Adult Life Span (adult + life_span)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Dispersal characteristics and management of a rare damselfly

Bethan V. Purse
Summary 1Coenagrion mercuriale is a rare damselfly in Britain and mainland Europe and has been declining in the last 30 years. It has specialized habitat requirements and has been viewed, traditionally, as a poor disperser. Knowledge of its dispersal ability was considered in its Biodiversity Species Action Plan as essential for the formulation of appropriate conservation management strategies. 2Mark,release,recapture (MRR) studies of C. mercuriale in two large UK heathland populations were undertaken. Mature adults had a low rate of movement within continuous areas of habitat (average < 25 m movement), low emigration rates (1·3,11·4%) and low colonization distances (maximum 1 km), all comparable to similarly sized coenagrionids. 3Movements were more likely within than between patches of suitable habitat over short to medium distances (50,300 m). Between-patch movements were more likely between patches that were close together. Scrub barriers reduced dispersal. 4The probability of dispersal between two recaptures depended on the length of the time interval between them. Coenagrion mercuriale performed considerable between-patch movements within a small fraction (1,2 days) of its mean mature adult life span (7,8 days). 5Qualitative comparison of field colonization distances measured here and distances between UK sites occupied by C. mercuriale revealed that empty sites within large clusters of sites would probably be recolonized rapidly and dispersal events would be frequent. However, such events would occur rarely within small isolated sites or clusters of sites, leaving local populations prone to extinction. 6Synthesis and applications. These data show that management effort should be directed towards maximizing the likelihood of C. mercuriale recolonizing sites naturally within 1,3 km of other populations (particularly within large clusters). Scrub boundaries should be removed between existing populations and empty, but suitable, sites to facilitate stepping-stone dispersal movements. [source]

Norms of Filial Responsibility for Aging Parents Across Time and Generations

Daphna Gans
This investigation examined the normative expectation that adult children should be responsible for the care of their aging parents, and how this norm changes over the adult life span, across several decades of historical time, in relation to generational position in families, and between successive generations. Analyses were performed using 4 waves of data from the University of Southern California (USC) Longitudinal Study of Generations between 1985 and 2000. A multilevel latent growth model was estimated using 4,527 observations from 1,627 individuals nested within 333 families. Results revealed that filial norms weakened after midlife, in response to parental death, and over historical time, yet strengthened in later-born generations. Findings are discussed in terms of the malleability of filial responsibility over the life course. [source]

Lifetime reproductive output of Calliphora vicina and Lucilia sericata in outdoor caged and field populations; flight vs. egg production?

Abstract Females of the blowflies Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) maintained in sheltered outdoor cages and supplied with excess food, oviposited later than would have been expected from the temperature-sum. The survival rates of the caged flies was high and the isolation of flies from predation, extreme temperatures and food shortages is likely to have contributed to this. Despite good survival rates, subsequent egg production over the greater part of the adult life span was reduced to ,24% for C. vicina and ,55% for L. sericata, of the potential expected from the published temperature-sums required for the maturation of successive egg batches. The data suggest that under field-cage conditions there is a considerable variation in egg development between individuals of the same age and that this variation should not be overlooked, since it may have significant implications in ecological and forensic investigations; however, the cause of this variability remains unclear. While lower than expected, the reproductive outputs recorded in the cages were nevertheless considerably greater than those that have been estimated for blowflies in the field and illustrate the potential for population increase in these species under favourable conditions. The possibility of a greater energy investment in flight activity relative to reproductive output in C. vicina compared to L. sericata is proposed. [source]

Social facilitation affects longevity and lifetime reproductive success in a self-fertilizing land snail

OIKOS, Issue 3 2000
Bruno Baur
Factors that reduce the reproductive output of self-fertilizing hermaphrodites are receiving increasing attention. The combined effects of reduced fecundity of selfing parents and inbreeding depression of the progeny have been referred to as self-fertilization depression. In isolated freshwater snails the reproductive output of selfing individuals also decreases due to the lack of social facilitation (absence of a conspecific). We examined the effect of social facilitation on lifetime reproductive success (number of young produced and longevity) over two generations in the simultaneously hermaphroditic land snail Balea perversa. In a parallel study we showed that B. perversa kept singly and in pairs reproduced exclusively by self-fertilization. In the parent generation, snails kept singly produced less offspring than snails kept in pairs. The difference in lifetime number of young was mainly due to differences in adult life span. Snails of the two groups did not differ in reproductive rate (number of young produced per 100 d of reproductive life) and hatchling size. In the offspring generation, snails kept singly did not differ from individuals kept in pairs in the lifetime number of young and hatchling survival. As in the parent generation, snails kept singly reproduced during a shorter period than snails kept in pairs. However, the shorter reproductive life span of snails kept singly was compensated for by a slightly (but not significantly) higher reproductive rate which resulted in a similar number of offspring produced for both groups. In both generations, snails of the two groups did not differ in size at first reproduction, adult growth rate and size at death. These findings suggest that social facilitation may affect longevity in selfing B. perversa. [source]

Childhood, adolescence, and longevity: A multilevel model of the evolution of reserve capacity in human life history

Barry Bogin
The grandmother hypothesis (GH) of Hawkes et al. ([1998]: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 1336,1339) finds that selection for lower adult mortality and greater longevity allow for the evolution of prolonged growth in human beings. In contrast, other researchers propose that the evolution of the human childhood and adolescent stages of life history prolonged the growth period and allowed for greater biological resilience and longevity compared with apes. In this article, the GH model is reanalyzed using new values for some of its key variables. The original GH set the age at human feeding independence at 2.8 years of age (weaning) and used demographic data from living foragers to estimate average adult lifespan after first birth at 32.9 years. The reanalysis of the GH uses age 7.0 years (end of the childhood stage) as the minimum for human feeding independence and uses data from healthier populations, rather than foragers, to derive an estimate of 48.9 years for average adult life span. Doing so finds that selection operated to first shorten the infancy stage (wean early compared with apes), then prolong the growth period, and finally result in greater longevity. The reanalysis provides a test of the reserve capacity hypothesis as part of a multilevel model of human life history evolution. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Memory function in normal aging

Lars-Göran Nilsson
Basic findings obtained on memory functions in normal aging are presented and discussed with respect to five separate but interacting memory systems. These systems are: episodic memory, semantic memory, short-term memory, perceptual representation system and procedural memory. All available evidence from cross-sectional research shows that there is a linear, decreasing memory performance as a function of age for episodic memory. Longitudinal studies suggest, however, that this age deficit may be an overestimation, by showing a relatively stable performance level up to middle age, followed by a sharp decline. Studies on semantic memory, short-term memory, perceptual representation system, and procedural memory show a relatively constant performance level across the adult life span, although some tasks used to assess short-term memory and procedural memory have revealed an age deficit. Disregarding the mixed results for these latter two memory systems, it can be concluded that episodic memory is unique in showing an age deficit. Episodic memory is also unique in the sense that it is the only memory system showing gender differences in performance throughout the adult life span with a significantly higher performance for women. [source]