Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients (adult + kidney_transplant_recipient)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Intensive and Prolonged Treatment of Focal and Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Recurrence in Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Pilot Study

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 5 2009
G. Canaud
No treatment has consistently induced long-term remission of proteinuria in adult patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) recurrence after kidney transplantation. We undertook an open-label, nonrandomized pilot trial of intensive and prolonged treatment of FSGS recurrence. Over an 18-month period, 10 adult kidney transplant recipients with FSGS recurrence received concomitantly high-dose steroids, intravenous cyclosporine for 14 days followed by oral cyclosporine therapy, and an intensive and prolonged course of plasma exchanges (PE). We compared this treatment with those of a control group of 19 patients with a FSGS recurrence transplanted between 1997 and 2005. Complete, rapid (mean 23 7 days) and sustained remission was obtained in 9/10 patients (90%) as opposed to 27% in the control group. At month 3 and month 12, proteinuria was 0.16 g/day (range 0.05,0.3 g/day) and 0.19 g/day (range 0.05,1 g/day) respectively. Only one patient remained in partial remission at month 12 but he had already lost two previous grafts due to FSGS recurrence. PEs were stopped at month 9 in all patients except for the patient with a partial remission who remains PE-dependent. This small pilot study provides very encouraging results demonstrating that this treatment rapidly achieves complete and sustained remission in a high proportion of patients. [source]


Leflunomide therapy for BK virus allograft nephropathy in pediatric and young adult kidney transplant recipients

PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 1 2010
Carlos E. Araya
Araya CE, Garin EH, Neiberger RE, Dharnidharka VR. Leflunomide therapy for BK virus allograft nephropathy in pediatric and young adult kidney transplant recipients. Pediatr Transplantation 2010: 14: 145,150. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Abstract:, BKVAN affects about 5% of kidney transplant recipients and may lead to graft failure. Treatment for BKVAN is challenging. Leflunomide, an immunosuppressant with antiviral activity in vitro was used successfully in some adult patients but there are no reports of its use in pediatric patients. We present our experience with three kidney transplant recipients with BKVAN who received leflunomide. Three male patients aged 9, 12, and 20 yr developed BKVAN at 9, 12, and 2 months after a kidney transplant. Immunosuppression was reduced and cidofovir was administered in all patients 2,3 wk apart. Due to inability to travel to receive cidofovir in one, lack of reduction in BK viral load in the second, and rising serum creatinine despite cidofovir in the third patient, we discontinued cidofovir and initiated leflunomide. Teriflunomide target trough levels were 30,60 ,g/mL. The patients received leflunomide for 27, 26, and 24 months, respectively. BK viral load decreased below 1000 DNA copies/mL in one and was undetectable in two patients after beginning leflunomide. All patients tolerated leflunomide without side effects. Leflunomide use in a select group of patients is well tolerated and may provide an alternative for treatment of BKVAN in pediatric patients. [source]


Intensive and Prolonged Treatment of Focal and Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Recurrence in Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Pilot Study

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 5 2009
G. Canaud
No treatment has consistently induced long-term remission of proteinuria in adult patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) recurrence after kidney transplantation. We undertook an open-label, nonrandomized pilot trial of intensive and prolonged treatment of FSGS recurrence. Over an 18-month period, 10 adult kidney transplant recipients with FSGS recurrence received concomitantly high-dose steroids, intravenous cyclosporine for 14 days followed by oral cyclosporine therapy, and an intensive and prolonged course of plasma exchanges (PE). We compared this treatment with those of a control group of 19 patients with a FSGS recurrence transplanted between 1997 and 2005. Complete, rapid (mean 23 7 days) and sustained remission was obtained in 9/10 patients (90%) as opposed to 27% in the control group. At month 3 and month 12, proteinuria was 0.16 g/day (range 0.05,0.3 g/day) and 0.19 g/day (range 0.05,1 g/day) respectively. Only one patient remained in partial remission at month 12 but he had already lost two previous grafts due to FSGS recurrence. PEs were stopped at month 9 in all patients except for the patient with a partial remission who remains PE-dependent. This small pilot study provides very encouraging results demonstrating that this treatment rapidly achieves complete and sustained remission in a high proportion of patients. [source]


Population pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of tacrolimus in kidney transplant patients

BRITISH JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Issue 6 2007
Marie Antignac
What is already known about this subject , ,In spite of its success in ensuring graft survival, therapeutic use of tacrolimus is complicated by its narrow therapeutic index and wide intra- and interpatient variability. , ,Some studies of population pharmacokinetics have already been conducted in liver transplant recipients and in paediatric patients. What this study adds , ,Our work determined population pharmacokinetic parameters, in particular bioavailability, in kidney transplant recipients and the relative importance of factors influencing the disposition of tacrolimus. , ,Clearance was modelled and days postoperation and corticosteroids dose were significant covariates. Aims The use of tacrolimus is complicated by its narrow therapeutic index and wide intra- and interpatient variability. Tacrolimus population pharmacokinetics, including bioavailability, were investigated in an adult kidney transplant cohort to identify patient characteristics that influence pharmacokinetics. Methods The database (drug monitoring data) included 83 adult kidney transplant recipients and analysis was performed by a population approach with NONMEM. Data were collected during the first months after transplantation. Patients were administered oral or intravenous tacrolimus as part of a triple immunosuppressive regimen that also included mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids. Subsequent doses were adjusted on the basis of clinical evidence of efficacy and toxicity as in routine therapeutic drug monitoring. Results A one compartment open model with linear absorption and elimination adequately described the data. The typical value of minimal clearance was 1.8 0.2 l h,1. Clearance increased with time post transplantation to reach 50% of maximal value after 3.8 0.5 days, with a maximal value of 5.6 l h,1. Moreover clearance increased by approximately 1.6 fold (range 0.5,1.6) if the dose of prednisone was >25 mg. The typical value for volume of distribution, V, (98 13 l kg,1) was similar to reported values in kidney transplant patients. The oral bioavailability of tacrolimus was poor and ranged from 11.2 to 19.1%. No covariates significantly influenced V or F. Conclusions The number of days postoperation and corticosteroid dose were significant covariates influencing tacrolimus clearance. [source]


Factors modifying stress from adverse effects of immunosuppressive medication in kidney transplant recipients

CLINICAL TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 1 2005
Jaroslav Rosenberger
Abstract:, Introduction:, The adverse effects of immunosuppression appear in the majority of patients with a negative impact on morbidity, mortality and quality of life. The group of adverse symptoms manifested as changes in appearance, mood and energy are often more stressful than serious metabolic changes because of their direct negative influence on patients' well-being. The aim of this study is to explore the adverse symptoms of immunosuppressive medication which are the most stressful for transplanted patients, and which are the modifying factors. Patients and methods:, A total of 157 adult kidney transplant recipients from two transplant centres in Slovakia with a functioning graft transplanted <7 yr ago were examined. Patients participated in an interview focusing on stress from adverse effects, and their education and social support. Medical records were searched for information about immunosuppression protocols, dialysis treatment before transplantation, type of received organ and period after transplantation. The effect of the selected variables on the total score for stress from adverse effects was tested using ANOVA. The effect of the selected factors on stress from each single adverse effect was explored using t -test and ANOVA. Results:, The most stressful symptoms were pain, weakness, weight gain, facial changes, depression and anxiety. The mean value of the total score for stress from adverse effects was 8.03 6.53 (minimum 0, maximum 30, range: 0,64), indicating low stress. Women and patients with lower education significantly more often felt the adverse effects of immunosuppression as stressful (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). Age, social support, dialysis modality before transplantation, time from transplantation and type of immunosuppressive treatment did not affect the total score for stress from adverse effects. However, variables that were not significant in the overall score reached significance in some symptoms. Conclusions:, Women and patients with lower education significantly more often felt the adverse effects of immunosuppression as stressful; in a more detailed analysis the use of new drugs was connected with less stress in some symptoms. The use of these drugs can improve life quality for transplant recipients, decrease non-compliance, and thus prevent graft loss. [source]