Adult Heart (adult + heart)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Cardiomyocyte precursors and telocytes in epicardial stem cell niche: electron microscope images

Mihaela Gherghiceanu
Abstract A highly heterogeneous population of stem and progenitor cells has been described by light immunohistochemistry in the mammalian adult heart, but the ultrastructural identity of cardiac stem cells remains unknown. Using electron microscopy, we demonstrate the presence of cells with stem features in the adult mouse heart. These putative cardiac stem cells are small (6,10 ,m), round cells, with an irregular shaped nucleus, large nucleolus, few endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and mitochondria, but numerous ribosomes. Stem cells located in the epicardial stem cell niche undergo mitosis and apoptosis. Cells with intermediate features between stem cells and cardiomyocyte progenitors have also been seen. Moreover, electron microscopy showed that cardiomyocyte progenitors were added to the peripheral working cardiomyocytes. Telocytes make a supportive interstitial network for stem cells and progenitors in the stem cell niche. This study enhances the hypothesis of a unique type of cardiac stem cell and progenitors in different stages of differentiation. In our opinion, stem cells, cardiomyocyte progenitors and telocytes sustain a continuous cardiac renewal process in the adult mammalian heart. [source]

Expression of brain natriuretic peptide in the rat heart studies during heart growth and in relation to sympathectomy

Magnus Hansson
Abstract Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) might be of importance during heart development and is described to be increasingly expressed in congestive heart failure and to affect the progress of this condition. However, details in the normal expression of BNP are still unclear in various parts of the adult and growing heart, including the conduction system. In this study, we investigated the expression of BNP in relation to that of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in the growing as well as in the adult rat heart. The effects of chemical sympathectomy in adult rats were also examined. Contrary to previous BNP immunohistochemical studies, the BNP antiserum was preabsorbed with an excess of ANP before staining to abolish the crossreactivity with ANP. There was a pronounced BNP immunoreaction in the auricles, the trabeculated ventricular walls, and the peripheral parts of the conduction system at 0,1 days postnatally. The degree of immunoreaction gradually decreased with increasing age. A similar developmental pattern was seen concerning ANP expression, but the magnitude of the latter clearly exceeded that for BNP. Immunoreaction for BNP was never detected in the atrioventricular (AV) node and AV bundle at any stage. In contrast to the situation for ANP previously observed, no obvious changes in BNP immunoreaction patterns were observed in response to sympathectomy. This is the first study to thoroughly demonstrate the expression of BNP in the various regions of the rat heart during growth and in the normal and sympathectomized adult stage. The observations are related to possible functions of natriuretic peptides in the growing and adult heart. Microsc. Res. Tech. 64:30,42, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Expression of Lymphatic Markers During Avian and Mouse Cardiogenesis

Ganga Karunamuni
Abstract The adult heart has been reported to have an extensive lymphatic system, yet the development of this important system during cardiogenesis is still largely unexplored. The nuclear-localized transcription factor Prox-1 identified a sheet of Prox-1-positive cells on the developing aorta and pulmonary trunk in avian and murine embryos just before septation of the four heart chambers. The cells coalesced into a branching lymphatic network that spread within the epicardium to cover the heart. These vessels eventually expressed the lymphatic markers LYVE-1, VEGFR-3, and podoplanin. Before the Prox-1-positive cells were detected in the mouse epicardium, LYVE-1, a homologue of the CD44 glycoprotein, was primarily expressed in individual epicardial cells. Similar staining patterns were observed for CD44 in avian embryos. The proximity of these LYVE-1/CD44-positive mesenchymal cells to Prox-1-positive vessels suggests that they may become incorporated into the lymphatics. Unexpectedly, we detected LYVE-1/PECAM/VEGFR-3-positive vessels within the embryonic and adult myocardium, which remained Prox-1/podoplanin-negative. Lymphatic markers were surprisingly found in adult rat and embryonic mouse epicardial cell lines, with Prox-1 also exhibiting nuclear-localized expression in primary cultures of embryonic avian epicardial cells. Our data identified three types of cells in the embryonic heart expressing lymphatic markers: (1) Prox-1-positive cells from an extracardiac source that migrate within the serosa of the outflow tract into the epicardium of the developing heart, (2) individual LYVE-1-positive cells in the epicardium that may be incorporated into the Prox-1-positive lymphatic vasculature, and (3) LYVE-1-positive cells/vessels in the myocardium that do not become Prox-1-positive even in the adult heart. Anat Rec, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Protein distribution of Kcnq1, Kcnh2, and Kcne3 potassium channel subunits during mouse embryonic development

Marķa Pilar de Castro
Abstract Voltage-dependent potassium channels consist of a pore-forming ,-subunit, which is modulated by additional ,-ancillary or regulatory subunits. Kcnq1 and Kcnh2 ,-channel subunits play pivotal roles in the developing and adult heart. However, Kcnq1 and Kcnh2 have a much wider expression profile than strictly confined to the myocardium, similar to their putative regulatory Kcne1-5 ,-subunits. At present, the distribution of distinct potassium channel subunits has been partially mapped in adult tissues, whereas almost no information is available during embryonic development. In this study, we report a detailed analysis of Kcnq1, Kcnh2, and Kcne3 protein expression during mouse embryogenesis. Our results demonstrate that Kcnq1 and Kcnh2 are widely distributed. Coexpression of both ,-subunits is observed in a wide variety of organs, such as heart and the skeletal muscle, whereas others display unique Kcnq1 or Knch2 expression. Interestingly, Kcne3 expression is also widely observed in distinct tissue layers during embryogenesis, supporting the notion that an exquisite balance of ,- and ,-subunit expression is required for modulating potassium conductance in distinct organs and tissue layers. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Temperature-sensitive TREK currents contribute to setting the resting membrane potential in embryonic atrial myocytes

Hengtao Zhang
TREK channels belong to the superfamily of two-pore-domain K+ channels and are activated by membrane stretch, arachidonic acid, volatile anaesthetics and heat. TREK-1 is highly expressed in the atrium of the adult heart. In this study, we investigated the role of TREK-1 and TREK-2 channels in regulating the resting membrane potential (RMP) of isolated chicken embryonic cardiac myocytes. At room temperature, the average RMP of embryonic day (ED) 11 atrial myocytes was ,22 ± 2 mV. Raising the temperature to 35°C hyperpolarized the membrane to ,69 ± 2 mV and activated a large outwardly rectifying K+ current that was relatively insensitive to conventional K+ channel inhibitors (TEA, 4-AP and Ba2+) but completely inhibited by tetracaine (200 ,m), an inhibitor of TREK channels. The heat-induced hyperpolarization was mimicked by 10 ,m arachidonic acid, an agonist of TREK channels. There was little or no inwardly rectifying K+ current (IK1) in the ED11 atrial cells. In marked contrast, ED11 ventricular myocytes exhibited a normal RMP (,86.1 ± 3.4 mV) and substantial IK1, but no temperature- or tetracaine-sensitive K+ currents. Both RT-PCR and real-time PCR further demonstrated that TREK-1 and TREK-2 are highly and almost equally expressed in ED11 atrium but much less expressed in ED11 ventricle. In addition, immunofluorescence demonstrated TREK-1 protein in the membrane of atrial myocytes. These data indicate the presence and function of TREK-1 and TREK-2 in the embryonic atrium. Moreover, we demonstrate that TREK-like currents have an essential role in determining membrane potential in embryonic atrial myocytes, where IK1 is absent. [source]

Expression pattern of neuronal and skeletal muscle voltage-gated Na+ channels in the developing mouse heart

Volker Haufe
In the mammalian heart, a variety of voltage-gated Na+ channel transcripts and proteins have been detected. However, little quantitative information is available on the abundance of each transcript during development, or the contribution of TTX-sensitive Na+ channels to the cardiac sodium current (INa). Using competitive and real-time RT-PCR we investigated the transcription of six Na+ channels (Nav1.1,Nav1.6) and the ,1 subunit during mouse heart development. Nav1.5 was predominantly expressed in the adult heart, whereas the splice variant Nav1.5a was the major Na+ channel isoform in embryonic hearts. The TTX-resistant Na+ channel transcripts (Nav1.5 and Nav1.5a) increased 1.7-fold during postnatal development. Transcripts encoding TTX-sensitive Na+ channels (Nav1.1,Nav1.4) and the ,1 subunit gradually increased up to fourfold from postnatal day (P)1 to P126, while the Nav1.6 transcript level remained low and constant over the same period. In adults, TTX-sensitive channel mRNA accounted for 30,40% of the channel pool in whole-heart preparations (Nav1.3 > Nav1.4 > Nav1.2 , Nav1.1 , Nav1.6), and 16% in mRNA from isolated cardiomyocytes (Nav1.4 > Nav1.3 > Nav1.2 > Nav1.1 > Nav1.6). Confocal immunofluorescence on ventricular myocytes suggested that Nav1.1 and Nav1.2 were localized at the intercalated disks and in the t tubules. Nav1.3 labelling predominantly produced a diffuse but strong intracellular signal. Nav1.6 fluorescence was detected only along the Z lines. Electrophysiological recordings showed that TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant Na+ channels, respectively, accounted for 8% and 92% of the INa in adult ventricular cardiomyocytes. Our data suggest that neuronal and skeletal muscle Na+ channels contribute to the action potential of cardiomyocytes in the adult mammalian heart. [source]

Evidence by Expression Analysis of Candidate Genes for Congenital Heart Defects in the NF1 Microdeletion Interval

M. Venturin
Summary It was recently reported that congenital heart disease is significantly more frequent in patients with NF1 microdeletion syndrome than in those with classical NF1. The outcome of congenital heart disease in this subset of patients is likely caused by the haploinsufficiency of gene/s in the deletion interval. Following in silico analysis of the deleted region, we found two genes known to be expressed in adult heart, the Joined to JAZF1 (SUZ12) and the Centaurin-alpha 2 (CENTA2) genes, and seven other genes with poorly defined patterns of expression and function. With the aim of defining their expression profiles in human fetal tissues (15th,21st weeks of gestation), expression analysis by RT-PCR and Northern blotting was performed. C17orf40, SUZ12 and CENTA2 were found to be mainly expressed in fetal heart, and following RT-PCR on mouse embryos and embryonic heart and brain at different stages of development, we found that the orthologous genes C17orf40, Suz12 and Centa2 are also expressed in early stages of development, before and during the formation of the four heart chambers. The presence of binding sites for Nkx2-5, a transcription factor expressed early in heart development, in all three mouse orthologous genes was predicted by bioinformatics, thus reinforcing the hypothesis that these genes might be involved in heart development and may be plausible candidates for congenital heart disease. [source]

Patterning the heart, a template for human cardiomyocyte development

Susana M. Chuva de Sousa Lopes
Abstract Although in mice, the dynamics of gene expression during heart development is well characterized, information on humans is scarce due to the limited availability of material. Here, we analyzed the transcriptional distribution of Mlc-2a, Mlc-1v, Mlc-2v, and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in human embryonic hearts between 7 and 18 weeks of gestation and in healthy and hypertrophic adult hearts by in situ hybridization and compared expression with that in mice. Strikingly, Mlc-2a, Mlc-1v, and ANF, which are essentially chamber-restricted in mice by mid-gestation, showed a broader distribution in humans. On the other hand, Mlc-2v may prove to be an adequate ventricular marker in humans in contrast to mouse. This study emphasizes the importance of careful comparative human,animal analyses during embryonic development and adulthood, as avoiding erroneous extrapolations may be critical to develop new and successful myocardial replacement therapies. Development Dynamics 235:1994,2002, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]