Adult Kidney (adult + kidney)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Adult Kidney

  • adult kidney transplant recipient

  • Selected Abstracts


    Successful Urgent Transplantation of an Adult Kidney into a Child with Inferior Vena Cava Thrombosis

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 8 2009
    R. B. Stevens
    Poor venous drainage options following inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis have been considered to complicate or preclude renal transplantation of adult kidneys into pediatric patients. We describe urgent renal transplantation in a 5-year-old (15.3 kg) male with IVC thrombosis using an adult living donor. Preoperative magnetic resonance venography revealed a patent infrahepatic/suprarenal vena cava and portal system. In surgery, the right liver lobe was mobilized sufficiently to anastomose the graft renal vein to the native IVC at the confluence of the native left renal vein and proximal vena cava. Graft function has remained excellent with serum creatinine of 0.5 mg/dL at 36 months. IVC thrombosis need not preclude successful transplantation of adult-sized kidneys into children. [source]


    Monocilia on chicken embryonic endocardium in low shear stress areas

    DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 1 2006
    Kim Van der Heiden
    Abstract During cardiovascular development, fluid shear stress patterns change dramatically due to extensive remodeling. This biomechanical force has been shown to drive gene expression in endothelial cells and, consequently, is considered to play a role in cardiovascular development. The mechanism by which endothelial cells sense shear stress is still unidentified. In this study, we postulate that primary cilia function as fluid shear stress sensors of endothelial cells. Such a function already has been attributed to primary cilia on epithelial cells of the adult kidney and of Hensen's node in the embryo where they transduce mechanical signals into an intracellular Ca2+ signaling response. Recently, primary cilia were observed on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These primary cilia disassembled when subjected to high shear stress levels. Whereas endocardial,endothelial cells have been reported to be more shear responsive than endothelial cells, cilia are not detected, thus far, on endocardial cells. In the present study, we use field emission scanning electron microscopy to show shear stress-related regional differences in cell protrusions within the cardiovasculature of the developing chicken. Furthermore, we identify one of these cell protrusions as a monocilium with monoclonal antibodies against acetylated and detyrosinated alpha-tubulin. The distribution pattern of the monocilia was compared to the chicken embryonic expression pattern of the high shear stress marker Krüppel-like factor-2. We demonstrate the presence of monocilia on endocardial,endothelial cells in areas of low shear stress and postulate that they are immotile primary cilia, which function as fluid shear stress sensors. Developmental Dynamics 235:19,28, 2006. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Human tissue distribution of paraoxonases 1 and 2 mRNA

    IUBMB LIFE, Issue 6 2010
    Bharti Mackness
    Abstract We have studied the distribution of mRNA for paraoxonases (PON) 1 and 2 in 24 human tissues using Gene Expression Panels. PON1 mRNA was restricted to adult kidney, liver, and colon as well as fetal liver, whereas PON2 mRNA was more widely distributed in adult human brain, heart, kidney, spleen, liver, colon, lung, small intestine, muscle, stomach, testis, placenta, salivary, thyroid and adrenal glands, pancreas, skin, and bone marrow, as well as fetal brain and liver. PON2 mRNA was not found in ovary, uterus, or plasma leukocytes using the panels. However, using real time PCR, we found PON2 mRNA expression in human plasma leukocytes. There were differences between the tissue distribution of mRNAs found in this study and the immunohistochemical localization of the PON1 and PON2 proteins reported previously. In particular, PON1 protein is much more widely distributed than its mRNA, possibly indicating the delivery of PON1 to various tissues by HDL. In addition, differences between PON2 mRNA and protein distributions could be due to missence mutations in the PON2 gene, causing nontranslation of mRNA to protein in some tissues. © 2010 IUBMB IUBMB Life, 62(6): 484,486, 2010 [source]


    HYPOXIA-INDUCED ERYTHROPOIETIN PRODUCTION: A PARADIGM FOR OXYGEN-REGULATED GENE EXPRESSION

    CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 10 2006
    Christian Stockmann
    SUMMARY 1The mechanisms controlling the expression of the gene encoding for the hormone erythropoietin (EPO) are exemplary for oxygen-regulated gene expression. In humans and other mammals, hypoxia modulates EPO levels by increasing expression of the EPO gene. An association between polycythaemia and people living at high altitudes was first reported more than 100 years ago. 2Since the identification of EPO as the humoral regulator of red blood cell production and the cloning of the EPO gene, considerable progress has been made in understanding the regulation of EPO gene expression. This has finally led to the identification of a widespread cellular oxygen-sensing mechanism. Central to this mechanism is the transcription factor complex hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1. 3The abundance and activity of HIF-1, a heterodimer of an ,- and ,-subunit, is predominantly regulated by oxygen-dependent post-translational hydroxylation of the ,-subunit. Non-heme ferrous iron containing hydroxylases use dioxygen and 2-oxoglutarate to specifically target proline and an asparagine residue in HIF-1,. As such, the three prolyl hydroxylases (prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein (PHD) 1, PHD2 and PHD3) and the asparagyl hydroxylase (factor inhibiting HIF (FIH)-1) act as cellular oxygen sensors. In addition to erythropoiesis, HIF-1 regulates a broad range of physiologically relevant genes involved in angiogenesis, apoptosis, vasomotor control and energy metabolism. Therefore, the HIF system is implicated in the pathophysiology of many human diseases. 4In addition to the tight regulation by oxygen tension, temporal and tissue-specific signals limit expression of the EPO gene primarily to the fetal liver and the adult kidney. [source]


    Increasing renal mass improves survival in anephric rats following metanephros transplantation

    EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    Damian Marshall
    Renal failure and end-stage renal disease are prevalent diseases associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality, the preferred treatment for which is kidney transplantation. However, the gulf between supply and demand for kidneys remains high and is growing every year. A potential alternative to the transplantation of mature adult kidneys is the transplantation of the developing renal primordium, the metanephros. It has been shown previously, in rodent models, that transplantation of a metanephros can provide renal function capable of prolonging survival in anephric animals. The aim of the present study was to determine whether increasing the mass of transplanted tissue can prolong survival further. Embryonic day 15 rat metanephroi were transplanted into the peritoneum of anaesthetized adult rat recipients. Twenty-one days later, the transplanted metanephroi were anastomosed to the recipient's urinary system, and 35 days following anastomosis the animal's native renal mass was removed. Survival times and composition of the excreted fluid were determined. Rats with single metanephros transplants survived 29 h longer than anephric controls (P < 0.001); animals with two metanephroi survived 44 h longer (P < 0.001). A dilute urine was formed, with low concentrations of sodium, potassium and urea; potassium and urea concentrations were elevated in terminal serum samples, but sodium concentration and osmolality were comparable to control values. These data show that survival time is proportional to the mass of functional renal tissue. While transplanted metanephroi cannot currently provide life-sustaining renal function, this approach may have therapeutic benefit in the future. [source]


    Improving Distribution Efficiency of Hard-to-Place Deceased Donor Kidneys: Predicting Probability of Discard or Delay

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 7 2010
    A. B. Massie
    We recently showed that DonorNet 2007 has reduced the efficiency of kidney distribution in the United States, particularly for those with prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT), by requiring systematic allocation of all kidneys regardless of quality. Reliable early identification of those most likely to be discarded or significantly delayed would enable assigning them to alternate, more efficient distribution strategies. Based on 39 035 adult kidneys recovered for possible transplantation between 2005 and 2008, we created a regression model that reliably (AUC 0.83) quantified the probability that a given kidney was either discarded or delayed beyond 36 h of CIT (Probability of Discard/Delay, PODD). We then analyzed two PODD cutoffs: a permissive cutoff that successfully flagged over half of those kidneys that were discarded/delayed, while only flagging 7% of kidneys that were not eventually discarded/delayed, and a more stringent cutoff that erroneously flagged only 3% but also correctly identified only 34%. Kidney transplants with high PODD were clustered in a minority of centers. Modifications of the kidney distribution system to more efficiently direct organs with high PODD to the centers that actually use them may result in reduced CIT and fewer discards. [source]


    Successful Urgent Transplantation of an Adult Kidney into a Child with Inferior Vena Cava Thrombosis

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 8 2009
    R. B. Stevens
    Poor venous drainage options following inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis have been considered to complicate or preclude renal transplantation of adult kidneys into pediatric patients. We describe urgent renal transplantation in a 5-year-old (15.3 kg) male with IVC thrombosis using an adult living donor. Preoperative magnetic resonance venography revealed a patent infrahepatic/suprarenal vena cava and portal system. In surgery, the right liver lobe was mobilized sufficiently to anastomose the graft renal vein to the native IVC at the confluence of the native left renal vein and proximal vena cava. Graft function has remained excellent with serum creatinine of 0.5 mg/dL at 36 months. IVC thrombosis need not preclude successful transplantation of adult-sized kidneys into children. [source]