Adult Groups (adult + groups)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Use of mouthguards by basketball players in Victoria, Australia

DENTAL TRAUMATOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
Helen Cornwell
Abstract ,,,Basketball is a popular sport in Australia. Although orofacial injuries are common, mouthguard (MG) wear in basketball appears to be low. The purposes of this study were: to measure mouthguard wear by basketball players before and after a promotional intervention; to assess players' knowledge of the value of mouthguards for prevention of injury; and to describe their experience of orofacial injury. Two questionnaires (baseline and follow-up) were administered to a convenience sample of 496 basketball players in Victoria, Australia. Players recruited were youths (12,15-year olds, n = 208) and adults (18 years and over, n = 288), from all basketball levels (social to elite). Completion of the baseline questionnaire was followed immediately by an intervention comprising written and verbal information, a mouthguard blank and instructions on mouthguard construction. The follow-up questionnaire was mailed to all respondents 10,12 weeks later; 135 youths (65%) and 157 adults (54%) completed this. Mouthguard wear at baseline was low but was more frequent at games (62%) than at training (25%). Despite 90% of players acknowledging the protective value of a mouthguard, wear by youths did not increase following the intervention, and wear by adults increased by only 14% for training and 10% at games. Previous orofacial injury was recorded at baseline by 23% of players, but few had requested compensation from Basketball Australia (youths, 17%; adults, 30%). Two predictor variables were statistically identified as related to mouthguard wear: previous orofacial injury and age group. Mouthguard wear was significantly more frequent amongst players with previous injury; such players were 2.76 times more likely to be wearers than those without previous injury. Youths were 2.31 times more likely to wear mouthguards than adults. Only 34 players (12% of respondents at follow-up) had a mouthguard constructed from the blank provided. Although youth and adult groups differed, the overall extent of mouthguard use was disappointingly low. Despite wide recognition of mouthguard value, the intervention had little effect on promoting their use. [source]


A systematic review of multivitamin and multimineral supplementation for infection

JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION & DIETETICS, Issue 3 2006
A. I. Stephen
Abstract Background, Infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Micronutrients have important functions in the body's immune system. This systematic review examined the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on whether multivitamin and multimineral supplementation is effective in reducing infection. Methods, Electronic databases searched: Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, MEDLINE, BIOSIS, CAB abstracts. Hand searching of nutrition journals and reference lists was carried out. RCTs and quasi-randomized trials of supplementation of adults with at least two vitamins or minerals or a combination were selected. Study results were combined in meta-analysis plots where appropriate. Results, Twenty studies were included in the review. Small numbers were available for each meta-analysis. Results are presented here without the Chandra group studies. No significant difference was found in the number of episodes of infection in older people (,65 years) between those supplemented and those not supplemented; (WMD) 0.06 [95% confidence interval (CI) ,0.04, 0.16], P = 0.25. In other adults groups, there were significantly less episodes of infection in those supplemented; (WMD) ,1.20 (95% CI ,2.08, ,0.32), P = 0.008. There was no significant difference between those older people supplemented and those not supplemented in the number with at least one infection; relative risk (RR) 0.98 (95% CI 0.86, 1.11), P = 0.77. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the numbers in other adult groups who had at least one episode of infection between those supplemented and those taking placebo; (RR) 0.81 (95% CI 0.65, 1.00), P = 0.06. Subgroup analyses suggested that supplemented people aged 65 years or over may benefit more if they are undernourished and supplemented for over 6 months, WMD ,0.67 infections (95% CI ,1.24, ,0.10), P = 0.02. Conclusion, Further large trials are needed, particularly in undernourished older people. Trials of supplementation periods of over 6 months are recommended. [source]


Behavioral Consequences of Repeated Nicotine During Adolescence in Alcohol-Preferring AA and Alcohol-Avoiding ANA Rats

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2009
Heidi Kemppainen
Background:, Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to nicotine at adolescent age is associated with increased potential to use alcohol and that genetic predisposition may further increase the risk. The present study addressed adolescent vulnerability to repeated nicotine exposure and its influence on subsequent ethanol self-administration by investigating interactions between nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization and voluntary ethanol consumption in alcohol preferring AA (Alko Alcohol) and alcohol nonpreferring ANA (Alko Non-Alcohol) rat lines selected for differential ethanol intake. Methods:, Adolescent and adult rats received 10 injections of nicotine (0.5 mg/kg s.c.), given every second day from postnatal day (Pnd) 27 and 75, respectively. Nicotine-induced (0.5 mg/kg) locomotor activity was measured acutely after the first injection, and after the repeated treatment with nicotine on Pnds 52 and 86 in the adolescent groups and on Pnd 99 in the adult groups. After this, acquisition of voluntary ethanol (10% v/v) consumption as well as nicotine-induced (0.5 mg/kg) ethanol intake was measured in the AA rats. Results:, Adolescent AA rats were more sensitive than adolescent ANA rats to the locomotor effects of nicotine. They were also stimulated more than adult AA rats, but such a difference was not found among ANA rats. Adolescent and adult rats did not differ in their susceptibility to nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization. Genetic predisposition to ethanol self-administration did not interact with development of behavioral sensitization in either adolescents or adults. Acquisition of ethanol intake was enhanced in the adolescent groups relative to the adult groups in a manner that was independent of the nicotine treatment. An increase in ethanol intake was found after challenging animals with nicotine, and this effect was enhanced in the nicotine-treated adolescent group. Conclusions:, These findings provide no or little support for the views that adolescent animals are more sensitive to the neurobehavioral effects of repeated exposure to nicotine and that exposure to nicotine in adolescence may contribute to enhanced vulnerability to ethanol abuse. Furthermore, genetic predisposition to high or low ethanol self-administration does not seem to be a factor that influences individual vulnerability to the neurobehavioral effects of repeated administration of nicotine. [source]


Gender differences in dream recall: a meta-analysis

JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Issue 2 2008
MICHAEL SCHREDL
Summary Many studies have reported gender differences in dream recall. Data from 175 independent studies have been included in the analyses. Overall, estimated effect sizes in five age groups of healthy persons differed significantly from zero. Variables like measurement method and publication year did not affect the gender difference but age groups showed different effect sizes. The smallest effect size was found for children (0.097), the largest for adolescents (0.364), whereas the three adult groups ranged from 0.242 to 0.270. The findings suggest that the age-dependent gender differences in dream recall might be explained by gender-specific ,dream socialization'. Longitudinal studies in this area, however, are still lacking. [source]


Vulval disease in pre-pubertal girls

AUSTRALASIAN JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 4 2001
Gayle O Fischer
SUMMARY Children present with vulval complaints less frequently than do adults; although there are many similarities between paediatric and adult groups of patients with vulval disease, there are also important differences. In both groups, dermatitis, psoriasis and lichen sclerosus are the most frequently seen dermatoses. Birthmarks and congenital abnormalities presenting for the first time are more of an issue in children than in adults. Fusion of the labia and streptococcal vulvovaginitis are conditions seen only in the paediatric group. Sexually transmitted diseases such as genital warts and genital herpes are not common in this group and should always raise the possibility of child sexual abuse. Chronic vulvovaginal candidiasis, although a very common problem in adult patients, is not seen in the prepubertal group. [source]


Intermittent dosing of fluticasone propionate cream for reducing the risk of relapse in atopic dermatitis patients

BRITISH JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
J. Hanifin
Summary Background One of the most troublesome features of atopic dermatitis (AD) is its chronic relapsing nature, and there is a lack of published evidence on the best treatment strategy for long-term management of the disease. Objectives To compare an intermittent dosing regimen of fluticasone propionate (FP) cream 005% (twice per week) with its vehicle base in reducing the risk of relapse when added to regular daily emollient in adult and paediatric subjects with stabilized AD. Methods Subjects (aged 3 months to 65 years) with moderate or severe AD were enrolled into an open-label Stabilization Phase of up to 4 weeks on daily emollients plus FP twice daily. Those subjects who achieved ,treatment success' (Global Assessment Score ,,2, erythema, pruritus, and papulation/induration/oedema scores ,,1) entered the double-blind Maintenance Phase. They continued with regular emollients and were randomized at a 2 : 1 ratio to either intermittent FP or vehicle, once daily 4 days per week for 4 weeks followed by once daily 2 days per week for 16 weeks. Subjects who relapsed on intermittent FP were discontinued from the study. Those who did not relapse continued for an additional 24 weeks on intermittent dosing for safety monitoring. Results A total of 372 (247 paediatric, 125 adult) subjects were enrolled into the Stabilization Phase. Of these, 348 (231 children, 117 adults) were randomized into the Maintenance Phase. Analysis of the primary efficacy parameter showed that subjects receiving intermittent FP cream (twice per week), in addition to regular daily emollients in the Maintenance Phase, were 77 times less likely to have an AD relapse than subjects receiving intermittent vehicle cream/emollients [Mantel,Haenszel (MH) estimate of the odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (CI) 46, 128; P < 0001]. Paediatric subjects were 81 times less likely to have an AD relapse (95% CI 43, 152; P < 0001) and adult subjects were 70 times less likely to have an AD relapse (95% CI 30, 167; P < 0001). For subjects receiving intermittent FP cream/emollient, the median time to relapse could not be estimated as the majority remained controlled at 20 weeks. For those receiving intermittent vehicle/emollient, the median time to relapse was 47 weeks. For paediatric and adult groups, this was 51 and 41 weeks, respectively. Median exposure to FP for all subjects was 337 days. There was only one study drug-related adverse event (acne) and there were no reports of skin thinning or atrophy associated with the use of FP cream in paediatric or adult subjects. Conclusions In paediatric and adult subjects, once stabilized with regular FP treatment, the risk of relapse of AD can be significantly reduced by extended intermittent dosing with FP cream in addition to regular emollient therapy. [source]


A systematic review of multivitamin and multimineral supplementation for infection

JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION & DIETETICS, Issue 3 2006
A. I. Stephen
Abstract Background, Infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Micronutrients have important functions in the body's immune system. This systematic review examined the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on whether multivitamin and multimineral supplementation is effective in reducing infection. Methods, Electronic databases searched: Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, MEDLINE, BIOSIS, CAB abstracts. Hand searching of nutrition journals and reference lists was carried out. RCTs and quasi-randomized trials of supplementation of adults with at least two vitamins or minerals or a combination were selected. Study results were combined in meta-analysis plots where appropriate. Results, Twenty studies were included in the review. Small numbers were available for each meta-analysis. Results are presented here without the Chandra group studies. No significant difference was found in the number of episodes of infection in older people (,65 years) between those supplemented and those not supplemented; (WMD) 0.06 [95% confidence interval (CI) ,0.04, 0.16], P = 0.25. In other adults groups, there were significantly less episodes of infection in those supplemented; (WMD) ,1.20 (95% CI ,2.08, ,0.32), P = 0.008. There was no significant difference between those older people supplemented and those not supplemented in the number with at least one infection; relative risk (RR) 0.98 (95% CI 0.86, 1.11), P = 0.77. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the numbers in other adult groups who had at least one episode of infection between those supplemented and those taking placebo; (RR) 0.81 (95% CI 0.65, 1.00), P = 0.06. Subgroup analyses suggested that supplemented people aged 65 years or over may benefit more if they are undernourished and supplemented for over 6 months, WMD ,0.67 infections (95% CI ,1.24, ,0.10), P = 0.02. Conclusion, Further large trials are needed, particularly in undernourished older people. Trials of supplementation periods of over 6 months are recommended. [source]