Adult Height (adult + height)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Assessment of Skeletal Maturity and Prediction of Adult Height (TW3 Method)

Lloyd L Morris
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Assessment Of Skeletal Maturity And Prediction Of Adult Height

RL Teele
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

HMGA2 Is Confirmed To Be Associated with Human Adult Height

Tie-Lin Yang
Summary Recent genome-wide association studies have identified a novel polymorphism, rs1042725, in the HMGA2 gene for human adult height, a highly heritable complex trait. Replications in independent populations are needed to evaluate a positive finding and determine its generality. Thus, we performed a replication study to examine the associations between polymorphisms in HMGA2 and adult height in two US Caucasian populations (an unrelated sample of 998 subjects and a family-based sample of 8385 subjects) and a Chinese population (1638 unrelated Han subjects). We confirmed the association between rs1042725 in HMGA2 and adult height both in the unrelated and family-based Caucasian populations (overall P= 4.25 × 10,9). Another two SNPs (rs7968902 and rs7968682), which were in high linkage disequilibrium with rs1042725, also achieved the significance level in both Caucasian populations (overall P= 6.34 × 10,7, and 2.72 × 10,9, respectively). Our results provide strong support to the initial finding. Moreover, SNP rs1042725 was firstly found to be associated with adult height (P= 0.008) in the Chinese population, and the effect is in the same direction as in the Caucasian populations, suggesting that it is a common variant across different populations. Our study further highlights the importance of the HMGA2 gene's involvement in normal growth. [source]

Loci Contributing to Adult Height and Body Mass Index in African American Families Ascertained for Type 2 Diabetes

M.M. Sale
Summary Height and body mass index (BMI) have high heritability in most studies. High BMI and reduced height are well-recognized as important risk factors for a number of cardiovascular diseases. We investigated these phenotypes in African American families originally ascertained for studies of linkage with type 2 diabetes using self-reported height and weight. We conducted a genome wide scan in 221 families containing 580 individuals and 672 relative pairs of African American descent. Estimates of heritability and support for linkage were assessed by genetic variance component analyses using SOLAR software. The estimated heritabilities for height and BMI were 0.43 and 0.64, respectively. We have identified major loci contributing to variation in height on chromosomes 15 (LOD = 2.61 at 35 cM, p = 0.0004), 3 (LOD = 1.82 at 84 cM, p = 0.0029), 8 (LOD = 1.92 at 135 cM, p = 0.0024) and 17 (LOD = 1.70 at 110 cM, p = 0.0044). A broad region on chromosome 4 supported evidence of linkage to variation in BMI, with the highest LOD = 2.66 at 168 cM (p = 0.0005). Two height loci and two BMI loci appear to confirm the existence of quantitative trait loci previously identified by other studies, providing important replicative data to allow further resolution of linkage regions suitable for positional cloning of these cardiovascular disease risk loci. [source]

Selection for a dominant oncogene and large male size as a risk factor for melanoma in the Xiphophorus animal model

Abstract Adult height is a risk factor in numerous human cancers that involve aberrant receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling. However, its importance is debated due to conflicting epidemiological studies and the lack of useful in vivo models. In Xiphophorus fishes (Platyfishes/Swordtails), a functional RTK, Xiphophorus melanoma receptor kinase (Xmrk), serves as the dominant oncogene and has been maintained for several million years despite being deleterious and in an extremely unstable genomic region. Here we show that the Xmrk genotype is positively correlated with standard length in male and female wild caught Xiphophorus cortezi sampled throughout their phylogeographic distribution. Histopathology confirms the occurrence of malignant melanomas in both sexes; however, melanoma incidence was extremely male biased. Furthermore, males collected with malignant melanomas in the field were significantly larger than both Xmrk males collected without melanomas and wildtype (Xmrk deficient) males. These results not only provide a novel selective mechanism for the persistence of the germline Xmrk oncogene but also create an innovative avenue of melanoma research within the Xiphophorus fishes. Wildlife cancer in natural systems is a growing concern, therefore, future research investigating life history characteristics associated with certain phenotypes and genotypes that predispose an individual to cancer will be fundamental to increasing our understanding of the evolutionary biology of cancer in nature as well as in humans. [source]

Is treatment with growth hormone effective in children with cerebral palsy?

Melanie L Shim MD
Children with cerebral palsy (CP) often have poor linear growth during childhood, resulting in a diminished final adult height. Here we report a female with CP and short stature but without growth hormone (GH) deficiency who exhibited increased growth during treatment with GH. We also report two other children with CP who were treated with GH: one female with a history of leukemia, and a male with Klinefelter syndrome. These two children were both found to be GH-deficient by insulin provocative GH testing and responded to treatment with increased growth rate. Growth improved to a greater extent in the two children with apparent GH deficiency. In summary, it is felt that GH therapy might be beneficial for children with CP and warrants further investigation. [source]

Early life risk factors in cancer: The relation of birth weight to adult obesity

Nicole M. Leong
Abstract The intrauterine environment appears to play a role in the development of adult diseases, including several prominent cancers. Our study aims to characterize the relationship between birth weight, a measure of the intrauterine environment, and adult obesity. A population-based sample of women aged 50,79, living in the states of Massachusetts, New Hampshire or Wisconsin, were randomly selected from lists of licensed drivers and Medicare beneficiaries to participate as controls in a case-control study of breast cancer. Information on birth weight, adult height and adult weight were collected through structured telephone interviews from 1992,1995. Our analysis was based on 1,850 interviews. A U-shaped relationship between birth weight and adult BMI was observed. Median adult BMI for the birth weight categories (in kilograms) <2.3, 2.3<2.5, 2.5<3.2, 3.2<3.9, 3.9<4.5 and ,4.5 were 26.6, 24.4, 25.1, 25.5, 25.4 and 26.6 kg/m respectively. Compared to women 2.5<3.2 kg at birth, women in highest birth weight category (,4.5 kg) had an odds ratio of 1.99 (95% CI 1.13,3.48) of being obese (,30 kg/m2) as adults. The odds ratio for women in the <2.3 kg birth weight category was 1.67 (95% CI 1.01,2.76). These data suggest that both low and high birth weights are associated with higher adult BMI and support the hypothesis that fetal experience may influence adult obesity with potential consequences for risk of several major cancers. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Diet and Its Relationship with Grip Strength in Community-Dwelling Older Men and Women: The Hertfordshire Cohort Study

Sian M. Robinson PhD
OBJECTIVES: To examine relationships between diet and grip strength in older men and women and to determine whether prenatal growth modifies these relationships. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Hertfordshire, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand nine hundred eighty-three men and women aged 59 to 73 who were born and still living in Hertfordshire, United Kingdom. MEASUREMENTS: Weight at birth recorded in Health Visitor ledgers; current food and nutrient intake assessed using an administered food frequency questionnaire; and grip strength measured using a handheld dynamometer. RESULTS: Grip strength was positively associated with height and weight at birth and inversely related to age (all P<.001). Of the dietary factors considered in relation to grip strength, the most important was fatty fish consumption. An increase in grip strength of 0.43 kg (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.13,0.74) in men (P=.005) and 0.48 kg (95% CI=0.24,0.72) in women (P<.001) was observed for each additional portion of fatty fish consumed per week. These relationships were independent of adult height, age, and birth weight, each of which had additive effects on grip strength. There was no evidence of interactive effects of weight at birth and adult diet on grip strength. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that fatty fish consumption can have an important influence on muscle function in older men and women. This raises the possibility that the antiinflammatory actions of omega-3 fatty acids may play a role in the prevention of sarcopenia. [source]

Peak Bone Mass After Exposure to Antenatal Betamethasone and Prematurity: Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Trial,

Stuart R Dalziel
Abstract Small birth size is associated with reduced adult bone mass. We determined if antenatal betamethasone exposure, birth weight, or prematurity affects peak bone mass in 174 adults. Antenatal betamethasone exposure did not. Lower birth weight and prematurity predicted reduced adult height. Slower fetal growth rather than prematurity predicted lower bone mass, but this lower bone mass was appropriate for reduced adult height. Introduction: Small size at birth is reported to be associated with lower bone mass in adulthood. However, previous studies have not distinguished the relative contributions of length of gestation and fetal growth to size at birth. Fetal exposure to excess glucocorticoids has been proposed as a core mechanism underlying the associations between birth size and later disease risk. Antenatal glucocorticoids are given to pregnant women at risk for preterm delivery for the prevention of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome in their infants. We determined the relationship of antenatal exposure to betamethasone, birth weight, and prematurity to peak bone mass and femoral geometry in the adult survivors of the first randomized trial of antenatal glucocorticoids. Materials and Methods: We studied 174 young adults (mean age, 31 years) whose mothers participated in a randomized trial of antenatal betamethasone. Mothers received two doses of intramuscular betamethasone or placebo 24 h apart. Two thirds of participants were born preterm (<37 weeks gestation). We measured indices of bone mass and size and derived estimates of volumetric density and bone geometry from DXA assessments of the lumbar spine, femur, and total body. Results: There were no differences between betamethasone-exposed and placebo-exposed groups in any of the lumbar spine, femur, or total body DXA measures. There was no effect of antenatal betamethasone on adult height, although leg length was increased relative to trunk length (p = 0.002). A lighter birth weight (p , 0.001) and lower gestational age (p = 0.013) were associated with shorter stature (height Z scores) at age 31 years. Prematurity had no effect on peak bone mass or femoral geometry. However, lower birth weight, independent of gestational age, was associated with lower later bone mass (p < 0.001 for lumbar spine and total body, p = 0.003 for femoral neck BMC). These effects on bone mass were related to bone size and not to estimates of volumetric density. In the femur, lower birth weight, independent of gestational age, was associated with narrowing of the upper shaft and narrow neck regions. Conclusions: Antenatal betamethasone exposure does not affect peak bone mass or femoral geometry in adulthood. Birth weight and prematurity predict adult height, but it is slower fetal growth, rather than prematurity, that predicts lower peak bone mass. The lower peak bone mass in those born small is appropriate for their adult height. [source]

Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome Type 3 and growth hormone deficiency

JB Quintos
Quintos JB, Grover M, Boney CM, Salas M. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 and growth hormone deficiency. The simultaneous occurrence of prepubertal Graves' disease, type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM), and Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is uncommon. GHD has been reported in Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome (APS) Type 1 and Type 2 but not in APS Type 3. We report a 3-yr-old boy who presented simultaneously with type 1 DM and Graves' disease. After he developed urticarial rash to Propylthiouracil and Methimazole with persistent thyrotoxicosis, he received 8 millicuries of 131I at 5 yr of age. We diagnosed GHD at age 8 yr 8 months because of growth deceleration (from 95 to 25%) and abnormal growth rate (3 cm/yr) despite euthyroidism, fair glycemic control, and normal weight gain. Both insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 (90 ng/mL; normal 113,261 ng/mL) and IGFBP3 (1.3 mcg/mL; normal 2.1,4.2 mcg/mL) levels were low and peak growth hormone level measured by RIA was 5.2 ng/mL after L-Dopa and insulin tolerance test. The rest of his pituitary functions and magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland were normal. Growth hormone treatment (0.3 mg/kg/wk) was administered at 8 yr 9 months until near final adult height (FAH). Near FAH (172 cm) was close to midparental target height of 180 cm. GHD may be a component of all APS even though it is rare. Growth in treated children with Graves' disease should be followed closely as catch down growth below genetic height potential may be a harbinger of underlying GHD. [source]

Anti-inflammatory treatment for recurrent wheezing in the first five years of life

Athanasios G. Kaditis MD
Abstract Medications identified for the treatment of recurrent wheezing in preschool children by the Expert Panel Report of the NHLBI Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma include inhaled corticosteroids, chromones, theophylline, and leukotriene pathway modifiers. However, these various agents differ in their mechanism, extent of action on the airway inflammatory process, and degree of clinical efficacy. Inhaled corticosteroids can control symptoms in many young children with even severe persistent wheezing, but data on their long-term safety when administered in preschool-age children are scarce. There is some information on the uninterrupted use of inhaled corticosteroids in school-age children and the absence of an adverse effect on ultimate adult height. Despite laboratory evidence of adrenal suppression in some studies, few pediatric cases of clinical adrenal insufficiency have been reported. Low-dose inhaled corticosteroid (<400 mcg/day for beclomethasone), which is adequate for controlling mild persistent symptoms, is generally safe. Chromones have a remarkable safety profile, but they are most effective for symptoms of mild severity. Promising data have been published on the efficacy and safety of leukotriene pathway modifiers when used in young children with persistent symptoms. It is uncertain whether early introduction and long-term administration of inhaled corticosteroids prevent development of irreversible airway obstruction. Nevertheless, they may be especially useful for patients with moderate to severe disease in whom other agents (chromones or leukotriene pathway modifiers) will most likely fail to control symptoms. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2003; 35:241,252. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Growth patterns in early childhood and final attained stature: Data from five birth cohorts from low- and middle-income countries,

Aryeh D. Stein
Growth failure is cumulative, and short stature is associated with multiple indices of reduced human capital. Few studies have been able to address in a single analysis both consideration of the timing of growth failure and comparison across populations. We analyzed data from birth cohorts in Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa (n = 4,659). We used data on length at birth (available for three of the five cohorts), 12 mo, 24 mo, and mid-childhood to construct cohort- and sex- specific conditional length measures. We modeled adult height as a function of conditional length in childhood. The five cohorts experienced varying degrees of growth failure. As adults, the Brazil sample was 0.35 ± 0.89 standard deviations (SD) below the World Health Organization reference, while adult Guatemalans were 1.91 ± 0.87 SD below the reference. All five cohorts experienced a nadir in height for age Z -score at 24 mo. Birth length (in the three cohorts with this variable), and conditional length at 12 mo (in all five cohorts) were the most strongly associated with adult height. Growth in the periods 12,24 mo and 24 mo to mid-childhood showed inconsistent patterns across tertiles of adult height. Despite variation in the magnitude of cumulative growth failure across cohorts, the five cohorts show highly consistent age-specific associations with adult stature. Growth failure prior to age 12 mo was most strongly associated with adult stature. These consistencies speak to the importance of interventions to address intrauterine growth failure and growth failure in the first 12 mo of life. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Childhood conditions and education as determinants of adult height and obesity among Greenland Inuit

P. Bjerregaard
Height and obesity are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and other physical and mental health conditions. Their association with childhood socioeconomic position has been demonstrated in studies among European and a few third world populations. In a random sample of adult Greenland Inuit (N = 2302) we studied the association between childhood socioeconomic conditions and height as well as prevalence of obesity (BMI , 30) in a cross sectional design. In block recursive graphical independence models, height was associated with mother's place of birth, birth cohort, childhood residence, alcohol problems in childhood home, and education among both men and women. Obesity was associated with mother's place of birth (for men) and with alcohol problems (for women). In General Linear Models, men with an all rural background and no education beyond primary school measured on average 165.1 cm compared with 172.1 cm for men with an all urban background (P < 0.001); women measured 153.9 and 161.1 cm (P < 0.001). Rural-urban differences in prevalence of obesity were not statistically significant. The height differences were considerably larger than between educational groups in European countries and of the same order of magnitude as those reported between men from the 17th century and men from 400 BC in the European and Mediterranean region. The rural-urban gradient in height follows the socioeconomic gradient and may negatively affect cardiovascular risk among the rural Greenlanders, while their physically active lifestyle and high consumption of n-3 fatty acids may counteract this. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Postfamine stature and socioeconomic status in Ireland

Kristin Young
Previous research has documented socioeconomic stratification of secular trend in height in historical populations. Using data from 4,900 males and 1,430 females born between 1840 and 1910 collected as part of the Harvard Anthropological Survey of Ireland (1934,1936), this study examined the secular changes in postfamine Ireland using several socioeconomic variables, including: occupation, migration, education, siblings, birthplace, and occupation of father and mother's father. Correlations were also calculated between height and various historical economic indices. Significant differences in the height of Irish males were found by occupation, education, and socioeconomic status of father and maternal grandfather. Males employed in agriculture, or whose fathers or grandfathers were so employed, were significantly taller than other males. For the smaller female sample, only occupation and grandfather's socioeconomic status had a significant impact on height. An inverse correlation was also found between the British Cost of Living Index (BCL) and male heights. Our results suggest that availability of resources plays an important role in the overall nutritional status reflected in terminal adult height. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Assessment of skeletal maturity and prediction of adult height (TW3 method)

Robert M. Malina
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Secular change in heights of indigenous adults from a Zapotec-speaking community in Oaxaca, southern Mexico

Robert M. Malina
Abstract Secular change in adult height of residents in a rural indigenous community in the Valley of Oaxaca was evaluated. Subjects were measured in 1971 (49 males, 26 females 19,70 years), 1978 (128 males, 124 females 19,82 years) and 2000 (155 males, 255 females 19,89 years). Heights were adjusted for estimated loss with age using two protocols; height at 21 years of age was also estimated. The effects of age and secular factors on measured and adjusted heights were evaluated through segmented linear regressions for three birth periods, <1930, 1930 through 1959 and ,1960 which approximate significant periods in Mexican history. Secular increase in height occurred but estimated rates varied over time and between sexes. Males born before 1930 showed a secular increase in height but females did not. Adults of both sexes born 1930,1959 showed secular gains and estimated rates did not differ. The secular gain in height continued among those born 1960 and later and estimated rates were similar in both sexes. Estimated height at 21 years of age increased in males (not significant) but not in females born before 1930, showed little or no change in those born between 1930-1959, and increased (not significant) in those born 1960 and later. Combining observations on adults with those for youth in the community indicated several phases of secular change in height that varied with years of birth. Am J Phys Anthropol 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Joint Identification of Multiple Genetic Variants via Elastic-Net Variable Selection in a Genome-Wide Association Analysis

Seoae Cho
Summary Unraveling the genetic background of common complex traits is a major goal in modern genetics. In recent years, genome-wide association (GWA) studies have been conducted with large-scale data sets of genetic variants. Most of those studies have relied on single-marker approaches that identify single genetic factors individually and can be limited in considering fully the joint effects of multiple genetic factors on complex traits. Joint identification of multiple genetic factors would be more powerful and would provide better prediction on complex traits since it utilizes combined information across variants. Here we propose a multi-stage approach for GWA analysis: (1) prescreening, (2) joint identification of putative SNPs based on elastic-net variable selection, and (3) empirical replication using bootstrap samples. Our approach enables an efficient joint search for genetic associations in GWA analysis. The suggested empirical replication method can be beneficial in GWA studies because one can avoid a costly, independent replication study while eliminating false-positive associations and focusing on a smaller number of replicable variants. We applied the proposed approach to a GWA analysis, and jointly identified 129 genetic variants having an association with adult height in a Korean population. [source]

MQScore_SNP Software for Multipoint Parametric Linkage Analysis of Quantitative Traits in Large Pedigrees

Tatiana I. Axenovich
Summary We describe software for multipoint parametric linkage analysis of quantitative traits using information about SNP genotypes. A mixed model of major gene and polygene inheritance is implemented in this software. Implementation of several algorithms to avoid computational underflow and decrease running time permits application of our software to the analysis of very large pedigrees collected in human genetically isolated populations. We tested our software by performing linkage analysis of adult height in a large pedigree from a Dutch isolated population. Three significant and four suggestive loci were identified with the help of our programs, whereas variance-component-based linkage analysis, which requires the pedigree fragmentation, demonstrated only three suggestive peaks. The software package MQScore_SNP is available at [source]

HMGA2 Is Confirmed To Be Associated with Human Adult Height

Tie-Lin Yang
Summary Recent genome-wide association studies have identified a novel polymorphism, rs1042725, in the HMGA2 gene for human adult height, a highly heritable complex trait. Replications in independent populations are needed to evaluate a positive finding and determine its generality. Thus, we performed a replication study to examine the associations between polymorphisms in HMGA2 and adult height in two US Caucasian populations (an unrelated sample of 998 subjects and a family-based sample of 8385 subjects) and a Chinese population (1638 unrelated Han subjects). We confirmed the association between rs1042725 in HMGA2 and adult height both in the unrelated and family-based Caucasian populations (overall P= 4.25 × 10,9). Another two SNPs (rs7968902 and rs7968682), which were in high linkage disequilibrium with rs1042725, also achieved the significance level in both Caucasian populations (overall P= 6.34 × 10,7, and 2.72 × 10,9, respectively). Our results provide strong support to the initial finding. Moreover, SNP rs1042725 was firstly found to be associated with adult height (P= 0.008) in the Chinese population, and the effect is in the same direction as in the Caucasian populations, suggesting that it is a common variant across different populations. Our study further highlights the importance of the HMGA2 gene's involvement in normal growth. [source]

The continuum of growth hormone,IGF-I axis defects causing short stature: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges

Martin O. Savage
Summary The growth hormone (GH),IGF-I axis is essential for normal foetal and childhood growth. Defects at different sites in the axis frequently result in short stature which may compromise adult height. We describe a continuum of clinically relevant abnormalities from GH deficiency through to GH resistance and discuss the implementation and interpretation of investigations. We consider appropriate therapy for patients with abnormal auxology and subnormal adult height prognosis, highlighting new data to clarify therapeutic choices leading to optimal clinical outcome. [source]

Improved final height with long-term growth hormone treatment in Noonan syndrome

Deborah Osio
Abstract Aim: To assess whether children with Noonan syndrome on long-term growth hormone (GH) therapy improve their final height to near mid-parental height. Methods: Twenty-five prepubertal children (13 girls) with Noonan syndrome (NS) were studied. A single clinician made the diagnosis based on clinical criteria. GH treatment started at an age ranging from 3.1 to 13.8 y and was continued for at least 2 y. Improvement or "gain" in final height (FH) was defined as either the difference between adult height SD scores (SDS) and pre-treatment height SDS (the childhood component of the Swedish reference) or height SDS compared to the Noonan reference. Results: Ten children received a GH dose of 33 ,g/kg/d (mean age at start 7.7±2.1 y, mean age at stop 17.6±1.7 y) and 15 received a dose of 66 ,g/kg/d (mean age at start 8.6±3.3 y, mean age at stop 18.4±2.1 y). Eighteen out of 25 patients reached FH. A substantial improvement in FH of 1.7 SDS, equivalent to 10.4 cm compared to pre-treatment height, was observed. No significant difference was seen between the two GH doses. Females gained a mean height of 9.8 cm and males 1,13 cm (FH 174.5±7.8 cm vs mean adult height of 162.5±5.4 cm for males with NS) at final height. Moreover, 60% reached a mid-parental height of±1 SD. Conclusion: GH treatment improves final height in patients with Noonan syndrome, with a mean gain of 1.7 SDS. The prepubertal height gain is maintained to final height and the children achieve a height close to their mid-parental height. [source]

Improved final height in Turner's syndrome following growth-promoting treatment at a single centre

EJ Gault
Aims: To examine the final height (FH) outcome of girls with Turner's syndrome (TS) treated at a single Scottish centre (Glasgow group), to compare it with an earlier national analysis (Scottish group) and to suggest reasons for any change. Methods: Retrospective growth and treatment data for 29 Glasgow patients were compared with those of 26 Scottish patients. Results: Age at GH start (mean ± SD) was 10.1 ± 2.6 vs 12.1 ± 1.7 y (p < 0.01) in the Glasgow versus Scottish groups, with overall duration of treatment 6.2 ± 2.4 vs 3.7 ± 1.1 y (p < 0.001) and years of GH treatment before pubertal induction 2.7 ± 2.8 vs 0.3 ± 0.8 y (p < 0.001), respectively. Pubertal induction was at a similar age: 12.7 ± 1.8 vs 12.8 ± 1.8 y (ns). FH was 151.1 ± 4.6 cm in the Glasgow group compared with 142.6 ± 5.6 cm in the Scottish group (p < 0.001), with FH -projected adult height (PAH) 5.7 ± 4.6 cm vs 0.6 ± 3.6 cm (p < 0.001), respectively. Univariate analysis of the Glasgow group's FH , PAH with a number of growth and treatment variables identified no statistically significant relationships. Conclusion: This group's improved FH and FH , PAH, relative to an earlier sample, are attributed to the introduction of GH treatment from a younger age and for longer, overall and before pubertal induction. In addition, the authors believe that compliance with treatment has been enhanced by this single centre's dedicated Turner clinic and the efforts of its established "growth team". These data demonstrate that a favourable FH can be achieved using a safe and financially viable dose of GH, while inducing puberty at a "normal" age. [source]