP105 may thus be a novel target molecule for cancer therapy and a treatment regimen using synthetic siRNA to suppress the expression of HSP105 protein may provide a new strategy for cancer therapy. (Cancer Sci 2006; 97: 623,632) [source]

    Surgical excision of acne keloidalis nuchae with secondary intention healing

    V. Bajaj
    Summary Acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN) is a chronic scarring folliculitis that presents clinically as follicular papules and pustules. These can coalesce into firm hypertrophic plaques and nodules on the nape of the neck, most commonly affecting young adult men. Treatment includes topical steroids/antibiotics and oral antibiotics, but often has disappointing results. Surgical approaches include excision with primary closure or skin grafting, and hair-removal lasers. Another surgical approach is excision with secondary intention healing. This can result in good cosmesis with little or no recurrence. We report two men with AKN where treatment by excision with secondary intention was successful. [source]